如何撰寫並投稿專業論文至SCI/SSCI期刊-三星統計陳建宏顧問-20130717

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如何撰寫並投稿專業論文至SCI/SSCI期刊-三星統計陳建宏顧問-20130717

  1. 1. PUBLISHING for SUCCESS Appalachian State University A Workshop Offered by:  Charlie C. Chen, Associate Professor
  2. 2. Charlie C. Chen, Ph.D., PMP • Tenured associate professor • Author of 3 books, 70+ journal articles, book chapters and conference proceedings • Editor/associate editors of international journals • A certified Project Management Professional (PMP) • Research award winners • President of International Chinese Information Systems Association • Conduct seminars, workshops, and forums in reputable universities in China, Taiwan, Thailand, Japan • Multilingual abilities: Chinese, English and Japanese • Leader of study abroad trips to Japan, Taiwan and Spain
  3. 3. Publishing for Success OUR GOALS FOR THIS WORKSHOP Our hope is that, by the end of the workshop, you will… • Be persuaded that you will be able to write as effective as tenured professors and begin enjoying the writing process by employing their writing strategies. • Be competent of mastering key elements of academic publications and employing writing strategies to continuously improve each element. • Be able to improve your academic writing more intentionally to keep your writing clear and effective to native English readers and reviewers.
  4. 4. Publishing for Success SPECIFIC GOALS for This Workshop 1.FOUNDATION KNOWLEDGE: Understand key elements of academic publications 2.APPLICATION: Be able to use effective writing strategies for each key element 3.INTEGRATION: Develop a coherent relationship between each element
  5. 5. Publishing for Success SPECIFIC GOALS for This Workshop (cont.) 4.TEAM IMPROVEMENT:  SELF: Be more confident that you can do this  OTHERS: Work with others to write a better paper 5. SELF IMPROVEMENT: Improve the quality of your working paper to ensure it contains no major content-related issues 6. PUBLISHING YOUR PAPER: Get advice on having your papers published
  6. 6. Agenda for Workshop 1. Big Picture of Publishing for Success– Mastering Key Elements of Academic Publications 2. Writing Strategies for Each Element: -Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review, Hypotheses, and Research Methodology 4. Application of Writing Strategies to Improving Each Element of Your Working Paper 5. Self-Reflection of Learning 6. Conclusion
  7. 7. “I have received many submissions of quality papers from non-English scholars. Unfortunately, these papers usually have fatal flaws of clearly presenting their information to native English reviewers. Many non-English writers have presentation problems in their papers, not the content.” Vldamir Zwass, Editor-in-Chief Journal of Management Information Systems BIG PICTURE OF PUBLISHING FOR SUCCESS
  8. 8. Writing-Related Problems • Lengthy abstracts • Uninvited introductions • Poor writing style • Not enough contribution to field • Poorly written discussions • Misrepresentative titles • Inadequate references • Poor explanations of supporting • figures and tables • Lack of theoretical and practical implications • Failure to establish coherence between introduction and conclusion
  9. 9. Criteria for High Quality Research & Importance of Writing Skills • Statistical/mathematical analysis • Theory • Coverage of Significant Literature • Professional style and tone • Logical rigor • Replicability of research • Topic selection • Contribution to knowledge • Contribution to practice • Presentation level • Research Design • Adherence to scientific ethics • Manuscript length • Reputation • Suggestions for future research
  10. 10. Publishing for Success Which Criteria are Heavily Dependent upon the Effectiveness of Your Writing Skills?
  11. 11. Publishing for Success • Statistical/mathematical analysis • Theory • Coverage of Significant Literature • Professional style and tone • Logical rigor • Replicability of research • Topic selection • Contribution to knowledge • Contribution to practice • Presentation level • Research Design • Adherence to scientific ethics • Manuscript length • Reputation • Suggestions for future research Effective writing skills are important in the following criteria:
  12. 12. Our Training Approach 1. Address one key element of academic publications at a time 2. Benchmark papers recently published in top-tier journals 3. Practice exercises/templates 4. Apply effective writing strategies to improving your own work-in-progress 5. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of your paper via team-based peer review 6. Provide constructive feedback to your paper by the instructor 7. Self-reflection of your learning
  13. 13. Eight Key Elements of Academic Publications Abstract Introduction Literature Review Hypotheses Testing Research Methodology Data Analysis Discussion Conclusion
  14. 14. Exercise 1.1: Assessing Writing Problems in Your Papers • Discuss with your team members and use Table 1-1 in the workbook to diagnose writing-related problems in your paper
  15. 15. Exercise 1.2: Writing-related Criteria of Top Tier Journals • Discuss with your team members and use Table 1-2 in the workbook to match the criteria for high quality research with the given reviewer comment
  16. 16. Exercise 1.3: Mastering Eight Key Elements of Academic Publications • Discuss with your team members and fill out key elements of academic publications missing in Figure 1-1
  17. 17. Chapter 2 Writing Strategies for Abstract
  18. 18. Chapter 2 Outline 1. An Overview of Abstract 2. Writing Strategies for Research Motivation 3. Writing Strategies for Problem Statement 4. Writing Strategies for Approach 5. Writing Strategies for Results 6. Writing Strategies for Conclusions 7. Writing Strategies for Keywords 8. Conclusion
  19. 19. 2.1 An Overview of Abstract
  20. 20. What are Main Objectives of an Abstract? •(1) Provide brief but self-contained information about your paper, •(2) Interest potential readers into reading your whole paper, and •(3) Increase the reference rate of your paper via online search database.
  21. 21. Six Essential Elements of an Abstract Motivation Problem Statement Approach Results Conclusion Keywords
  22. 22. Abstract Anatomy: An Example Motivation Consumer reviews may reflect not only perceived quality but also the difference between quality and price perceived value. Source: Li and Hitt 2010
  23. 23. Abstract Anatomy Problem Statement In markets where product prices change frequently, these price-influenced reviews may be biased as a signal of product quality when used by consumers possessing no knowledge of historical prices.
  24. 24. Abstract Anatomy Approach In this paper, we develop an analytical model that examines the impact of price- influenced reviews on firm optimal pricing and consumer welfare. We quantify the price effects in consumer reviews for different formats of review systems using actual market prices and online consumer ratings data collected for the digital camera market.
  25. 25. Abstract Anatomy Results Our empirical results suggest that unidimensional ratings, commonly used in most review systems, can be substantially biased by price effects. In fact, unidimensional ratings are more closely correlated with ratings of product value than ratings of product quality.
  26. 26. Abstract Anatomy Conclusions Our findings suggest the importance for firms to account for these price effects in their overall marketing strategy and suggest that review systems could better serve consumers by explicitly expanding review dimensions to separate perceived value and perceived quality.
  27. 27. Abstract Anatomy Keywords Online product reviews, review bias, price effects, empirical analysis, optimal pricing
  28. 28. 2.2 Writing Strategies for Research Motivation
  29. 29. Research Motivation • Research motivation describes the importance of your paper to its areas of study. • What kind of impact will your paper have on your field? • Why should readers care about your proposed research problems and solutions to those problems? • The more potential impacts your study can have, the more attention readers will pay to your study.
  30. 30. Strategy 2.1 State research purposes clearlyin only one or two sentences • Understand the following relationships: (1) Customer reviews vs. perceived quality, and (2) customer reviews vs. the difference between quality and price perceived value Research Purposes • If proven correctly What are the Impacts? • “Consumer reviews may reflect not only perceived quality but also the difference between quality and price perceived value.” Motivation
  31. 31. Research Motivation Consumer reviews may reflect not only perceived quality but also the difference between quality and price perceived value. Source: Li and Hitt 2010
  32. 32. Strategy 2.2 Avoid using too much jargon • Readers will quickly lose interest in reading a paper if its abstract is full of jargon or terminology. • Remember, one primary objective of an abstract is to encourage readers to make less effort to locate your paper.
  33. 33. Exercise: How to Rewrite the Research Motivation? “We focus on customer-led supply chain coordination mechanism including market rates, volatility and option term. Black and Scholes provided an option equation, which is based on the stock price, the time to maturity, the exercise price, the interest rate and the volatility of the stock to value options. … These propositions contain several testable implications about the difference between forward and futures prices. Many of the propositions show that equilibrium forward and futures prices are equal to the values of particular assets, even though they are not in themselves asset prices. Their paper then illustrated these results in the context of two valuation models and discusses the effects of taxes and other institutional factors.” Source: An Unpublished Paper
  34. 34. Improved Research Motivation Companies are increasingly constructing customer-centric supply chains in order to cope with the unrelenting pressure of cost reduction. The customer-centric supply chain strategy emphasizes improvement of key factors such as market rates, volatility and option pricing terms via the coordination of supply chain partners.
  35. 35. Strategy 2.3 Avoid using citations in abstract • The abstract exists to summarize main points of your study rather than introduce other people’s ideas or concepts. • Therefore, an author should rarely cite references in the abstract. • Make sure you use the citation only to define terms or concepts that are central to your paper. • Using too many citations can create an impression that your paper is primarily based on previous studies and your paper may have little impact on or contribution to the present studies.
  36. 36. 2.3 Writing Strategies for Problem Statement
  37. 37. Research Question vs. Problem Statement • Non-native English writers sometimes have trouble distinguishing the difference between the words “problem” and “question.” • Problems are unanswered questions. • Research question • “Are there relationships between teacher thought processes during planning and student time-on- task?” • Problem Statement • “The extensive teacher planning may pay off in terms of student learning, or even student learning behaviors” (Locke, 2007).
