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Chapter 5

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Chapter 5

  1. 1. 5Fire Fighter Safety
  2. 2. 5 Learning Objectives (1 of 13)• Identify and analyze the major causes involved in on-duty fire fighter fatalities related to health, wellness, fitness, and vehicle operations.• Analyze the trend in the number of fire fighter on-duty deaths over a 30-year period.• Define frequency and severity as they relate to fire fighter injuries.
  3. 3. 5 Learning Objectives (2 of 13)• Enumerate fire-ground safety issues addressed in NFPA 1500.• Compare and contrast fire trends and fire fighter on duty deaths.• Describe the relative risk to fire fighters combating fires in different occupancy types.
  4. 4. 5 Learning Objectives (3 of 13)• Analyze the trend in number of fire fighter injuries.• Discuss risk management principles applied to the fire ground.• Discuss and give an example of an imminent life-threatening situation.
  5. 5. 5 Learning Objectives (4 of 13)• Use a probability analysis to assess the occupied status of a building based on time and occupancy.• Estimate the collapse time based on burn time, fire intensity, content load, and construction type.
  6. 6. 5 Learning Objectives (5 of 13)• Examine the difference between a managed retreat and an evacuation due to an imminent hazard.• Evaluate the difference between lightweight and heavy structural components.• Discuss and contrast pre-fire and fire conditions that contribute to structural collapse.• Examine hazards presented by suspended ceilings.
  7. 7. 5 Learning Objectives (6 of 13)• Compare construction methods in terms of structural stability, fire extension, and fuel contribution.• Review the basics of building construction and how they relate to pre- fire planning.• Estimate the collapse zone for a building in imminent danger of collapse.
  8. 8. 5 Learning Objectives (7 of 13)• Describe exclusion zones other than collapse zones.• Develop zones and perimeters around a structure fire.• Define and explain the five time segments from ignition to effective action.• Evaluate the survivability, structural stability, and flashover from ignition to effective action.
  9. 9. 5 Learning Objectives (8 of 13)• Evaluate set-up time in regard to staffing on the first-arriving engine company.• Compute the staffing necessary to achieve the tasks enumerated in NFPA 1710.• Define and compare flashover and backdraft.• Explain the relationship between NIMS and a fire fighter accountability system.
  10. 10. 5 Learning Objectives (9 of 13)• List situations when a personal accountability report (PAR) should be initiated.• Explain the importance of alternative egress for fire fighters conducting an offensive attack.• Define rapid intervention crew (RIC).• Explain the role of the RIC.• Explain the importance of having a RIC immediately available from initial attack and throughout the operation.
  11. 11. 5 Learning Objectives (10 of 13)• Determine the number of personnel to be assigned to the RIC based on the size and complexity of the building and incident.• Describe safe interior operations.• Construct an emergency message for a disoriented fire fighter needing assistance.
  12. 12. 5 Learning Objectives (11 of 13)• Explain measures that can be taken to improve the chances of survival when fire fighters are lost and out of air in a large building.• Describe methods used to supply air to a trapped fire fighter who has exhausted his or her air supply.• List tools that should be available to a RIC.
  13. 13. 5 Learning Objectives (12 of 13)• Compare the advantages and disadvantages of a mobile RIC versus a stationary RIC.• Recognize hazards in operating opposing fire lines.• Evaluate hazards to fire fighters during overhaul operations.• Define immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) atmospheres and the relationship to SCBA usage.
  14. 14. 5 Learning Objectives (13 of 13)• List factors the IC should consider when formulating an incident action plan to be used during overhaul.• Describe informal rehabilitation at the fire scene.• Describe hot weather rehabilitation• Describe cold weather rehabilitation.• List the signs of critical incident stress.
  15. 15. 5 Overview• Fire departments – Dedicated to saving lives and property – Saving lives is the highest priority.• Safety closely related to risk-versus- benefit analysis.
  16. 16. 5 Fire Fighter Injuries and Fatalities• Identifying/analyzing data – Critically important to reducing fire fighter injuries and deaths – The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has compiled fire fighter fatality statistics for 30 years—downward trend
  17. 17. 5 Fire Investigative Reports• National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)• National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)• U.S. Fire Administration (USFA)
  18. 18. 5 NFPA 1500 (1 of 5)• Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program• Can substantially reduce injury frequency and severity – Minimum safety measures – ICs and safety officers must be familiar with this standard.
