Stages of Human Growth (Pre-natal development - Senescence)


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Stages of Human Growth (Pre-natal development - Senescence)

  1. 1. Stages of Human Growth
  2. 2. GROWTH - increase in quantity - multiplication of cells - anatomical & physiological changes generally refers to changes in size
  3. 3. DEVELOPMENT - increase in quality - expansion of cells - emergence of psychological attributes, ideas, & acquisition of motor and sensory skills Occurs through maturation of physical and mental capacities, and learning
  4. 4. As individuals pass through the various stages of life, FOUR MAIN TYPES of growth and development occur : PHYSICAL MENTAL EMOTIONAL Refers to body growth; includes height and weight changes, muscle and nerve development, and changes in body organs. Refers to development of the mind; includes learning how to solve problems, make judgements and deal with situations. Refers to feelings; includes dealing with love, hate, joy, fear, excitement, and other similar feelings. SOCIAL Refers to interactions and relationship with others.
  5. 5. STAGES OF GROWTH I) PRENATAL STAGE - Embryonic stage / 1st Trimester (conception - 8th week) - Early Foetal stage / 2nd Trimester (9th - 24th week) - Late Foetal stage / 3rd Trimester (25th week - birth) ~ TRANSITION PERIOD ~
  6. 6. II) POST-NATAL STAGE - INFANCY - Neo-natal stage (birth - 1st month) - Infancy Proper (1st month – 1 year) - Late Infancy (entire 2nd year) - CHILDHOOD - Early Childhood (2 – 6 years) - Middle Childhood (7 – 10 years) - Late Childhood (10th year - puberty) - ADOLESCENCE (varies with gender) - ADULTHOOD (F: 20 – 50 years; M: 22 – 60 years) - SENESCENCE
  8. 8. CHANGES DURING GESTATION PERIOD  Cleavage – after fertilization, it is the first cell division Implantation of ovum – growing zygote attaches to the mother's uterine; mother starts giving nutrition to zygote; many fold of growth occur and growth of cells is very fast   Formation of germ layers  Formation of embryonic organs – limbs, heart  Foetal organ formation – development from one chamber heart to 4 chamber heart  Foetal development – every main part or organ EARLY FOETAL STAGE LATE FOETAL STAGE - organs are distinguished - increase in mass / weight - increase in length of foetus (by the end of 6th month, foetus attains 70% of its birth length & 20% of its birth weight - very less increase in linear dimension (since 70% already attained) - the most stable period - the weight-gaining period, hence diet of mother should be proper
  9. 9. Prenatal BRAIN DEVELOPMENT
  10. 10. INFANCY - very fast changing phase - rate of growth is very fast, but not as much as in Prenatal stage - a nutrition-dependent phase - high velocity of growth declines after year 1 - nervous system develops faster - birth weight and length increases (usually doubles weight by 9 months) - uncoordinated movements - responds to human touch & voice - poor vision (focusing range = 8 to 12 inches) - Reflexes: sucking, grasping, stepping, rooting, startle
  11. 11. INFANCY – PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT 3 months Infants can sit with their head held steady for a few seconds, if supported 6 months Infants have more strength and muscle control. They can lift their heads , sit without support, and turn their head to look around. They can pull themselves up when their hands are grasped 9 months Infants can sit unsupported for ten minutes. They are starting to move independently by rolling or squirming. They can pull themselves to stand, and can stand holding onto soemthing for a few moments 12 months Infants can get from a lying to a sitting position without help. They crawl rapidly. They can walk by holding onto furniture and stand alone for a few monments. 15 months Infants can get on their feet alone. They can walk and crawl upstairs. 18 months Infants can run, walk upstairs and crawl downstairs . 2 years Infants can walk downstairs. 3 years Infants can climb on play equipment, ride a tricycle and throw and catch a ball.
  12. 12. Infancy – Brain Development
  13. 13. CHILDHOOD EARLY CHILDHOOD (2 – 6 YEARS) - rate of growth decreases or slows down; growth is slowest by the 3rd year, but stable and consistently increasing - learning ability which was launched in the 1st year becomes faster as the child is exposed to new environment - all the psychomotor skills are enhancing; muscle coordination allows the child to run, climb, move freely - speech is learned; child recognizes letters and some words - teeth erupt - short attention span
  14. 14. MIDDLE CHILDHOOD (7-10 YEARS) - most stable period of childhood - all changes are consolidated because of differential rate of growth - by the 9th year, body proportion of the growing child changes - growth of brain is almost 95% - replacement of milk teeth by permanent teeth is almost complete, with the exception of the 2nd molars.
  15. 15. LATE CHILDHOOD (10TH YEAR - PUBERTY) - phase influenced by growth of sex hormones - development of reproductive system and secondary sexual dimensions occur - linear growth under the influence of these hormones / systems is fast - there is a sudden increase in the linear dimension, which is known as ADOLESCENCE SPURT - complex motor-sensory coordination - understanding of abstract concepts, enhanced reading, writing and speech skills - visual acuity is at its best
  16. 16. Stages of Childhood Development Piaget's Stages of Cognitive
  17. 17. ADOLESCENCE - In this pubertal phase there is separation of body size, shape and form between males and females - Males have broader shoulders, more muscles, while females have narrow shoulders, broad hips and more fat - complete separation of physique; body is filled with subcutaneous fat - onset of oogenesis and spermatogenesis - change of voice is noticeable in males - in females, MENARCHE follows within 6 weeks of spurt
  18. 18. Adolescence – Physical Development at Puberty
  19. 19. ADULTHOOD - stage reached in 18 years in females, and 20 years in males - period of child-bearing age - long bones stop growing; linear growth stops; terminal stage for linear dimension - bones and muscular completed in this stage development MIDDLE ADULTHOOD / MIDDLE-AGE (40-65 years) - muscle tone decreases - hair greys, skin wrinkles - hearing loss, visual acuity loss - weight gain
  20. 20. SENESCENCE Or Late Adulthood (65 years and above) - also known as declining stage (negative growth) - at the age of 60+ there is a decrease in stature because of compression of vertebral disc - memory loss can occur and reasoning ability can diminish - mineralization increases; bones become brittle and more susceptible to fracture - decrease in functional ability - teeth loosen - decrease in water content - immune system becomes weaker - muscles deteriorate
  21. 21. SUMMARY
  22. 22. Individual Differences to take into Consideration Rites of passage Value system Rituals Religious differences Ethnic Features Physical differences Facial features Skin tones Cultural & Subcultural Anomalies Disabilities Predisposition to Personalities
  23. 23. ~ Bedashree Choudhury B.Sc(H) Anthropology Part – III, Sem. - V Thank you