  38. 38. A clear problem statement can draw readers’ attention, and have readers appreciate the importance of your study.
  39. 39. A Good Problem Statement In markets where product prices change frequently, these price- influenced reviews may be biased as a signal of product quality when used by consumers possessing no knowledge of historical prices. Source: Li and Hitt 2010, p. 809
  40. 40. Figure 2-4 The process of developing problem statement What is the current state? What is the desired state? Combining the current and the desired states? Three Criteria 1. One problem 2. No more than two sentences 3. No suggested solutions Final Problem Statement
  41. 41. Strategy 2.4 Explain the current state of problems Price changes may not have influence on a customer’s perceived product quality.
  42. 42. Strategy 2.5 Explain the desired state of the problems Product prices may change more frequently in the future
  43. 43. Strategy 2.6 Combine current and desiredstates into a statement that does not exceed two sentences Rapid price changes may have a strongerinfluence on customers’ perceived product quality
  44. 44. Strategy 2.7 Refine your problem statement against three criteria • Focus on only one problem • Write no more than two sentences • Do not suggest any solutions
  45. 45. Final Problem Statement In markets where product prices change frequently, these price- influenced reviews may be biased as a signal of product quality when used by consumers possessing no knowledge of historical prices. Source: Li and Hitt 2010, p. 809
  46. 46. ApplyStrategies 2.4 to 2.7 to improvingthe followingproblemstatement “Through the literature we can find that previous researches only take few factors including the cost of products, prices and the relationship between members of supply chain into account. But the option contract involves the cost of funds, the opportunity cost of scheduled capacity and the uncertainty risk of the price fluctuations. If these factors are not considered, this supply chain option contract is clearly not enough sound. In this paper we introduce market interest rates, the price volatility and option deadline into supply chain option contract model to construct more suitable model for modern industrial economy. This model combines the Black-Scholes rule and traditional option contract of optimizing in a supplier-led supply chain.” Source: An unpublished paper
  47. 47. What’s your improved problem statement?
  48. 48. Textbook Answer The current literature often examines selective factors (e.g., product cost and prices) when designing supply chain option contracts. An effective supply chain option contract should be more thorough and take into consideration additional factors, including the opportunity cost of scheduled capacity and the uncertainty of price fluctuations.
  49. 49. 2.4 Writing Strategies for Research Approaches
  50. 50. Research Approaches • Research approaches consist of three essential elements: research methods, data sources and variables. • The objective is for readers to understand not only the research methods, but also the data collection methods and variable relationships assessed in your study. • When discussing research methods, your readers are interested in understanding the rigor of research methods and your rationale for adopting them. • Depending on the method adopted, your discussion should use corresponding methodological terms and present different foci. You also need to discuss data sources and their validity, followed by their usefulness in answering your problem statement.
  51. 51. “Inthis paper,wedevelopananalyticalmodelthat examinestheimpactofprice-influencedreviewson firmoptimal pricingandconsumerwelfare.We quantifythepriceeffects in consumerreviewsfor differentformats ofreviewsystems usingactual marketpricesandonlineconsumerratingsdata collectedforthedigitalcameramarket.” Source:LiandHitt2010,p.809
  52. 52. Strategy 2.7 Ask yourself if your research method can solve or make progress on the problem
  53. 53. How to Improve the Research Approach? “Our work focus on the combination of B-S option pricing model and the operating mechanism of supply chain based on the study of Guo and Yang (2006), Wang and Liu (2007). We construct decision-making model of the customer-led supply chain mechanism by introducing market interest rates, price volatility and option deadline. The introduction of market interest rates, price volatility and option deadline affects the traditional supply chain model with option contract. It is a further restriction on option pricing. We provide a method of option pricing which can be proved equilibrium and optimized to supply chain members, and in line with the B-S option pricing. This method can better adapt to the actual operation of the supply chain’s need. According to the procedure of this method, the combination of option pricing can also be calculated in other market circumstances. We also make programs for our model using Matlab software. The programs can help supplier calculate their optimal production volume, and help retailers calculate the combination of option pricing and optimal ordering volumes.” Source: An unpublished paper
  54. 54. Improved Approaches • In this paper, we develop an option pricing model that examines the dynamics of customer-driven supply chains. We develop a proposed option pricing model using Matlab software to help suppliers calculate optimal production volumes, and retailers calculate optimal ordering volumes and option pricing.
  55. 55. Strategy 2.8 Think about data source and emphasize your data collection efforts •You need to clarify your use of simulation, analytic models, prototype construction or survey methods. •In order to get readers excited about your study, you may also want to emphasize the extent of your research efforts when executing the adopted research methods (e.g. sample size, sophistication of application programs, interviews, and other data collection challenges).
  56. 56. Strategy2.9 Informreadersof variables yourstudycontrols,ignoresor measures • Research methods and data collection are vehicles to help assess the causality among variables. • Authors need to list all important variables and their relationships that the study controls, ignores, or measures.
  57. 57. 2.5 Writing Strategies for Research Results
  58. 58. Research Results • What happens to the test results? Is there something exciting in your results to keep readers motivated to read your whole paper? • For exact scientific papers, be specific about contributions your study can make. • It is important to ensure that research results are congruent with problems and approaches • For example, readers would like to know that your new computer programs can accelerate the computing speed by 2% rather than make marginal improvement.
  59. 59. Strategy 2.10 Adopt a research approach that can naturally deliver research results
  60. 60. Strategy 2.11 Have answers to research questions
  61. 61. A Good Example • “Our empirical results suggest that unidimensional ratings, commonly used in most review systems, can be substantially biased by price effects. In fact, unidimensional ratings are more closely correlated with ratings of product value than ratings of product quality.” • Source: Li and Hitt 2010, p. 809
  62. 62. A Bad Example • “From the analysis we can find that the option price and exercise price computing from our model is convergent. This option pricing is in line with regulations in the Exchange, meanwhile has the function of optimizing the supply chain profit. The combination of option pricing is the point of intersection of two curves. One is curve of optimizing with supplier, and the other is curve of regulation in the Exchange. • From the viewpoint of supplier optimization, its option pricing may be two situations besides…(148 words). • Options have been gradually applied to the supply chain coordination mechanism in the supply chain to improve the performance of the downstream coordination with the development of financial engineering ideas…(176 words). • In numerical analysis there is the profit of supplier and retailer in decentralized and in coordinated. From the figures we can find the supplier tends to increase in option price and decrease exercise price. But retailer tends to buy the option with low option price and high exercise price. The equilibrium is the combination of option pricing under supplier coordination. Meanwhile the total profit of supply chain achieves maximizing.”
  63. 63. Improved Research Results • Our model simulation results show that suppliers and retailers can optimize their option pricing decision because the option price and exercise price curves intersect with each other in the price optimization graph. The total price of the entire supply chain can achieve maximization because suppliers have preference to increasing option price but decreasing exercise price, and retailers have the opposite preference. Our numerical analysis affirms the existence of the phenomenon that suppliers and retailers are always forced to make an optimal decision between option price and exercise price.
  64. 64. 2.6 Writing Strategies for Conclusions
  65. 65. Conclusions • Analysis results exist to report facts that can lead to academic and practical implications. • How are your research findings going to change the world? • Can other researchers apply your findings to other contexts? • Can your research results potentially be generalized, or are they specific to a particular situation?
  66. 66. Strategy 2.12 Discuss academic and practical implications in the conclusion
  67. 67. A Good Example “Our findings suggest the importance for firms to account for these price effects in their overall marketing strategy and suggest that review systems could better serve consumers by explicitly expanding review dimensions to separate perceived value and perceived quality.” Source: Li and Hitt 2010, p. 809
  68. 68. A Bad Example • “This study designs a method to combine the Black-Scholes rule and traditional option contract of optimizing in a retailer-led supply chain. From the model verification, we find that there is the combination of option pricing which can optimize the supply chain and follow Black- Scholes rule. This method is applicable to the market in which there are a lot of option contract in supply chain and the Exchange Trade of option (practical implication). The option price is the decision- making variables of retailer. This model has the only form of coordination optimization solution. Retailer's decision can regulate the supplier to maximize its production quantity to optimal level for whole supply chain. And we calculate the key points and rules of the impact of market rates and volatility to supply chain performance by numerical example. All of this study provides the valuable conclusion for making supply chain option contract to enterprises.” • • Source: An unpublished paper
  69. 69. Improved Conclusions • Our findings suggest suppliers and retailers regulate each other toward making optimal decision on option and exercise prices {academic implication}. Our customer-driven supply chain model is applicable to markets in which option contracts are acceptable forms of supply chain operations {practical implication}.
  70. 70. 2.7 Writing Strategies for Keywords
  71. 71. Keywords •Keywords can serve two primary purposes: • (1) potential readers can efficiently locate your paper from online search database, and • (2) have editors assign your paper to right reviewers familiar with the subject(s) of your paper.
  72. 72. • Key terms used in the abstract are good candidates for keywords. Another way to increase the chance of having your paper searched by potential readers is to go through your references and search a preset of keywords and see which keywords are located more often. • Editors also use keywords to determine the review category and assign reviewers to your papers.