  19. 19. 5 NFPA 1500 (2 of 5)• Important fire-ground safety issues: – Risk management principles – IC responsible for overall safety – Incident management system must be used at all scenes – IC maintains command and control. • Common strategy • Based on situation analysis
  20. 20. 5 NFPA 1500 (3 of 5)• Important fire-ground safety issues (continued): – Situation analysis must be ongoing • Changes in strategy consistent with the changing situation – Pre-established SOPs must be implemented.
  21. 21. 5 NFPA 1500 (4 of 5)• Important fire-ground safety issues (continued): – Accountability system – Rapid Intervention Crews (RIC) – Inexperienced members must be directly supervised.
  22. 22. 5 NFPA 1500 (5 of 5)• Important fire-ground safety issues (continued): – Medical treatment and rehab must be available as needed. – PPE must be worn. – SCBA – PASS devices – CISD – Post-incident analysis
  23. 23. 5 Fire-Ground Safety• Improvements – Attention to safety – Safe operation attitude• Still experiencing a large number of on-duty deaths – Responding to fewer fires – Dying at nearly same rate
  24. 24. 5Fire-Ground Fatalities
  25. 25. 5 Increased Hazards (1 of 2)• Lightweight construction – Truss roofs
  26. 26. 5 Increased Hazards (2 of 2)• Heavy fuel loads – Large amounts of plastics• Very large buildings
  27. 27. 5 Occupancy• Plays a role in fire fighter safety• No routine fires• Most fatalities occur in residential fires.• Risk increases twofold in a manufacturing setting.
  28. 28. 5 Single-Family Mindset• Must be avoided• Escape routes are closer and easier to find.• SCBA depletion or failure
  29. 29. 5 On-Duty Deaths• Leading causes: – Sudden cardiac death • Preventable – Asphyxiation – Crushing injuries and burns
  30. 30. 5 Responsibility• Administration• Procedures – Training – Equipment• ICs have overall safety responsibility. – Must monitor, organize, coordinate, and provide adequate safety measures
  31. 31. 5 Personal Responsibility• Fire fighters must take personal responsibility through: – Following procedures – Maintaining firefighting skills – Proper use of equipment
  32. 32. 5 Risk Management• Most important element• NFPA 1500 – Risk management principles – Must be applied to every situation• IC weighs risk against possible benefits.
  33. 33. 5 Two-in, Two-out Rule• Exception: – Imminent life-threatening situation – Definition is not completely understood• IC expected to exercise judgment
  34. 34. 5 Probability• Important concept to risk management and size-up processes – People being in the building considered as a degree of probability – Determining factors: time of day, day of week, time of year• Primary search is the only sure way of knowing.
  35. 35. 5 Fire Intensity• Important in determining what there is to save.• Hazards increase as fire progresses towards flashover. – Building is getting weaker – Flashover is unpredictable.
  36. 36. 5 Flashover (1 of 2)• Time to flashover depends on: – Compartment size – Ventilation – Ignition source – Fuel supply – Fuel geometry
  37. 37. 5 Flashover (2 of 2)• Time to flashover depends on (continued): – Distance between fuel cells – Location of the fuel – Heat capacity of the fuel – Geometry of the enclosure
  38. 38. 5 Building Design Loads• Loads imposed on buildings: – Live loads – Dead loads – Seismic, wind, snow, and ice loads• Affect structural stability – High loads can result in premature collapse. – Loads placed on lightweight roof structures
  39. 39. 5 Fuel Load• Consists of fuels provided by: – Contents • Primary fuel load in structure fires – Combustible building materials • Wood frame construction
  40. 40. 5 Structural Stability (1 of 4)• IC/safety officer must watch for signs of structural failure• Should be considered in size up – Failure can occur at any time.• Must understand collapse dynamics
  41. 41. 5 Structural Stability (2 of 4)• IC must take into account when: – Deciding on strategy – Placing companies• Cannot be reliably predicted – No building is immune. – Some withstand a large fire without collapse. – Others experience early collapse.
