SDS220R - Childhood Obesity


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SDS220R - Childhood Obesity

  1. 1. Childhood Obesity SDS 220R Group 4
  2. 2. Agenda Throughout this presentation, you will be exposed to the following information: ∗Definition of Childhood Obesity ∗Physiological Causes of Childhood Obesity ∗Children at Risk ∗Effects of Childhood Obesity ∗Who’s accountable? ∗Prevention of Childhood Obesity
  3. 3. What is obesity? “Obesity is a chronic, metabolic disease caused by multiple and complex factors, including increased calorie intake, decreased physical activity and genetic influences.” (Public Health Committee., 2007).
  4. 4. World Health Organization The World Health Organization calls our society an “obesogenic” environment. ∗Abundant, cheap processed food. ∗Increasingly stressed for time. ∗Food and lifestyle marketing. ∗Communities designed for cars. ∗Sitting at desks, in cars, and staring at screens all day long. (World Health Organization., 2014).
  5. 5. What is childhood obesity? ∗ “Childhood obesity is a medical condition that affects children and teenagers. Everyone has a body shape that is just right for them but sometimes we can store excessive body fat. If a child or adult stores too much fat they can be classified as obese. A sign of childhood obesity is a weight well above the average for a child's height and age.” (Childhood Obesity Foundation. n.d.).
  6. 6. Did You Know? In 1980, about 50 percent of high school seniors reported eating green vegetables “nearly every day or more.” By 2003, that figure had dropped to about 30 percent. (Childhood Obesity Foundation. n.d).
  7. 7. Past Concerns ∗ Physical education classes and extracurricular sports in schools have decreased. Portion sizes in fast food restaurants have more than doubled; with many outlets offering the larger portions with minimal consumer cost ∗ Aggressive marketing of fast foods, junk foods and video games geared towards children-in fact studies have found that children’s food preferences are greatly influenced by commercials lasting as little as 30 seconds (Purcell, M., 2010)
  8. 8. Past Concerns ∗ Most children are driven to school or take a bus. ∗ Most children use escalators or elevators rather than stairs. ∗ Many children stay indoors right after school due to having both parents working. ∗ Television viewing by children has increased significantly. ∗ The introduction of video games and computers has diverted children from playing sports or physical games with other children. (Miller, Rosenbloom & Silverstein, 2004).
  9. 9. Physiological Causes of Childhood Obesity ∗ Similarly to adult obesity, an increase in energy intake and decrease in physical activity are the primary environmental influences. ∗ In an average physical activity, whether it be bicycling, walking, or dancing for 45 minutes a child can burn 90 to 180 calories. ∗ This is problematic considering that with today’s emphasis on fast food and consumerism run fast food industry – an average McDonald’s meal runs approximately 600 calories. (Deckelbaum, R. J. & Williams, C.L., 2001).
  10. 10. Did You Know? 92% of elementary schools do not provide daily physical education classes for all students throughout the entire school year. (Childhood Obesity Foundation, n.d.).
  11. 11. Which children are at risk? Children at risk of becoming overweight or obese include children who: ∗consume food and drinks that are high in sugar and fat on a regular basis such as fast food, candy, baked goods, and ESPECIALLY pop and other sugar-sweetened beverages. ∗are not physically active each day. ∗watch a lot of TV and play a lot of video games, activities that don't burn calories. ∗live in an environment where healthy eating and physical activity are not encouraged. ∗eat to help deal with stress or problems. ∗come from a family of overweight people where genetics may be a factor, especially if healthy eating and physical activity are not a priority in the family. ∗come from a low-income family who do not have the resources or time to make healthy eating and active living a priority. (Nutrition Journal, 2005.).