  73. 73. A Good Example Keywords: Online product reviews, review bias, price effects, empirical analysis, optimal pricing Source: Li and Hitt 2010, p. 809
  74. 74. Original vs. Improved Keywords • Original Keywords: supply chain, option pricing, optimization, performance • Revised Keywords: supply chains, optimization model, option contract, option price, exercise price, suppliers
  75. 75. Strategy 2.14 Avoid writing a lengthy abstract • An abstract needs to be concise and only contain key information. • Make sure you check the word count limitation of abstract before submitting paper to the target journal.
  76. 76. Abstract Guideline • Journal of Management Information Systems • Every manuscript should contain an abstract (up to 150 words), and a set of key words and phrases to serve as indicators of the paper's content. No citations should be included in the abstract. • • Information Systems Research • Papers should include an easy to read and understandable abstract of not more than 300 words that communicates contribution of the paper to general readers as clearly as possible.
  77. 77. Abstract Guideline Management Science Write a text-only abstract of no more than 200 words. Do not include references in your abstract. European Journal of Operational Research An abstract of between 50 and 250 words. Abstracts should not contain formulae.
  78. 78. What is the abstract requirement of your target journal?
  79. 79. Improved Abstract Motivation Companies are increasingly constructing customer-centric supply chains in order to cope with the unrelenting pressure of cost reduction. The customer-centric supply chain strategy emphasizes improvement of key factors such as market rates, volatility and option pricing terms via the coordination of supply chain partners.
  80. 80. Problem Statement The current literature often examines selective factors (e.g., product cost and prices) when designing supply chain option contracts. An effective supply chain option contract should be more thorough and take into consideration of additional factors, including the opportunity cost of scheduled capacity and the uncertainty of price fluctuations.
  81. 81. Approach In this paper, we develop an option pricing model that examines the dynamics of customer- driven supply chains. We program the proposed option pricing model using Matlab software to help suppliers calculate optimal production volumes, and retailers calculate optimal ordering volumes and option pricing.
  82. 82. Results Our model simulation results show that suppliers and retailers can optimize their option pricing decision because the option price and exercise price curves intersect with each other in the price optimization graph. The total price of the entire supply chain can achieve maximization because suppliers have preference to increasing option price but decreasing exercise price, and retailers have the opposite preference. Our numerical analysis affirms the existence of the phenomenon that suppliers and retailers are always forced to make an optimal decision between option price and exercise price.
  83. 83. Conclusions Our findings suggest suppliers and retailers regulate each other toward making optimal decision on option and exercise prices. Our customer-driven supply chain model is applicable to markets in which option contracts are acceptable forms of supply chain operations.
  84. 84. Keywords Supply chains, optimization model, option contract, option price, exercise price, suppliers, retailers
  85. 85. Conclusions • An effective abstract can quickly interest people in reading your publications. • An effective abstract consists of six elements in sequence: motivation, problem statement, approach, results, conclusions, and keywords • Make sure that all the proposed strategies in the chapter are applied to writing each element of your paper’s abstract
  86. 86. Exercise 2.1 Primary Objectives of an Abstract • Discuss with your team members and use Table 2.1 in the workbook to understand submission guidelines of your target journal • Use Table 2.2 to improve your original abstract to achieve three primary objectives of an effective abstract
  87. 87. Exercise 2.2 Five Essential Elements of an Abstract • Discuss with your team members and fill out Table 2.3 in the workbook to remember five essential elements of an abstract • Read the abstract on Table 2.4 and decompose it into five essential elements using Table 2.5
  88. 88. Exercise 2.3 Improve Your Abstract using Proposed Writing Strategies • Use Table 2.6 to identify obvious writing mistakes in the abstract of your paper and check the right writing strategies to correct those mistakes • Use Table 2.7 to rewrite each element of your original abstract after applying all fifteen writing strategies
  89. 89. Chapter 3 Writing Strategies for the Introduction
  90. 90. Chapter 3 Outline 3.1 An Overview of Introduction 3.2 Writing Strategies for Introductory Paragraph 3.3 Writing Strategies for Problem Statement 3.4 Writing Strategies for Research Purpose 3.5 Writing Strategies for Paper Outline 3.6 Writing Strategies for Research Questions 3.7 Writing Strategies for the Significance of Study 3.8 Conclusions 3.9 Exercises
  91. 91. 3.1 An Overview of Introduction
  92. 92. An Overview of Introduction • The major objective of the Introduction section is to convince readers the importance of your study and hope they will have the patience to read the rest of your paper. • Information contained in the Introduction section cannot be long. • Your main job is to sell your research ideas to prospective readers, not to educate them all the specifics.
  93. 93. Six Essential Elements of an Introduction Introductory Paragraphs Problem Statement Research Purpose Significance of Study Research Questions Paper Outline
  94. 94. Common Mistakes Made in Each Element of an Introduction •Introductory paragraphs • Cannot arouse readers’ interests • Low visibility to an opening statement of the question • Begin discussion with salient theories than interesting stories
  95. 95. Problem Statement • No background information • No rationale • The rationale is not clear and cannot convince readers • Rationales focus on minor issues and cannot help clarify and justify major assumptions. • Confuse readers with perplexing argument
  96. 96. Research Purpose • Do not provide answers to the question “What is this study about?” • No clear research direction • Do not provide a specific and accurate synopsis of the primary target for the study
  97. 97. Significance of the Study • Do not get to the point • Do not present the main idea • Include too many subtopics • Do not offer the potential utility of results in either or both of two domains: What might be contributed to the evolving structure of knowledge, or what application might be made in a practical setting. • Have no factual evidence in convincing readers
  98. 98. Research Questions • Do not identify and define the central constructs and their relationships • Do not sketch the study in the bold strokes of major constructs • Provide too much detail for each construct • Do not briefly note the studied relationships among constructs • Do not focus on constructs that are more interested by readers • The formulation of the research question is not supported by explanation of why the major elements in the study were set forth in a particular way.
  99. 99. Paper Outline •Readers have no clues about the outline of the paper
  100. 100. 3.2 Writing Strategies for Introductory Paragraphs
  101. 101. Introductory Paragraph • High visibility of these paragraphs depends on your ability to write dramatic and general opening statements to set the stage for your paper. • Some authors often use dramatic illustrations, examples or quotes to intensify the tone of their opening statements. • Always remember to put yourself in the reader’s position : • Why do I care about this study? • What will I learn from this study? Is it worth my time to read this paper?
  102. 102. 3.3 Writing Strategies for Problem Statement
  103. 103. Problem Statement • It is imperative for readers to understand your research direction via your problem statement. • Thus, readers can answer the question “What is this study about?” • Many authors do not discuss background information before stating research problems. With the background information missing, the rationale of deriving problem statements becomes unclear and unpersuasive to readers. • In addition, authors may not focus on discussing major issues and assumptions behind each major issue. • As a result, readers are confused with and distracted by too many minor arguments and unrelated assumptions.
  104. 104. Strategy3.1 DiscussBackground InformationbeforeDerivingResearch Problems • Clear background information is a precursor to deriving your problem statement. You can help readers understand your rationale and major assumptions for each of your major problems. • It is also vital not to raise issues that may be in conflict with each other. The last thing you would like to not do is to confuse readers with perplexing argument. • Clarity in your argument is one of the keys to the success when writing your problem statement.
  105. 105. Example 1 “Technology adoption is one of the more mature systems in information systems (IS) research. The benefit of such maturity is the availability of frameworks and models that can be applied to the study of interesting problems. While practical contributions are certain to accrue from such investigations, a key challenge for researchers is to ensure that studies yield meaningful scientific contributions. There have been several models explaining technology adoption and use, particularly since the late 1980s [76].” Source: Brown, Dennis and Venkatesh 2010, p.10
  106. 106. Example 2 (Afuah and Tucci, 2012) • “Crowdsourcing is the act of outsourcing a task to a “crowd,” rather than to a designated “agent” (an organization, informal or formal team, or individual), such as a contractor, in the form of an open call (Howe, 2006, 2008; Jeppesen & Lakhani, 2010)…. Although Howe (2006, 2008) coined the term crowdsourcing with the strong role of the Internet in mind, the act of outsourcing a task to the public in the form of an open call may date as far back as 1714, when the British government offered a cash prize—the Longitude Prize—to anyone who would come up with an elegant way to determine the position of ships in the sea (The Economist, 2008). Sheriffs in Wild West movies crowdsourced elements of crime solving whenever they posted pictures of the “Most Wanted” in public places, with a reward for anyone who would help bring the suspect to justice…. Crowdsourcing may have been around for a long time, but the advent of the Internet and other communication technologies has opened up many possibilities for the phenomenon to play out. For example,…”
  107. 107. Strategy 3.2 Write one sentence for each problem statement • The statement of problem sets the stage for other parts of your paper. • Try using one sentence to clearly state each main problem. • Having too many problems stated will let readers feel your paper has no focus, thereby distracting readers from the paper’s central problems. • After each main problem is stated, you need to prepare several paragraphs for elaboration.