  42. 42. 5 Structural Stability (3 of 4)• Stability affected by: – Fire intensity – Burn time – Content loads – Construction methods and materials
  43. 43. 5 Structural Stability (4 of 4)• 20-minute rule – Ordinary construction – Structural collapse anticipated: • Heavy volume of fire • Two or more floors • 20 minutes or longer
  44. 44. 5 Time and Intensity• Is it safe to enter? – IC should “start the clock.” – If fire is still not under control: • IAP should be reviewed. • Operation possibly changed to defensive
  45. 45. 5 Managed Retreat• When changing from offensive to defensive – Engine companies provide protection.• If collapse is imminent, the offensive operation should be abandoned immediately.• All units notified by: – Radio announcement – Pre-planned signal
  46. 46. 5 Construction Materials (1 of 2)• Wide variety in use – Behavior of buildings will vary significantly. – Lighter weight structural members • Provide same load-bearing capabilities • Truss construction takes the place of large wood beams or steel I-beams • Structurally sound under normal conditions
  47. 47. 5 Construction Materials (2 of 2)• Lightweight members are affected by fire sooner. – Trusses lose load-bearing capacity once they lose their triangular configuration. – Failure with little warning
  48. 48. 5 Structural Connections (1 of 2)• Play a critical role in a building fire – Gusset plates used in place of nails • Nails form a stronger connection. – Penetrate only a fraction of an inch – Form a large surface area to collect heat
  49. 49. 5 Structural Connections (2 of 2)• Wood truss loses its stability as: – Gusset plate teeth lose strength – Fire burns through the wood connecting surfaces
  50. 50. 5Gusset Plate Failure
  51. 51. 5 Fire Spread• Can occur through variety of openings – Horizontal: joist/truss spaces – Vertical: utility shafts• Renovations affect fire spread: openings in floors not always properly sealed
  52. 52. 5 Roof Operations• Conscious decision regarding roof safety – Lightweight truss roofs are dangerous.• Risk-versus-benefit decision – Must be made before placing fire fighters on or under roof
  53. 53. 5 Pre-Fire Conditions (1 of 5)• Factors for evaluating collapse potential of a building: – Weight – Renovations – Fuel loads – Deterioration – Damage – Support systems – Truss construction
  54. 54. 5 Pre-Fire Conditions (2 of 5)• Weight, live and dead loads including: – Air conditioning units – Tanks containing liquids – Large signs and marquees – False fronts (façades) – Cantilever appendages – Heavy machinery
  55. 55. 5 Pre-Fire Conditions (3 of 5)• Fuel loads – Type, location, and arrangement fuel loads• Damage structural support system – Previous fires, weather or collapse
  56. 56. 5 Pre-Fire Conditions (4 of 5)• Renovations – Older buildings• Deterioration – Buildings or areas in poor repair – Vacant buildings
  57. 57. 5 Pre-Fire Conditions (5 of 5)• Support systems – Long spans (churches, warehouses)• Truss construction – Identified through pre-planning
  58. 58. 5 Fire Conditions• Sometimes difficult to read• Failures occur without warning.• Must recognize signs of imminent collapse – Maintain span of control• Time and fire intensity are major factors.
  59. 59. 5Signs of Structural Collapse (1 of 2)• Bulging, cracked, or unsupported walls• Walls leaking water or smoke• Falling bricks• Floors holding large volumes of water or stock soaked with water
  60. 60. 5Signs of Structural Collapse (2 of 2)• Movement in floors or roof• Other signs of structural movement, including unusual noises• Vertical structural members that are out of plumb (columns, walls, etc.)
  61. 61. 5 Fire Extension• Some buildings limit fire spread better than others.• Concealed spaces – Fire can extend to remote locations • Results in a sudden increase in heat intensity • Can break out at multiple locations
  62. 62. 5 Concealed Spaces (1 of 2)• Fire fighters without a hose line are at high risk.• Fire extension can cut off primary means of egress.• Proper venting will direct fire.• Improper venting pulls fire.