  12. 12. Facts About Childhood Obesity in Today’s Society ∗ Almost one in three Canadian children – 31.5 percent -- is now overweight or obese, up from 14 to 18 percent in the early 1980s. ∗ Three-quarters of overweight kids will remain so in adulthood, with health effects ranging from diabetes to certain types of cancer to heart disease – costing Ontario taxpayers $2.2 to $2.5 billion annually. ∗ Researchers in the U.S. recently predicted that obesity could cut short a person’s life by two to five years – meaning that today’s children may be the first in the history of North America to live shorter lives than their parents. (OMA Journal, 2012).
  13. 13. Factors on Childhood Obesity ∗ Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. ∗ In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. ∗ On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. (Nicklas T.A., et al, 2005.).
  14. 14. Did You Know? Between 1977-78 and 2000-01, milk consumption decreased by 39% in children ages 6-11. Consumption of fruit juice rose 54%, fruit drink consumption rose 69% and consumption of carbonated soda rose 137%. (Childhood Obesity Foundation, n.d.).
  15. 15. Psycho-Social Effects of Childhood Obesity Besides the obvious health-related concerns there are other psycho-social concerns attributed to childhood obesity: ∗Children who are considered obese are at an augmented risk for emotional problems that last well into adulthood. Obesity and the mental disorders they contribute to should be considered as serious as other medical illnesses. ∗Obese children between the ages of 10 and 13 have an 80 percent chance of being obese adults. The current childhood obesity issues may cause an increase in the prevalence of not only chronic diseases, but also of poor mental health (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011).
  16. 16. Psychological Effects of Childhood Obesity ∗ Obese children often feel isolated and lonely. ∗ Children who experience psychological abuse from their peers may develop extremely low self-esteem, which may lead to depression. ∗ Obese children may be alienated and fail to develop essential life and social skills which can affect their adulthood. ∗ Children’s confidence is significantly shaped around self-image and the perception of peers. The way an insecure child feels can be entirely determined by the way their peers view them. (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011).
  17. 17. To the right is an image showing how childhood obesity can affect a child’s body.
  18. 18. Obese Child, Obese Adult? ∗ Obesity in childhood leads to obesity in adulthood. ∗ Overweight or obese children are more likely to remain obese as adolescents and become overweight or obese adults. ∗ Adolescence appears to be a sensitive period for the development of obesity – about 80% of obese adolescents will become obese adults. ∗ Studies suggest that being obese as a child or adolescent increases the risk of a range of diseases and disorders in adulthood, regardless of whether the adult is obese or not. (Dietz W.H., et al, 2005).
  19. 19. Who’s Accountable? The Parents? “In contrast to other threats to children's health, the prevention and/or treatment of childhood obesity are considered the responsibility of individual children and their parents. This pressure exists in the context of the societal stigmatization of overweight children and the powerful environmental stimuli aimed directly at youth to eat nutritionally poor foods. Parents of overweight children are left in the difficult position of fearing the social and health consequences to their child's obesity, and fighting a losing battle against the presence of the media and constant exposure to unhealthy foods.” (Nicklas T.A., et al, 2005.).
  20. 20. Who’s Accountable? Society? ∗ School age children today are living in a technological world, greatly affecting the rise of childhood obesity. Their access to TV, video games, and social media is increasing, therefore decreasing their time for physical activity. ∗ Fast food, sodas, vending machines, and processed foods are easy ways for children to make choices about their food without the guidance of a parent. ∗ Portion control and calories are not being monitored when these types of foods are being chosen over healthy alternatives. ∗ Meanwhile, parents attribute the rise in childhood obesity to a lack of control over their children’s food choices, peer pressure, heredity, poor habits and portion control, and low socioeconomic status. (Nauta, Byrne, & Wesley, 2009). (MMWR, 1996). (Murphy and Polivka, 2007).
  21. 21. Did You Know? Six out of 10 children ages 9-13 don’t participate in any kind of organized sports/physical activity program outside of school, and children whose parents have lower incomes and education levels are even less likely to participate. Nearly 23 percent don’t engage in any free-time physical activity. (Childhood Obesity Foundation, n.d.).