  108. 108. Example 1 “Venkatesh et al. identified several important directions for future research and suggested that “one of the most important directions for future research is to tie this mature stream [technology adoption] of research into other established streams of work” [76, p. 470] (see also [70]).” Source: Brown, Dennis and Venkatesh 2010, p.10
  109. 109. Example 2 (Afuah and Tucci, 2012) • “These fascinating examples raise some interesting questions for scholars of management. For example, when might crowdsourcing be a better mechanism for solving problems than the alternatives of either solving them internally or designating an exclusive contractor to solve them? What type of organization is likely to successfully pursue crowdsourcing? What types of internal and external environments are conducive to crowdsourcing? If a firm decides to crowdsource a problem, how should it go about it?” • Source: Afuah and Tucci 2012, p. 356
  110. 110. Effective Methods to Strengthen Your Argument •You can include facts, examples or opinions from the applicable authority (e.g. reputable journals and scholars) in your arguments. •You should explain the potential impact of your study on your field (e.g. business, IS, social, politics, etc.) by demonstrating the scope and depth of the problem. •The more dramatic and concrete this illustration, the more clearly your problem statements are to readers. •Your presentation is successful if your readers can quickly identify your problem statement in one sentence
  111. 111. 3.4 Writing Strategies for Research Purpose
  112. 112. Research Purpose • Research purpose is a single paragraph that explains the final deliverables of your study. • Your study’s final deliverables could be a validation of your proposed research model, development of a survey instrument, or a model simulation of scenarios. • The primary goal of this study is to … • … discover • … understand • --- investigate • --- test the model • This study aims to …
  113. 113. Example 1 “Given this background, the primary objective of this paper is to develop and test a model to understand collaboration technology adoption that integrates UTAUT with key constructs from theories about collaboration technologies.” Source: Brown, Dennis and Venkatesh 2010, p.12
  114. 114. Example 2 • “In this article we focus on the first question: When might crowdsourcing be a better mechanism for solving problems than the alternatives of either solving them internally or designating an exclusive contractor to solve them?” • Source: Afuah and Tucci 2012, p. 356
  115. 115. 3.5 Writing Strategies for the Significance of the Study
  116. 116. The Significance of the Study • Your job is to convince readers to agree with the rationale of your study and to relate your study to larger issues by addressing the following questions: • Why is your study important to your field or to the world? • Will your study make contributions to the evolving structure of knowledge? • What practical contributions can your findings make to individuals, business or society? • Who should be concerned with your research questions? • What benefits can be accrued to beneficiaries?
  117. 117. Strategy3.3Answerhowyourstudymakecontributionsto theevolvingstructureorknowledge “Our paper offers a sociocognitive theory to predict that different safe context factors may have different relationships with perceived success of collaborations. In particular, drawing on dual process theories of cognitive processing, we hypothesize that the ability and motivation of an individual to engage in deeper cognitive processing during the ad hoc collaboration (an ability and motivation that becomes salient when the collaborating parties are physically more proximal) moderates the positive effect of safe context factors on perceived collaboration success. Our focus on micro-forces that facilitate collaboration success among security professionals complements the extant information systems (IS) security literature that has focused on the effectiveness of formal policies at the national and firm level [69, 85] as well as the economics of security detection technologies [84] and other countermeasures [47].” Source: Majchrzak and Jarvenpaa 2010, p. 57
  118. 118. Example 2 (Continued) • “There is a well-established tradition of exploring such “firm boundary” questions using transaction cost economics (TCE; e.g., Williamson, 2002). However, TCE’s primary focus is on the characteristics of isolated transactions—some of which may or may not be relevant to solving a problem (Ghoshal & Moran, 1996). In addition, in focusing on the attributes of transactions, TCE often neglects firm-specific factors—such as routines, prior commitments, cognitive frames, knowledge, and absorptive capacities—that are often critical for solving problems (Ghoshal & Moran, 1996; Leiblein & Miller, 2003; Nelson, 1991; Nelson & Winter, 1982, 2002). Consequently, we explore the question by drawing primarily on the behavioral and evolutionary theories of organizations, especially the search literature (e.g., Cyert & March, 1963; Dosi & Marengo, 2007; March & Simon, 1958; Nelson & Winter, 1982; Simon, 1955).”
  119. 119. Example 2 • “In particular, we argue that under certain circumstances crowdsourcing transforms distant search into local search, thereby enabling firms to enjoy the many benefits of distant search without having to endure many of its costs. Therefore, crowdsourcing may be a better mechanism than either internal sourcing or designated contracting for solving problems for which solutions require distant search.” • Source: Afuah and Tucci 2012, p. 356
  120. 120. Strategy3.4 Answer howyour studycan makeany practicalcontributionsto individuals,businessor society “Despite the value of collaboration in helping to solve these security threats, reports continue to surface that security professionals fear that the act of collaborating with other parties will create more problems than it solves because of the possibility that collaborating parties may misuse information shared during the collaboration [22, 24, 28, 41, 44, 56]. Collaborations that are successful, then, are those that not only resolve the security threat but do so in a way that ensures that the information shared is not misused.” Source: Majchrzak and Jarvenpaa 2010, p. 56
  121. 121. Strategy3.5 Answer whowouldbe concernedwithyour researchquestions “Because security professionals often face a wide variety of threats, personal networks are likely to include individuals with whom the professional has not as yet collaborated and with whom collaborations may not necessarily recur often [28, 82]. Not only do these conditions inhibit the development of interpersonal trust [51], but they engender the possibility of incidents in which information is inappropriately used even within the personal network [56].” Source: Majchrzak and Jarvenpaa 2010, p. 57
  122. 122. Strategy 3.6 Answer what benefits your readers can have “Our theoretical explanation may also generalize to other interorganizational collaborations in which sensitive information is shared, particularly via electronic channels (e.g., [73]). The interorganizational relations literature describes numerous incidents of collaboration between and within firms with harmful consequences (e.g., [7, 42, 48, 52, 60, 63]). Our paper suggests a more nuanced view of interorganizational collaborations involving sensitive information than what currently exists in the literature.” Source: Majchrzak and Jarvenpaa 2010, p. 57
  123. 123. Example 2 • “Put simply, extant theory suggests homogeneous complementary resources across firms and a strong form of labor market efficiency. Thus, our discussion of boundary conditions highlights the need for a more robust framework connecting human capital and competitive advantage. Accordingly, after articulating the boundary conditions, our second contribution is developing a more comprehensive framework predicting when human capital may lead to sustained advantages….” • Source: Campbell, Coff and Kryscynski 2012, p. 376
  124. 124. Example 3 • “When might that be the case? It depends on the type of problem, the difficulties that the focal agent faces in performing distant search to solve the problem, the type of crowd to which the problem can be crowdsourced, and the ease with which the final solution can be evaluated. Specifically, the probability a focal agent (individual, group, or organization) will use crowdsourcing to solve a problem is high when (1) the problem is easy to delineate and broadcast to the crowd, (2) the knowledge required to solve the problem falls outside the focal agent’s knowledge neighborhood (requires distant search), (3) the crowd is large, with some members of the crowd motivated and knowledgeable enough to self-select and solve the problem, (4) the final solution is easy to evaluate and integrate into the focal agent’s value chain, and (5) information technologies are low cost and pervasive in the environment that includes the focal agent and the crowd.” • Source: Afuah and Tucci 2012, p. 356
  125. 125. 3.6 Writing Strategies for Research Questions
  126. 126. Research Questions • Readers would like to know specific research questions that your study can help address after appreciating the importance of your study. • Since journal papers need to present scientific findings, authors need to learn to formulate research questions in a systematic and scientific manner.
  127. 127. Strategy3.7 Discussmajor constructsof yourstudyand theirrelationships • Your goal is to sketch your study in the bold strokes of major constructs. Doing so is just like sketching your pictures before applying any colors to a canvas. • The goal is to entice readers to read the rest of your paper. • If space is limited, you may want to consider not discussing any constructs that readers are already very familiar with or will not interested in. • Often the most serious mistake authors make is that they formulate research questions without including major elements of their research question.
  128. 128. Strategy 3.8 Write sentences to glue these constructs and present them in a question form
  129. 129. An Example “When a security professional enters into a collaboration with members of a personal network, what is the relationship between safe context factors and perceived success of that collaboration?” • What constructs are to be discussed in this study? • What are central constructs of this study? • What are the relationships to be studied?
  130. 130. 3.7 Writing Strategies for Outline
  131. 131. Outlining the Rest of Your Paper • Written communication is no different from oral communication. • You tell readers what you plan to discuss. Then you discuss and firmly conclude by summarizing what you just discussed.
  132. 132. Strategy3.9 Outlinethe rest of yourpaper foryour readers • Toward the end of introduction, many authors forget to tell readers what they will discuss next. • As a result, readers could be agitated because they have no clue about the paper outline.
