For a reaction to occur two particles must collide
Not all collisions result in a reaction. If the particles don’t have enough energy they will bounce of each other
Reactions need a certain amount of energy to break old bonds so that new ones can be made. The minimum amount of energy needed is called the activation energy. Different reactions have different activation energies. Reaction between A requires 30Joules for its activation energy Reaction between B requires 50Joules of energy 15J 25J Which reaction will occur, A or B?
If we increase concentration, then there are more particles and therefore there are more likely to be more collision that are successful. If we double the concentration we double the rate because there are double the number of successful collisions. Low Concentration High Concentration
If we double the temperature the reaction rate will more than double. This is because the particles gain energy and move faster so there are more collisions. Also because the particles have more energy when they do collide they are more likely to react. A rise of 10 0 C doubles rate.
If there is more surface area there are more particles exposed and more collisions, so the rate of reaction increases.
A catalyst provides a different path for a reaction to take which requires less energy. This means that more collisions will be successful.