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Glass Industry in West Virginia          History of Glass An Interdisciplinary Project of Cabell CountySchools and Marshal...
Outline•       History of Glass    –        World         •        Invention/Discovery         •        Early Uses        ...
First Uses of Glass• First use was as jewelry• Invention was probably accidental from mixing  wood ashes and sand• Inventi...
Early Glass Artifacts11 April 2013            Session 2      4
First Glass Containers• Early glass was core formed by putting a stick  in molten glass and shaping over a clay form• Glas...
Egyptian glass11 April 2013        Session 1   6
Sumerian glass bottle                         Session 2      711 April 2013
Roman glass11 April 2013       Session 1   8
Glass from Judea11 April 2013         Session 2    9
Glass Blowing• Glass bowing was developed around 100  BC, probably in Syria, and required much higher  temperatures that m...
Sargon Vase• 750 BC11 April 2013       Session 2   11
Roman Glass Innovations• Excavations of Roman middens suggest that  glass items were so inexpensive that they  were discar...
• Replica Roman window glass11 April 2013       Session 2   13
• Prior to the development of plate glass, small  pieces of horn or parchment were used to let  light in windows• Glass ba...
Middle Ages• There were few innovations in glass from 400  – 1400 AD• Alexandria was the center of stained glass  manufact...
Italian Glassmaking• Italian glass innovations in the 1400s include  millefiori and crystal• Many advances in science and ...
Murano Crystal11 April 2013        Session 2   17
Murano millefiori11 April 2013          Session 2    18
Millefiori11 April 2013      Session 2   19
Glassmaking in the US• The first recorded production of glass in the  US was in Jamestown in 1608 by a group of  “Dutchmen...
Jamestown Glass11 April 2013         Session 2   21
American Glass Pocket Flask11 April 2013               Session 2         22
Glass in West Virginia• In WV there is abundant coal and natural gas  as an energy source• Raw materials (silica, lime, me...
4 April 2013   Session 2   24
Early WV Glass Manufacturing• It is believed that the first glassmaking in what  is now West Virginia was in Wellsburg as ...
Issac Duval Glass                    (possibly)11 April 2013          Session 2    26
• By 1930, over 15% of all glass produced in the  US came from West Virginia• Michael Owens developed an economical  glass...
WV Glass Labor• Most glass workers were immigrants from  Italy, Russia, Poland and Belgium• Glass unions formed to protect...
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Cabell County Glass Project 02 - History of Glass

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History of Glass
World
Invention/Discovery
Early Uses
Spread of Glass Technology
US
Jamestown
Pittsburgh
West Virginia
Why glass in WV
Early WV glassmakers
WV Glass Labor

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Cabell County Glass Project 02 - History of Glass

  1. 1. Glass Industry in West Virginia History of Glass An Interdisciplinary Project of Cabell CountySchools and Marshall University’s June Harless Center Session 2 – 11 April 2013
  2. 2. Outline• History of Glass – World • Invention/Discovery • Early Uses • Spread of Glass Technology – US • Jamestown • Pittsburgh – West Virginia • Why glass in WV • Early WV glassmakers • WV Glass Labor 2
  3. 3. First Uses of Glass• First use was as jewelry• Invention was probably accidental from mixing wood ashes and sand• Invention likely around 3000 – 2000 BC in Mesopotamia or Egypt11 April 2013 Session 2 3
  4. 4. Early Glass Artifacts11 April 2013 Session 2 4
  5. 5. First Glass Containers• Early glass was core formed by putting a stick in molten glass and shaping over a clay form• Glass making spread to China around 500 BC11 April 2013 Session 2 5
  6. 6. Egyptian glass11 April 2013 Session 1 6
  7. 7. Sumerian glass bottle Session 2 711 April 2013
  8. 8. Roman glass11 April 2013 Session 1 8
  9. 9. Glass from Judea11 April 2013 Session 2 9
  10. 10. Glass Blowing• Glass bowing was developed around 100 BC, probably in Syria, and required much higher temperatures that molding• Glass technology swept through Rome since glass vessels were stronger, lighter and easier to make than the ceramic containers it replaced• Innovations in glass advanced in Rome more quickly than at any time in history, including today11 April 2013 Session 2 10
  11. 11. Sargon Vase• 750 BC11 April 2013 Session 2 11
  12. 12. Roman Glass Innovations• Excavations of Roman middens suggest that glass items were so inexpensive that they were discarded when they sustained even slight damage• Some window glass was used in Rome but not widely since the Mediterranean climate didn’t need as much protection from the elements• Following Roman occupation, window glass was common in Great Britain11 April 2013 Session 2 12
  13. 13. • Replica Roman window glass11 April 2013 Session 2 13
  14. 14. • Prior to the development of plate glass, small pieces of horn or parchment were used to let light in windows• Glass balls were used as magnifying glass in Rome11 April 2013 Session 2 14
  15. 15. Middle Ages• There were few innovations in glass from 400 – 1400 AD• Alexandria was the center of stained glass manufacturing around 1000 AD• Damascus was a glass making center until the 1400 invasion by Timor when many glass craftsman escaped to Italy11 April 2013 Session 2 15
  16. 16. Italian Glassmaking• Italian glass innovations in the 1400s include millefiori and crystal• Many advances in science and technology were tied to advances in Italian glass manufacturing during the Renaissance• The Venetians guarded their glass blowing techniques so carefully that they moved their best artists to the island of Murano11 April 2013 Session 2 16
  17. 17. Murano Crystal11 April 2013 Session 2 17
  18. 18. Murano millefiori11 April 2013 Session 2 18
  19. 19. Millefiori11 April 2013 Session 2 19
  20. 20. Glassmaking in the US• The first recorded production of glass in the US was in Jamestown in 1608 by a group of “Dutchmen”. Later, a group of Italian glassblowers were brought to Virginia• Early US glass industries developed near forest areas since quantities of wood were required to fuel the glass furnaces. Later coal and eventually natural gas was used as a heat source.11 April 2013 Session 2 20
  21. 21. Jamestown Glass11 April 2013 Session 2 21
  22. 22. American Glass Pocket Flask11 April 2013 Session 2 22
  23. 23. Glass in West Virginia• In WV there is abundant coal and natural gas as an energy source• Raw materials (silica, lime, metals) are readily available• River transport allowed products to be shipped• A capable labor force existed11 April 2013 Session 2 23
  24. 24. 4 April 2013 Session 2 24
  25. 25. Early WV Glass Manufacturing• It is believed that the first glassmaking in what is now West Virginia was in Wellsburg as early as 1813• The glass industry expanded along the Ohio River using immigrant labor and artists in the late 1800s• Dean Six estimates that over 450 glass manufacturers have been in business in WV11 April 2013 Session 2 25
  26. 26. Issac Duval Glass (possibly)11 April 2013 Session 2 26
  27. 27. • By 1930, over 15% of all glass produced in the US came from West Virginia• Michael Owens developed an economical glass blowing machine• Libby-Owens-Ford started making automobile glass in Charleston from 1917• William Blenko started WV operations in 1921 making European style art glass11 April 2013 Session 2 27
  28. 28. WV Glass Labor• Most glass workers were immigrants from Italy, Russia, Poland and Belgium• Glass unions formed to protect workers• Tariffs on glass protected domestic market share but slowed innovation11 April 2013 Session 2 28
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