  133. 133. An Example of the Paper Outline “The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Next, we discuss related work. The third section introduces our theoretical framework and develops our hypotheses. In the fourth section, we introduce our data set. The fifth section describes our model and presents our findings. Finally, we discuss managerial implications and outline opportunities for further research.” Source: Dellarocas et al. 2010, p. 129
  134. 134. Example 2 • “In §2 we study the bullwhip effect theoretically. We first develop a model of firm production, a context in which to study the bullwhip. We then show that the bullwhip decomposes by information transmission lead time into an infinite set of lead l bullwhips. In §3, we construct a consistent estimator of the lead l bullwhip from differences in the variances of demand and order forecast errors. In §4, we present our bullwhip estimates. In §5, we provide robustness checks. In §6, we provide our concluding remarks.” • Source: Bray and Mendelson 2012, p.860
  135. 135. Minor Writing Mistakes in the Introduction Section • Writing a lengthy, tedious statement without focus or with too much detail information • Introducing too many technical details • Spending too much time discussing salient theories • Having detailed or thorough discussion • Using unnecessary technical language • Not communicating clearly to readers the study’s main idea • Using quotations and extensive references: What are the main ideas of this study? • Using of too many citations
  136. 136. 3.8 Conclusion
  137. 137. • The primary purpose of introductory paragraphs is to arouse reader’s interests to read the rest of your paper, not to conduct detail literature review. • Ten writing strategies are available for you to improve six elements of the Introduction section: (1) introductory paragraph, (2) problem statement, (3) research purpose, (4) significance of the study, (5) research questions, and (6) paper outline. • These ten writing strategies are effective at avoid making major and minor writing problems often made in each section of the Introduction section
  138. 138. 3.9 Exercises
  139. 139. Exercise 3.1 Primary Objectives of an Introduction Discuss with your team members and fill Table 3.1 with six essential elements of an introduction
  140. 140. Exercise 3.2 Decompose a sample introductioninto six elements Study the sample introduction on Figure 3.2 with your team members and decompose it into six essential elements using Table 3.2
  141. 141. Exercise 3.3 Identify Major Mistakes Made in Each Essential Element of an Introduction • Use Table 3.3 to identify major and minor mistakes made in each essential element of an introduction • Use Table 3.4 to describe effective writing strategies for each element of an introduction
  142. 142. Exercise3.4 Applying effectivewriting strategiesto improvingeach elementof yourpaper’sintroduction • Use Table 3.5 to rewrite your paper’s introduction to ensure that it contains information for six essential elements • Make sure you apply effective writing strategies to improving each element • After each application, check the writing strategies you use
  143. 143. References • Afuah, A., and Tucci, C.L. (2012). Crowdsoucing as a solution to distant search, Academy of Management Review 37(3), 355- 375. • Campbell, B.A., Coff, R., and Kryscynski, D. (2012). Rethinking sustained competitive advantage from human capital, Academy of Management Review 37(3), 376-395. • Bray, R.L., and Mendelson, H. (2012). Information transmission and the Bullwhip effect, Management Science 58(5), 860-875.
  144. 144. Chapter 4 Writing Strategies for Literature Review
  145. 145. OUTLINE • 4.1 An Overview of Literature Review • 4.2 Formulate Problems • 4.3 Search Relevant Literature • 4.4 Evaluate Literature • 4.5 Analyze and Interpret Literature • 4.6 Exercises
  146. 146. 4.1 An Overview of Literature Review
  147. 147. An Overview of Literature Review • The purpose of the literature review is to provide readers with an overview of salient literature pertinent to your research topic and prepare your research questions to be stated in testable form. • Literature ranges from scholarly articles, books, dissertations, conference proceedings, white papers, magazines, newspapers, and encyclopedia, to online resources.
  148. 148. • The key to reviewing literature is to use reliable and relevant literature to support the process of forming your research questions. • Once you have identified the right literature, you need to have the ability to analyze it critically through summary, synthesis, comparison and classification
  149. 149. Benefits of a Well-Written Literature • Bring the reader up to date with current literature on your topic • Help readers understand the specific contribution of your literature to the subject under review • Discuss central constructs of your study and their relationships under consideration • Identify and resolve conflicts among previous studies • Specify the knowledge gap between the past literature and your study • Discover innovative ways to close the knowledge map • Discuss original works in your context and create relevance to your study • Form the basis for your research questions
  150. 150. The Development of Literature Review Formulate Problems Search Relevant Literature Evaluate Data Analyze and Interpret Data
  151. 151. Common Mistakes Made in the Literature Review • Formulate Problems • Review literature without having your research questions in mind • Search Relevant Literature • Organize literature review around the sources • Include outdated and irrelevant references • Fail to evenly weight different perspectives of references
  152. 152. Common Mistakes Made in the Literature Review • Evaluate Data • Do not check the quality of the works used • Do not use any references from your target journal • Analyze and Interpret Data • Poor analysis and interpretation of the literature • Disorganized presentation of literature • Use outdated literature without explaining its application to current subjects.
  153. 153. 4.2 Formulate Problems
  154. 154. Formulate Problems • Organizing literature around the sources rather than the ideas has become a common mistake. • Non-native English writers are not used to having clear research questions in mind when conducting a literature review • Non-native English writers have a tendency to choose a few salient sources and discuss these sources in detail one at a time. • Literature needs to foreshadow the formulation of your research questions, not simply to report interesting findings from the past.
  155. 155. Strategy4.1 Haveclear researchquestions inmindbeforeconductingliterature review • Readers want to learn about your study, rather than learn about other scholars’ studies through your paper. • Writers must constantly evaluate whether or not the sources are closely connected with your research themes and if they can make substantial contributions to the questions of the study. • Literature that fails the quality test should be put aside.
  156. 156. An Example •Van Der Lans’ (2010) study aims to “develop a model that predicts how many customers a viral marketing campaign reaches, how this reach evolves, and how it depends on marketing activities” (p. 348). •What literature should be reviewed?
  157. 157. • First the authors review literature related to six viral marketing campaign activities: • (1) receiving an invitation to a viral campaign, • (2) reading the campaign’s invitation, • (3) visiting the landing page of the viral campaign, • (4) participating in the viral campaign, • (5) expanding the reach of the viral campaign with more friends, and • (6) closing the viral campaign.
  158. 158. • Second, the authors propose a decision tree to sequence these six activities based on the literature as follows: • (1) Receive invitation to viral campaign at t1, • (2) Read invitation at t2, • (3) Visit landing page viral campaign at t3, • (4) Participate in viral campaign in t4, • (5) Invite x=0, 1, 2….friends x~arbitary distribution with mean μ . Second, the • authors sequence the identified activities, and • (6) Exit.
  159. 159. • Third the literature review enabled the authors to derive the viral branching process equations. These equations can help calculate the conditional expected number of unopened emails, unopened viral emails, and participants in the viral campaign, as well as estimate the average number of forwarded emails.
  160. 160. 4.3 Search Relevant Literature
  161. 161. Major Mistakes Made in Searching for Relevant Literature • (1) organize the literature review around the sources, • (2) include outdated and irrelevant references, and • (3) do not evenly weigh different perspectives of references.
  162. 162. Strategy 4.2 Discussliterature around your researchquestions • Answer the following questions for every possible literature source before including them into the body of your literature: • What are the objectives of the literature review? • Which of these sources is in support of your position? • Which of these sources is against your position? • What are alternative literature sources that could be used to bridge opposing positions? • How is the literature source similar to or different from the others? • Which literature sources can make the greatest contribution to the understanding and development of your research questions in testable forms?
  163. 163. Cheung et al.’s Example (2010) • The purpose of Cheung et al.’s study is to investigate if global environmental factors and partnering firms’ inter-organizational properties can facilitate relationship learning, there by improving relationship value as a strategic outcome. What central constructs are involved in the proposed relationships?
  164. 164. Four Central Constructs are Involved in the Relationships •Global environmental factors, •Inter-organizational properties, •Relationship learning, and •Relationship value.
  165. 165. Which five categories of literatureare pertinentto these constructs: “{1}Building from the resource-based view (Barney, 1991; Wernerfelt, 1984), {2} transaction cost analysis (Williamson, 1985, 1993), {3}the perspective of transaction value (Zajac and Olsen, 1993), {4} the relational view (Dyer and Singh, 1998) and {5} interfirm relationship theories (Cannon and Perreault, 1999; Heide, 1994; Morgan and Hunt, 1994), this research examines the facilitating conditions relating to global environmental factors and partnering firms’ inter-organizational properties that enhance the level of relationship learning among global supply chain partners.
  166. 166. The authors conduct literature review by discussing the literature around their research ideas instead of around the literature.
  167. 167. Cheung et al’s Literature Review • Relationship learning and supply chain collaboration • “Following Selnes and Sallis (2003), this study defines relationship learning as “a joint activity between a supplier and a customer in which the two parties share information…” • Relationship Value • “Relationship value is defined from a managerial perspective as the received benefits perceived by buyers/suppliers in terms of their expectations from a business exchange relationship, i.e., their needs and wants ([Flint et al., 2002] and [Ulaga and Eggert, 2006]).
  168. 168. Conceptual Development
  169. 169. 4.4 Evaluate Data
  170. 170. Data Evaluation • All literature that is for or against your scientific inquiry needs to be weighted evenly in order to have research questions derived naturally from your logical discussion of both sides of the argument. • The quality of your sources also has influence on the quality of your literature review. • Data quality can be assessed with respect to many attributes. • After data quality is improved, authors also need to learn how to paraphrase other authors’ statements properly in order to avoid plagiarism.
  171. 171. DeRueandAshford’s(2010)exampleofevaluating dataquality • The purpose of their paper is to investigate the impact of leadership identity and the respective identities of leader and follower on the quality of leader-follower relationships • “A strong leadership identity implies that there is clarity in the leader follower relationship and individuals’ identities as leader and follower. When this clarity exists, there is greater acceptance of the right of the person constructed as leader to exert influence over the person constructed as follower. When this clarity is missing, we expect increased conflict and tension in the relationship (Collinson, 2005). In this sense, the construction of a leadership identity and the respective identities as leader and follower are inputs into the quality of leader-follower relationships (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995).”