  63. 63. 5 Concealed Spaces (2 of 2)• Fires in concealed ceiling areas can get behind fire fighters. – Hose streams can accelerate movement of fire.• Must be checked – Thermal imaging cameras – Opened up with tools
  64. 64. 5 Truss Assemblies• Floor assemblies – Used to reduce construction costs – Creates concealed space – Less fire-resistive than heavier, solid beam construction• Have played a major role in fire fighter fatalities
  65. 65. 5Truss Floor Assembly
  66. 66. 5 Non-Combustible Buildings• Mistaken for fire-resistive – Modern, big-box retail stores – May be masonry or metal on the exterior – Lightweight metal truss roof structure• Large open areas with long spans – Expect imminent roof collapse if fire enters spaces.
  67. 67. 5 Automatic Sprinkler Systems• Usually control fires – Consider code variances or “trade-ups” – If system is not controlling fire, consider hazards in entering large-span truss space with heavy fire load.
  68. 68. 5 Fire Zones and Perimeters• Establish collapse zone• Collapse indicated by: – Construction features – Fire factors• Cannot accurately predict: – Type of collapse – Collapse zone
  69. 69. 5 Exclusion Zones• Collapse zones = exclusion zones – No one permitted to enter – Can exist in buildings (suspect roof structures) – Other areas: • Falling glass • Flammable/combustible atmospheres
  70. 70. 5 Cold Zone• PPE is not required.• Location of command post – Staff and command functions• Includes rehab and medical areas
  71. 71. 5 Hot Zone• Safe only when wearing appropriate PPE• Established and enforced by IC and safety officer; everyone must abide by their decision.
  72. 72. 5 Warm Zone• Not always necessary during a structure fire• Established as an intermediate zone – Between hot and cold zones – When different levels of PPE are needed for various areas
  73. 73. 5 Accountability System• Must be established on the fire-ground: – Ensures everyone entering the area has a specific assignment • Eliminates freelancing – Tracks all personnel • Identifies the location of any missing personnel
  74. 74. 5Time, Fire Intensity, and Structural Stability
  75. 75. 5 Time: Ignition to Effective Actions• Goal: To arrive prior to flashover and intervene – Interrupts fire’s progression – Progression in small enclosures can be fast. • May occur prior to the arrival • Objective is to contain the fire
  76. 76. 5 Analyzing Time• It is necessary to consider the following five components: – Pre-burn time – Dispatch time – Turnout time – Response time – Set-up time
  77. 77. 5Detection/Transmission Time• Pre-burn time – Time from ignition until fire is reported • Will vary greatly • Is unknown until the alarm occurs – Dependent upon discovery and reporting • Unless equipped with a detection/alarm system – Can be estimated based on experience
  78. 78. 5 Dispatch Time• NFPA 1221: Installation, Maintenance, and Use of Emergency Services Communications Systems sets time goals for dispatch centers.• Includes time for the dispatcher to: – Take the call – Select units for the assignment – Dispatch companies
  79. 79. 5 Turnout Time• Time from alarm receipt until apparatus leaves station• Can differ greatly between fully staffed stations and on-call stations
  80. 80. 5 NFPA 1710• Standard for the Organization and Deployment of Fire Suppression Operations, Emergency Medical Operations, and Special Operations to the Public by Career Fire Departments defines turnout time• Time beginning when units acknowledge notification to beginning point of response time• Time objective = one minute
  81. 81. 5 NFPA 1720• Standard for the Organization and Deployment of Fire Suppression Operations, Emergency Medical Operations, and Special Operations to the Public by Volunteer Fire Departments does not address turnout time.
  82. 82. 5 Response Time• Dependant on road conditions, terrain, distance, traffic, and other factors• Averages can be established using computer models.
  83. 83. 5 NFPA 1710• NFPA 1710 establishes two response time goals: – Four minutes (240 seconds) or less for arrival of the first engine company – Eight minutes (480 seconds) or less for the deployment of a full first alarm assignment – No less than 90 percent within time goal
  84. 84. 5 Response Safety• Many fire fighters are killed or injured while responding to incidents. – Response/travel time improvements • Realized by reducing distance from fire station to response area • Not by increasing speed of apparatus or ignoring negative right-of-way situations
  85. 85. 5 Set-Up Time• Time necessary to position apparatus, advance hose line and apply water• Affected by staffing levels and training – Two-in/two-out rule changes setup time • Four people must be on the scene. • Two must be positioned outside the hazard area.