  22. 22. What is Canada Doing to Help Parents Afford Activity Programs? ∗ Effective January 1, 2007 the Canadian government introduced a non-refundable tax credit of up to 500.00 to be awarded to parents for each child under the age of 16 years in qualifying sports programs or activities. ∗ The tax credit, called the “fitness tax credit” will cover fees incurred for children’s camps, fitness club memberships, organized sports teams such as hockey, soccer, baseball and basketball, skating, dancing and gymnastics lessons and also fees incurred for extracurricular school sports. ∗ To be eligible, the program must last for at least eight weeks with a minimum of one session per week. (Canada Revenue Agency, 2013)
  23. 23. Prevention Strategies ∗ Parents should be made aware that obesity is a health problem as they are the first step in promoting a healthy lifestyle and a healthy body weight among school-aged children. ∗ Although there is no direct evidence that raising the parents’ awareness of children’s weight problems would prevent overweight and obesity in children, there is evidence that parents’ mindfulness and monitoring can prevent risky behaviour among children and adolescents. ∗ One strategy to prevent adult obesity is to focus more attention on the development of obesity in children. As early as 1985 scholars recognized "it is not advantageous to wait until an obese child becomes an adult and then attempt to achieve ideal weight" (Katzmaryzk P.T., Tremblay M.S., & Willms J.D., 1996)
  24. 24. What Stage Should Prevention Begin At? ∗ Prenatal: supply good prenatal nutrition and health care, avoid excessive maternal weight increase, control diabetes, help mothers lose weight postpartum, and offer nutrition education. ∗ Infancy: encourage increased breast-feeding and continuous breastfeeding to 6 months of age, delay introduction of solid foods until after 6 months of age, provide a balanced diet and avoid excess high calorie snacks, and follow weight increase closely. (Deckelbaum, R.J., & Williams, C.L. 2001).
  25. 25. What Stage Should Prevention Begin At? ∗ Preschool: provide early experiences with foods and flavors, help develop healthy food preferences, encourage appropriate parental feeding practices, monitor rate of weight increases to prevent early adiposity rebound, and provide child and parent nutrition education. ∗ Childhood: monitor weight increase for height (slow down if excessive), avoid excessive prepubertal adiposity, supply nutrition education, and encourage daily physical activity. ∗ Adolescence: prevent excess weight increase after growth spurt, maintain healthy nutrition as the next generation of parents, and continue daily physical activity. (Deckelbaum, R.J., & Williams, C.L. 2001).
  26. 26. Discussion Questions ∗ What are some things that the government can do in order to reduce childhood obesity rates? Which level of government should be more actively involved? ∗ In what ways can institutions help address the growing obesity problem in children? ∗ How does childhood obesity affect children psychologically? ∗ Does the lack of physical education classes in many public schools contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic? ∗ How can we, as a society, make a difference in the obesity epidemic?
  27. 27. Works Cited American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (March 2011). Obesity in children. Retrieved from Teens_79.aspx. Canada Revenue Agency. (2013). Children’s fitness tax credit. Retrieved from Childhood Obesity Foundation. (n.d.). Statistics. Retrieved from Childhood Obesity Foundation. (n.d.). What is childhood obesity?. Retrieved from Deckelbaum, R. J. and Williams, C. L. (2001), Childhood Obesity: The Health Issue. Obesity Research. 9: 239S–243S. doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.125. Dietz, W.H., Pepe, M.S., Seidel, K.D., Whitaker, R.C., & Wright, J.A. (1997). Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. New England Journal of Medicine. 337:869-873.  Nicklas, T.A.(2005). Patterns, Dietary Quality and Obesity. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2001, 20:599-608.  Ontario Medical Association Journal. (2012). Action to combat obesity epidemic. Retrieved from Public Health Committee. (2007). American medical association: Resources. Retrieved from World Health Organization. (2014). Controlling the global obesity epidemic. Retrieved from