  172. 172. LiteratureReviewas the Groundworkof ResearchQuestions The construction of a leadership identity and the respective identities as leader and follower are inputs into the quality of leader-follower relationships The quality of leader- follower relationship Leader and follower identities Leadership Identity
  173. 173. Strategy 4.3: Check the Quality of Sources “Identity involves the meaning attached to the self (Gecas, 1982). Any particular identity can be conceptualized along three levels of self-construal: individual, relational, and collective (Brewer & Gardner, 1996). Because leadership involves multiple individuals engaged in a process of interpersonal and mutual influence that is ultimately embedded within some collective (Hollander, 1978; Parry, 1998), it is necessary to integrate across these three levels to fully capture the process of constructing a leadership identity.” Source: DeRue and Ashford 2010, p. 629
  174. 174. References Used to Support the Authors’ Argument • Gecas, V. 1982. The self-concept. Annual Review of Sociology, 8: 1–33. • Brewer, M. B., & Gardner, W. 1996. Who is this“ we”? Levels of collective identity and self representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71: 83–93. • Hollander, E. P. 1978. Leadership dynamics: A practical guide to effective relations. New York: Free Press. • Parry, K. W. 1998. Grounded theory and social process: A new direction for leadership research. Leadership Quarterly, 9: 85–105.
  175. 175. Strategy 4.4: Use current and relevant literatures “What it takes to be a leader or follower, as well as who is a leader or follower in any given social context, is ambiguous, dynamic, and contextual. These attributes make the leadership identity high in what Hoang and Gimeno (2010) term identity complexity and strongly suggest a role for social processes in its creation. While the idea of social interactionism is not new to the identity literature (Goffman, 1959; Mead, 1934), the identity literature is only beginning to explain when social interaction is more or less important for identity construction (Ibarra & Barbulescu, 2010). Our theory suggests that the nature of the identity itself (in terms of its ambiguity or other attributes) impacts the process by which that identity is constructed.” Source: DeRue and Ashford 2010, p. 630
  176. 176. Reference Dates • Hoang, H., & Gimeno, J. 2010. Becoming a founder: How founder role identity affects entrepreneurial transitions and persistence in founding. Journal of Business Venturing, 25: 41–53. • Ibarra, H., & Barbulescu, R. 2010. Identity as narrative: Prevalence, effectiveness, and consequences of narrative identity work in macro work role transitions. Academy of Management Review, 35: 135–154.
  177. 177. Strategy4.5 Create an argument by weighingdifferentperspectives DeRue and Ashford (2010) try to establish the process of claiming a leader identity by referencing literature based on interpersonal, instrument, and image-based rewards. Rather than making an argument that one reward is better than another reward in motivating individuals to claim a leader identity, the authors evenly weigh their contribution to the claiming process of a leader identity.
  178. 178. Perspective 1 “A well established tenet in our understanding of human motivation is that self-interest shapes human behavior and action (Miller, 1999; Miller & Ratner, 1998; Schwartz, 1986) {perspective 1}.
  179. 179. Perspective 2 • Acting leader-like and being seen as a leader is a socially valued and rewarded “ideal self” (Higgins, 1987; Markus & Nurius, 1986) in many organizational settings (Day et al., 2009; Kempster, 2006; Van Vugt, 2006) {perspective 2}.
  180. 180. Perspective 3 It may lead to instrumental rewards such as promotions, interpersonal rewards such as power or status, or image- based rewards such as a positive reputation. These rewards create a motivation to claim this identity. In addition, individuals are often simply motivated to get things accomplished and claim a leader identity because it helps facilitate that accomplishment (Quinn, 1996){perspective 3}. Source: DeRue and Ashford 2010, p. 638
  181. 181. 4.5 Analyze and Interpret Data
  182. 182. Major Mistakes Made in Data Analysis and Interpretation • Many writers choose to give a full tour for each source and end up becoming a travel agent showing highlights of numerous trips to different sources. • Discussing the literature without having your own voice is an obvious symptom for poor data analysis. • Disorganized presentation of literature is another serious mistake. • The third mistake is using outdated literature without explaining its application to current subjects. • Summarizing literature without being able to synthesize it to support and clarify your arguments cannot provide readers with new insight.
  183. 183. Strategy 4.6 Summarize and synthesize the literature via the decomposition process • Spears and Barki’s (2010) paper as an example • The purpose of their paper is to “examine what user participation is in security contexts and how it influences the performance of IS security controls in organizations” (p.504).
  184. 184. Decomposition Process What roles does user participation play in security contexts? How will user participation influence the performance of IS security controls in organizations. User participation in the Information Systems Development (ISD) Buy-in theory System qualiy theory Emergent interaction theory Security Risk Management The process of managing security risks The controls (technological and manual) as the outputs of that process
  185. 185. 4.6 Exercises
  186. 186. Exercise 4.1 Primary Objectives of Literature Review • Discuss with your team members and use Table 4.1 to fill out four essential elements of literature review
  187. 187. Exercise 4.2 Decomposition Process •Read the introduction of a literature review on Figure 4.2 and then decompose the literature review on Figure 4.3 into each element. Use Table 4.2 to fill out each element.
  188. 188. Exercise 4.3 Identify Major Mistakes Made in Each Essential Element of a Literature Review • Discuss with your team members and use Table 4.3 to describe major mistakes made in each essential element of a literature review • Use Table 4.4 to describe effective writing strategies designed to correct each major mistake
  189. 189. Exercise 4.4 Improving the Literature Review of Your Working Paper • Your final job is to use your working paper and continuously improve each element of its Literature Review section using Table 4.5. • Make sure your group checks your writing for each element against a checklist of strategies before moving to the next element. Mark the strategies you use for each element using the checklist.
  190. 190. Chapter 5 Writing Strategies for Hypotheses
  191. 191. OUTLINE 5.1 An Overview of Hypothesis Formulation 5.2 Writing Strategies for Hypotheses • Strategy 5.1 Have a clear transitional paragraph before stating each hypothesis • Strategy 5.2 Think potential research method in the process of clarifying hypotheses • Strategy 5.3 Divide a large hypothesis into smaller, unitary hypotheses 5.3 Conclusions 5.4 Hypothesis Formulation Exercises
  192. 192. 5.1 An Overview of Hypothesis Formulation
  193. 193. Hypotheses • Hypotheses are the product of conducting literature review, defining variables and theorizing the relationships of variables. • A useful hypothesis should be in the form of a testable statement which can help explain some phenomena or series of events based on the relationships of the identified variables. • Although a good literature review can help construct hypotheses, it does not guarantee that the writer will successfully state them.
  194. 194. Themost common mistake is that the transitionis missing from theoretical propositionsbased on theliteraturereviewto theformulationof testablehypotheses.
  195. 195. 5.2 Writing Strategies for Hypotheses
  196. 196. Strategy 5.1 Have a clear transitional paragraph before stating each hypothesis
  197. 197. Short and Toffel’s (2010) Paper as An Example The purpose of their paper is to investigate how information activities of regulators can influence the likelihood that organizations will effectively implement their self-regulatory commitments.
  198. 198. Rightbeforetheformulationof thehypothesis, hereiswhat ShortandToffelstate, “A recent review of the literature on corporate social responsibility also reported a strong consensus among researchers that stakeholder monitoring is a key ingredient in responsible corporate behavior, including effective corporate self-regulation (Campbell, 2007). For these reasons, we expect regulatory surveillance to promote meaningful implementation of self-regulation commitments: Hypothesis 2 (H2): Among heavily monitored facilities, those that commit to adopting internal compliance auditing will improve regulatory compliance outcomes.”
  199. 199. Anotherparagraphfollowsthediscussionand helps deriveanotherhypothesis. “More intensive industry-wide surveillance also signals to would-be self-regulators that their competitors are being watched too, providing greater assurance that investments in compliance will not disadvantage them vis-à-vis their competitors (Gunningham and Rees, 1997). Hypothesis 3 (H3): Within heavily monitored industries, facilities that commit to adopting internal compliance auditing will improve regulatory compliance outcomes.”
  200. 200. Strategy 5.2 Think potential research method in the process of clarifying hypotheses
  201. 201. As the purpose of the literature review is to prepare hypotheses; hypotheses exist to prepare research procedures (e.g. experiment,case study, survey, and interview).
  202. 202. How to Rewrite the Following Hypotheses in a Testable Form •Excessive information technology use may trigger anger. •Social group support may release anger caused by IT use.
  203. 203. Improved Hypotheses in a Testable Form •Anger will be negatively associated with IT use •Anger will be positively associated with IT use through social support.
  204. 204. Creating a Virtuous Cycle with the Improved Hypotheses • Forward thinking can help you not only formulate effective hypotheses but also prevent research process problems from occurring in the future. • Anger can be measured with emotion intensity through a survey with IT users. Beaudry and Pinsonneault (2010) use a five-point Likert scale ranging from “not at all” to a “great deal” to measure the intensity of anger (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984).
  205. 205. Creating a Virtuous Cycle with the Improved Hypotheses Social support is a task adaptation effort of new users to obtain moral and emotional support with regard to the use of new IT. The authors measure the frequency with which users seek social support using a 7-point Likert scale from “never” to “many times a day.”
  206. 206. Creating a Virtuous Cycle with the Improved Hypotheses IT use is the extent to which users actively interview with the new IT to perform five managerial tasks: collecting information, disseminating information, figurehead, resource allocation, and negotiation. The authors measure the variable using a 7-point Likert scale ranging from “never” to “many times a day.”
  207. 207. An Effective Hypothesis Hypotheses that cannot actually be tested need to be further modified until they can be stated in a testable form and can help predict the outcomes if research process is rigorously implemented.
