The process of taking the abstract
and making it real.
Knowledge Based Systems
KBS = “preserve knowledge for later distribution and application” (page 129, Becerra)
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Users and Developers
“How to represent the knowledge depends basically on its nature” (page 133)
The nature of knowledge is defined by the developer for the users knowledge needs.
Knowledge can be represented as:
• Heuristic = rules (if the jammies go on one foot than they will go on the other foot)
• Structured = frames (if the jammies are pink and fuzzy with a tail than they are the
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A knowledge base is
built to store
knowledge in the
knowledge base can
than be interpreted by
the inference engine.
The inference engine
can represent the
knowledge in the
knowledge base with
either frame or rule
Knowledge Base and Inference Engine
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A frame represents object oriented programming, OOP. A frame consists of structured
knowledge. Frame reasoning uses metadata categorization or a taxonomy of terms
to represent the knowledge.
Frames consist of:
• If-changed (page 141, Becerra)
Manufacturer: Mrs. Butterhead
Fabric: organic cotton
Ears: long and floppy
Length : 35 cm
Rules are a formal way of representing knowledge, otherwise known as “facts” about the knowledge
being represented. A developer will tag knowledge as a rule when the objective is to “derive a
value for a conclusion.” (page 147)
A rule can be: backward reasoning or forward reasoning
1. Match all rules that are true “mark them as applicable”
2. Resolve conflicts – if rules conflict resolve
3. Take action of conflict
4. Reset and start from step 1 again
If the pajamas are being worn by Sadie on a Tuesday and they are pink then they are her bunny
1. Form a list of goals
2. Gather rules that pertain to the goals
3. Examine each rule
4. Reset if all goals are acceptable
If Sadie is wearing her pink bunny jammies than it is Tuesday.
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Universalistic and Contingency views
Why it is important to identify task characteristics?
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Universalistic: only one method is needed to manage knowledge
Contingency: one method is not the best methodology
Task characteristics: define the best process
for knowledge management which in turn
defines the best practice and technology.
All of this enters into the KBS equation of
defining the user needs of knowledge
Tasks characteristics are typically defined in
the subunits of an organization. Identifying
all the tasks capabilities within each subunit
equals the workflow process of the
organization as a whole.
Page 69, Becerra)
Characteristics that Influence KM
Identify KM solutions:
• Assess contingency factors
• Identify the KM processes based on contingency factor
• Prioritize the needed KM processes
• Identify the existing KM processes
• Identify additional KM processes
• Assess the KM infrastructure
• Develop additional KM systems, mechanisms & technologies
(Page 74, Becerra)
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To better understand the influencing factors of a characteristics and how it
effects the overall KM processes we are going to create a case scenario and
identify the underlying tasks.
The company Mrs. Butterhead’s jammies making factory will be assessed
using a 1-3 scale.
Once the numbers are added we can prioritize the tasks according to
importance. The lowest number is the highest priority for Mrs. Butterhead’s
Butterhead’s bunny jammies factory
Mrs. Butterhead loves to wear bunny jammies. In an attempt to spread her love of
bunny jammies she created a small company.
She has 15 employees all very specialized:
• Art designers
• Web managers – e-commerce & social networking specialists
• Laborers – seamstresses & packers
Mrs. Butterhead wants to retire soon which means all her expertise on making bunny
jammies needs to be transferred to little Miss Butterhead. The knowledge that
needs to be communicated can be identified as domain expertise pertaining to
owning and operating a small company along with customer satisfaction and value
The following chart will help Mrs. Butterhead identify the priority of tasks within her
company. The tasks that score lowest on the scale will be addressed first during
the knowledge transfer process.
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Analysis of Butterhead’s company
According to the results from the table of tasks of Mrs Butterhead’s comapny:
Socialization sharing and discovery seem to be the highest priority.
What this means than is that Mrs. Butterhead should align her strategic objects within
the company to compliment the socialization aspects of knowledge sharing and
discovery. The highest score indicates the weaknesses within the company.
Externalization and internalization of knowledge within Mrs. Butterhead’s
company are weak. Mrs Butterhead needs to focus on finding the conflicts within
the organization that cause this to be a weak process. In identifying the strength
and weaknesses of theKM processes in the company Mrs. Butterhead will be able
to effectively transfer knowledge to her daughter.
In order to define the weakness it may be necessary for Mrs. Butterhead to conduct a
full assessment of the knowledge management within her organization. The
benefits can impact the employees and the market value. Increasing knowledge
management will only increase the human capital and intellectual capital of
making bunny jaammies.
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According to Becerra there are 5 reasons to conduct an assessment:
1. In order to identify key KM contributors
2. Awareness of KM efforts and acknowledge those key contributors
3. Justification of KM efforts measure the ROI
4. Identify areas where KM is needed
5. Develop argument for KM initiatives to executive leadership
KM needs to be assessed on a regular basis. KM is organic and constantly changing.
What one may have identified one month may be different from the KM needs
KM can be assessed using different methodologies:
• Likert scale
• Balance scorecard
• Asking questions – communication
KM can assess both qualitative and quantitative knowledge
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Assessment of Impacts & Qualitative & Quantitative Analysis
Qualitative: understanding of human thought through socialization
Quantitative: specific numerical data derived from concrete analysis
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Employees Processes Products
One can measure the impacts and KM through analyzing the qualitative and
The balance scorecard is one method that analyzes the different types of knowledge
along with the impacts.
A balance scorecard is based of the strategic objectives of the organization or the
organizations subunits. Each subunit can maintain a balance scorecard to reflect the
impacts and alignment to the organizations mission.
A scorecard is typically an excel spreadsheet. Here is an example of a corporate scorecard:
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Measures the perspective of :
Customers or users
Growth and education –
Retrieved July 3, 2009
KM Solutions :: Artificial Intelligence
Knowledge Based systems:
A user driven domain.
Expert Based systems:
A system that employees a domain that is governed by the users or domain experts. A
expert system is limited to what the user has inputted into the domain, thus
limiting the thought scope of the system. An expert system is a facet of a
knowledge based system.
Artificial Neural Networks:
A system that mimics the biological nervous system. The system processes knowledge
and information to solve problems like a human would solve a problem. There is
no restricted domain for the system to pull data from it relies on learning through
values called “weights.”
Agents are systems that use the autonomous action to achieve an objective or
conclusion. This can be done by implementing an exhaustive taxonomy into the
system in which a conclusion can be achieved through searching.
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Artificial Intelligence Technologies
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Defined by what can not be done
A “target system can be
used to recognized and
diagnose its abnormal
operation “ (page 123,
Concepts and ideas are
represented in diagrams
Vague and inacurate thinking
Process that mimics nature
Becerra-Fernandez, I., Gonzalez, A., & Sabherwal, R. (2004). Knowledge management:
Challenges, solutions, and technologies. (1st Ed.). UpperSaddle River, NJ: Prentice
Robot Illustration. Retrieved on July 10, 2009 http://vi.sualize.us/popular/robot
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