  208. 208. • “A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work….You need to be able to measure both “what you do” and “what will happen.” (Science Buddies, 2010). “What you do” and “what will happen” represent the independent and dependent variables, respectively. • An effective hypothesis must indicate that a cause-and-effect relationship or some degree of associations between the independent and dependent variables exists.
  209. 209. An effective hypothesis has strong implications on the research process and the measurement instrument.
  210. 210. Alnuaimi et al.’s (2010) Paper as An Example The objective of their paper was to investigate if three cognitive mechanisms – diffusion of responsibility, attribution of blame, and dehumanization -- can effectively mediate the effect of team size and dispersion on social loafing in technology-supported team.
  211. 211. Alnuaimi et al’s Proposed Hypotheses Hypothesis 1a: Diffusion of responsibility will mediate the relationship between team size and individuals’ social loafing. Hypothesis 2a: Dehumanization will mediate the relationship between team size and individuals’ social loafing. Hypothesis 3a: Attribution of blame will mediate the relationship between team size and individuals’ social loafing.
  212. 212. Implications on Research Process • These three hypotheses indicate that a laboratory study may be adopted to manipulate the team size and those three cognitive mechanisms. • Each team may need to rely on the use of group support systems to deliver team-based tasks (e.g. brainstorming and decision-making). • The higher the degree of social loafing, the fewer ideas an individual will contribute to the team task. • These hypotheses also indicate that individual’s social loafing can be measured by counting the number of ideas generated and contributed to the team task. • Lastly, mediating effect can be calculated based on the path analysis model, such as PLS analysis.
  213. 213. Another Example from Siponen and Vance’s Paper • They formulate hypotheses with the research process in mind. • Siponen and Vance argue that although the neutralization theory has been long applied to Criminology it has not been applied in the information security context to offer insights into how employees rationalize their behavior and comply with security policy.
  214. 214. • H1: Neutralization positively affects intention to violate IS security policy • H2: Formal sanctions negatively affect intention to violate IS security policy. • H3: Informal sanctions negatively affect intention to violate IS security policy. • H4: Shame negatively affects intention to violate IS security policy
  215. 215. Implications on Research Design • The research process has to do with a design of four different scenarios: neutralization, formal sanctions, informal sanctions, and shame. • As expected, this paper uses a hypothetical scenario method. • This research method provides subjects with vignettes that “present subjects with written descriptions of realistic situations and then request responses on a number of rating scales that measure the dependent variables of interest” (Trevino 1992, pp. 127-128). • This example demonstrates the importance of considering the research method when formulating hypotheses.
  216. 216. Strategy 5.3 Divide a large hypothesis into smaller, unitary hypotheses
  217. 217. Long vs. Short Hypothesis • A long, amorphous hypothesis can compound the understanding of readers because it may contain multiple variables and multiple relationships. • The rule of thumb is to create a single, directional relationship for each hypothesis. • Focus on three essential elements of writing: (1) use as few words as possible to express your exact meaning, (2) leave no room for ambiguity, and (3) keep the tone unfailingly respectful (Sullivan and Eggleston, 2010).
  218. 218. How to Compose a Hypothesis? • To start a hypothesis, state only two variables (one independent and one dependent variable) and their relationships as exactly as you can. • Add a new hypothesis to capture hidden variables if the original variable contains them. • Cross off those variables that contain too many hidden variables and then go back to your research questions and refine them. • Dividing a large hypothesis into smaller, unitary hypotheses to clarify directional relationships between independent and dependent variables.
  219. 219. Ahypothesisis a scientificinquiryabout possiblesolutionsto research questions. Therefore,youneed to havestrongreasons andstatisticaldata to supportor reject eachhypothesis.Imagineexplainingyour hypothesisto yourfriends.
  220. 220. Hypothesis 1: Improving online users’ awareness of information security can increase their willingness to comply with information security policy. •What are independent and dependent variables indicated in this hypothesis? •How easily can the proposed relationship be validated with statistical data?
  221. 221. Sykes, Venkatesh and Gosain’s (2009) Paper as An Example • They are interested in extending the IS acceptance model to the social network context. • They develop the model of acceptance with peer support (MAPS) by incorporating key social network constructs into the traditional IS acceptance model. • Four hypotheses are proposed to validate if the four key constructs – network density, valued network density, network centrality and valued network centrality – have a positive influence on system use.
  222. 222. Proposed Hypotheses • H2(a): Network density will positively influence system use. • H2(b): Valued network density will positively influence system us • H3(a): Network centrality will positively influence system use • H3(b): Valued network centrality will positively influence system use.
  223. 223. Strengths of These Four Hypotheses • Readers can clearly understand if these four key social constructs “have” or “have no” influence on system use. • No hidden variables can be detected in each hypothesis. • The authors can easily validate and explain their proposed relationships with statistical data.
  224. 224. Interpretations for Statistical Testing Results “Both network density and network centrality were significant predictors of system use…thus supporting H2 (a) and H3(a). Model 2 explained 41 percent of the variance, a 7 percent increase in variance beyond what is explained by prior technology adoption constructs. Model 3 incorporated both prior technology adoption constructs and valued network centrality and valued network density, all of which were significant, thus also supporting H2(b) and H3(b). Model 3 explained 50 percent of the variance, a 16 percent improvement over Model 1. Model 4 is the proposed research model (i.e., MAPS) that incorporates behavioral intention, facilitating conditions, and all four social network constructs (i.e., network density, network centrality, valued network density, and valued network centrality) as predictors explained 56 percent of the variance in system use.”
  225. 225. 5.3 Conclusions
  226. 226. Conclusions • An effective hypothesis is a prerequisite to conducting scientific inquiry. • Good literature review does not guarantee the formulation of effective hypotheses. • This chapter proposes three strategies to help you formulate effective hypotheses.
  227. 227. 5.4 Hypothesis Formulation Exercises
  228. 228. Exercise5.1HaveaClearTransitionalParagraph beforeStatingEachHypothesis • Study two sample transitional paragraphs for two hypotheses on Table 5.1. Discuss with your team members to compose a new transitional paragraph for each of the two hypotheses. Write down your transitional paragraphs using Table 5.2. • Now use your own working paper and develop a transitional paragraph for each of your hypotheses. Write down your transitional paragraphs using Table 5.3.
  229. 229. Exercise5.2ForwardThinkingofResearchMethodinthe ProcessofClarifyingHypotheses • The purpose of this exercise is for you to demonstrate that you can write an effective hypothesis by stating it in a testable form. An effective hypothesis should be able to prepare research procedures (e.g. experiment, case study, survey, and interview) for your study. • Use Table 5.4 to improve your stated hypotheses. Write down your original hypotheses and then revise them to ensure that readers can determine independent and dependent variables and their relationships.
  230. 230. Exercise5.3DivideaLargeHypothesis into Smaller,UnitaryHypotheses • The purpose of this exercise is to equip you with the ability to decompose a large hypothesis into smaller, unitary hypotheses. • Table 5.5 shows an undivided hypothesis, modified from Liu and Phillips’ (2010) paper. Your job is to decompose the large hypothesis into manageable, unitary hypotheses.
  231. 231. Chapter 6 Writing Strategies for Research Methodology
  232. 232. OUTLINE 6.1 Purpose of Research Methodology 6.2 Overview of Research Method 6.3 Data Collection Procedure 6.4 Data Collection Settings 6.5 Pre-test Instrument and Pilot Study 6.6 Conclusions
  233. 233. 6.1 Purpose of Research Methodology The purpose of research methodology is to give details of the approaches by which you collect data from reliable instruments and analyze data to test the proposed hypotheses.
  234. 234. Four Essential Elements of Research Methodology Overiew of Research Method Data Collection Procedure Data Collection Settings Pre-Test Instrument & Pilot Study
  235. 235. 6.2 Overview of Research Method
  236. 236. Overview of Research Method • You need to first introduce readers with a clear definition of the adopted research method. • Explain the rationale of your decision on using the research method instead of alternative methods to help achieve research goals. • Discuss any distinct challenges or limitations that may stand in the way of helping achieve your research goals. • A single paragraph should be dedicated to summarizing the research method by including three subsections: introduction, body and conclusion.
  237. 237. Strong and Volkoff’s (2010) paper as An Example • The authors seek to investigate different kinds of misfit that can arise from an enterprise system implementation from the critical realism perspective. • The authors give an overview of research method adopted in their study as follows:
  238. 238. Announce and Define the Research Method “We approached this research from the philosophical perspective of critical realism {announce the adopted research method} (Archer 1995; Bhaskar 1978, 1979, 1998; Dobson 2001; Mingers 2004a, 2004b; Smith 2006). Critical realism bridges positivism and interpretivism by carefully distinguishing between its ontology and its epistemology.... {Defining the research method}
  239. 239. Distinct Challenges and Limitations of the Research Method Under critical realism, causality is not deterministic, but real entities are assumed to have causal effects. Specifically, entities, by themselves or in combination with other entities, cause events to occur through generative mechanisms, and some of these events are empirically observed. The entities are assumed to exist prior to the events they generate and, in turn, the events may lead to subsequent changes in the entities (Archer 1995). {distinct challenges and limitations of the research method}
  240. 240. Rationale of Adopting the Research Method These two defining characteristics of critical realism—the nested stratification of the empirical within the actual within the real domain, and the horizontal stratification of entities existing prior to the events they generate which in turn precede the changes to the entities—fit well with the methodological techniques recommended for the study of collective constructs {rationale of adopting the research method}
  241. 241. A Preview of Operational Procedure for Data Collection A longitudinal case study employing grounded theory procedures is appropriate for studying Org–ES fit because it facilitates the emergence of theoretical concepts directly related to the phenomena being observed (i.e., misfits), while simultaneously considering the context in which those phenomena are embedded (i.e., the organization and its new ES) (Orlikowski 1993). We observed three years of a five-year phased SAP implementation at a global corporation. By following the project over several years, we observed both those misfits that were apparent immediately, and addressed in the early days of use, and those that only emerged over time.” {a preview of operational procedure for data collection}
  242. 242. 6.3 Data Collection Procedure
  243. 243. Strategy 6.2 Discuss step- by-step data collection procedure
  244. 244. Key Points • You need to expand your discussion on the main components of the adopted research method. • Do not get into the details of each individual component. • The purpose of the summary is to draw a roadmap for readers to later discuss the details of each individual component. • Therefore, the goal is to summarize rather than discuss the details of each component.
  245. 245. Data Collection Procedure • The data collection procedure is critical to an objective evaluation of the quality of research design. • The first question coming to the mind of reviewers is “Can other scholars replicate this study?” • The success of developing reproducibility depends on the inclusion of important information, including materials, participants, and control variables.
  246. 246. Answers to the Following Questions in the Data Collection Procedure • Who are the participants ? • Can your sample address your research questions? • In what context do you collect the data that will reflect the needs of answering the research questions? • Do you have enough sample size? • Are your findings potentially susceptible to the influence of unequal sample size?
  247. 247. Four Essential Elements of Writing Rigorous Data Collection Procedure Data Collection Procedure Research Method Subject Profile Answer Research Questions Sample Size Samples in Right Context
  248. 248. Choi et al.’s Paper as An Example Choi et al.’s (2010) study is to investigate how IT-enabled knowledge management practices can affect the development of Transactive Memory Systems (TMS) in an organization, thereby influencing team performance.
  249. 249. “We conducted a survey {research method} through the knowledge management teams {samples in right context} at these firms. The survey was administered through the firms’ internal websites over a period of one month. A total of 942 individuals from 259 teams across both firms responded {sample size}. After discarding incomplete responses and teams with fewer than three individual responses (without including the team leader), we were left with 743 individuals in 139 teams {sample size}. Table 1 provides demographic characteristics of the survey participants {subject profiles}. In order to avoid the common-method bias, we administered surveys on team performance to team leaders separately” {samples in right context}
  250. 250. Dou et al.’s Paper as Another Example • Dou et al.’s (2010) study adopts the experimental research method to investigate the influence of key contextual factors on brand positioning online via search engine results pages (SERPs).
  251. 251. “We recruited the participants in Experiment 1 {research method} using an e-mail announcement system that broadcasts messages to the campus community of a university in Hong Kong. Student samples are suitable if they are reasonably familiar with the domain under investigation {samples in right context} (Gordon et al. 1987); we confirmed that students met this criterion with pretests. We disguised the goal of the study, calling it “Internet life of Hong Kong residents,” and each study participant received a HK$100 gift certificate from a local supermarket after successfully completing the study. E- mail recipients who expressed interest could sign up online for the experiment if they were regular Internet users and had reached their senior year or beyond {subject profile}.
  252. 252. The qualified respondents then completed an online questionnaire consisting of a variety of items pertaining to their demographics, common online activities, and Internet search skills; this pre-study questionnaire actually provides measures of each participant’s Internet search skills. The largest group of participants, 73 percent, was senior-level undergraduates; 21 percent were graduate-level students; the remaining 6 percent were university staff” {subject profile}.
  253. 253. 6.4 Data Collection Settings
  254. 254. Strategy 6.3 Explain the Data Collection Setting
  255. 255. A clear explanation of the data collection setting can help other scholars understand the context of the data collection. Thus, other scholars would be able to create the same data collection setting from which the similar findings would be derived at different times.
  256. 256. Seddon et al.’s (2010) Paper • Seddon, Calvert and Yang’s (2010) study investigates the influence of six factors on organizational benefits from enterprise system projects: functional fit, overcoming organizational inertia, integration, process optimization, improved access to information, and on-going major ES business improvement projects. • The qualitative content analysis is conducted to assess whether or not these six factors are important antecedents to the success of enterprise systems.
  257. 257. “At Sapphire 2003 there were over 100 presentations from senior business and IS managers from customer organizations such as Adidas, Audi, Barclays Bank, Bosch, Chevron Texaco, Disney, Hershey Foods, Lockheed Martin, Shell, Sony, and Texas Instruments. Streaming video of each 45-minute presentation, together with PowerPoint slides and full transcripts of each presentation, were available from the SAP “community” website for some months after the conference. From the above- mentioned 100-plus customer presentations, we selected all 60 presentations that discussed either or both of benefits realized from the enterprise system, and project success factors. The organizations are quite large. Of the 30 organizations that reported revenues in their presentations, 27 had 2002 revenues above U.S. $1 billion per annum. Combined, the presentations are a very rich source of information about the goals, issues, and outcomes of ES projects in large organizations. Sapphire 2005 was similar: there were lots of presentations from many large customers, each with detailed and interesting stories of their experiences with their SAP software.”
  258. 258. Duan et al.’s (2009) Paper as An Example Duan et al.’s (2009) study investigates if an online user’s adoption decisions depend on others’ actions.
  259. 259. “We started collecting data in each category daily in November 2004. Every day we extracted the following information on every software program listed in each category: software name, description, date added, total download, last week download, CNET rating, number of user reviews, average user rating, and whether the software program has been labeled as pop (software is designated as pop if it climbs onto the most popular list) and new (software is defined as new for the first 15 days). We also collected software characteristics including operating system requirements, file size, publisher, license, and price if its license is free-to-try. Table 3 presents the variable definition, description, and explanation of measurement.”
  260. 260. 6.5 Pre-Test Instrument and Pilot Study
  261. 261. Strategy 6.4 Pre-Test the Instrument and Perform a Pilot Study
  262. 262. • If the first three steps are to set up the stage for performance, this next step is to have actors do the rehearsal. • “Are there any flaws in the execution?” “Have you checked the reliability and validity of measurement instrument?” and “Have you conducted a pilot study to weed out potential errors in the survey instrument that may occur in the full-scale study?” • A careful quality checking process in the pilot-test stage can earn trust and confidence from reviewers when coming to the full-scale execution process.
  263. 263. Brown, Dennis and Venkatesh’s Paper as An Example (2010) “Two pretests of the instrument were conducted to ensure that the measures were applicable in the current context. First, ten individuals (in two groups of five) affiliated with the university were recruited to participate in this pretest. Each individual was asked to complete the questionnaire and then provided the opportunity to comment on any aspect of the questionnaire. the primary feedback from the first group was with regard to the use of some “complex” English words/terms in the questions. Based on this feedback, a few questions were slightly reworded. the updated questionnaire was then validated with the second group of pretest participants and feedback solicited. No significant suggestions were made and, thus, no further changes were made.
  264. 264. The revised survey was administered among 111 undergraduate students. the focus of the pilot study was to examine the reliability and validity of the scales in the context of a collaboration technology—here, SMS. We were particularly interested in establishing the reliability and validity of the new scales—immediacy and concurrency. The new scales were found to be reliable, with Cronbach’s alpha exceeding 0.80. the other scales were also highly reliable, with similar Cronbach’s alpha scores. Next, a principal components analysis with varimax rotation was conducted among the multi-item constructs from collaboration technology research—that is, social presence, media richness, immediacy, concurrency, and familiarity with others. A clean factor structure was obtained, with loadings greater than 0.70 and cross-loadings less than 0.35, thus supporting internal consistency and discriminant validity. a similar analysis was conducted among the UTAUT predictors and a clean factor structure was obtained there as well. •
  265. 265. Given the total number of items from all multi-item constructs in the model, the sample size in this pilot study was not sufficient to test internal consistency and discriminant validity of all constructs in a single test using exploratory factor analysis. However, this concern is somewhat alleviated for three reasons: (1) the new scales were developed in the context of collaboration technology research and the likelihood of overlap was more with the constructs in that domain, (2) the technology adoption constructs and collaboration technology constructs come from very different bodies of research where there has been minimal conceptual overlap thus far, and (3) the entire model and scales will be validated in the actual data set using confirmatory factor analysis in partial least squares (PlS).”
  266. 266. Althoughmost surveyquestionsare modified basedon questionsfrom pre-validatedand publishedpapers,the authorsstillconduct twopretestsof the modifiedinstrumentto ensurethatthemeasures meetcontent validityand instrumentreliability.
  267. 267. 6.6 Conclusions • A research methodology contains four essential elements: (1) overview of research method, (2) data collection procedure, (3) Data collection settings, and (4) pre-test instrument and pilot study • Employ an effective writing strategy to improve each element of the research methodology section in your paper
  268. 268. Chapter 7 Writing Strategies for Data Analysis
  269. 269. • The purpose of a full-scale data analysis is to explain the data analysis process. • You, the writer, should summarize and explain your data analysis results in a scientific way. • Explain why and how your analysis results support or reject the hypotheses. • A good picture can say a thousand words. You may want to use graphs or tables to present statistical analysis results. • Try not to spend more than two pages in length, not including statistics, tables and figures, in addressing the analysis results.

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