  86. 86. 5 NFPA 1410• Standard on Training for Initial Emergency Scene Operations sets training goals. – 3 to 6 minutes to establish water supply and discharge water – Improvement through training
  87. 87. 5 Initial Response Only• Times are valid for initial response only – Less dispatch time when units are on- scene, calling for help. – Reduce for subsequent calls by: • Placing units on alert status • Moving into vacated stations • Placing units in staging areas – Set-up time will change depending on task assignment
  88. 88. 5 Adequate Number of Personnel• Set-up time is related to staffing. – Initial attack should be delayed if: • Company staffing is less than four • Imminent life-threatening situation does not exist
  89. 89. 5 NFPA 1500• Stipulates a minimum of four fire fighters as an initial crew at a working structure fire – Unless imminent life-threatening situation exists – Three is acceptable in situations of imminent danger
  90. 90. 5 Fire-Ground Tasks (1 of 3)• Required to save lives and protect property• Additional attack lines• Attack line above the fire• Attack line to concealed spaces• Backup for the initial attack line
  91. 91. 5 Fire-Ground Tasks (2 of 3)• Exposure protection• Forcing entry• Laddering the building• Opening up concealed spaces• Salvage or property conservation
  92. 92. 5 Fire-Ground Tasks (3 of 3)• Search and rescue of area around the fire• Search and rescue of area above the fire• Search and rescue of other areas• Utility control• Ventilation
  93. 93. 5 NFPA 1710• Establishes minimum staffing levels – Tasks to be accomplished – Personnel needed – Minimum of 14 personnel • 15 if an aerial device is used
  94. 94. 5 Tactical Reserve• Planning is crucial.• Tactical efficiency can reduce number of people necessary.• Size of tactical reserve force depends on: – Stage and type of incident – Number of units working
  95. 95. 5 Elapsed Time and Flashover• Time is a critical factor.• Longer the fire burns: – Less chance for rescue – Greater chance of structural collapse – Post-flashover chance for survival = near zero – Risk to fire fighters increases
  96. 96. 5 Communications• Lifeblood of any command organization• Situation could be chaotic without communications. – Each crew should have a radio.
  97. 97. 5 Radio Discipline• Significant challenge• Imperative when everyone is assigned a radio – Proper use of the radio • Clear • Calm • Concise
  98. 98. 5 Progress Reports• Essential to the IC• Interior crews = eyes and ears of the IC• Provide information to everyone on fire- ground
  99. 99. 5 Emergency Operations• Mayday is used to indicate that a fire fighter is in trouble.• SOPs should define response to a Mayday – Critical functions will not be accomplished if all personnel begin focusing on the rescue operation.
  100. 100. 5 Mayday• IC must remain in total control.• Officers must remain within the ICS.• Specific assignments should be made for the rescue operation.
  101. 101. 5 Evacuation Signal• Should be established through SOPs – 10 three-second blasts of air horns – Emergency evacuation radio message
  102. 102. 5 Evacuation• “Drop everything and run” – Seldom warranted – Used during defensive operations• Offensive operations – Organized retreat is better alternative
  103. 103. 5 Command and Control• Common goal – Organized fashion – Safe and effective operation• Freelancing leads to injuries and fatalities.
  104. 104. 5 Accountability• A good organizational structure: – Accounts for all personnel at scene – Maintains reasonable span of control • Crew unity is essential.• Crew members should not be separated within the structure.
  105. 105. 5 Personnel Accountability Report (1 of 2)• Often referred to as a PAR.• SOPs call for PARs in the following situations when: – IC thinks it is necessary – Safety officer requests one – IC changes from an offensive to a defensive attack
  106. 106. 5 Personnel Accountability Report (2 of 2)• Sudden changes occur.• Entire building has been searched.• Fire is extinguished.• Called for at prescribed times – NFPA 1500: Every 10 minutes
  107. 107. 5 Accountability Procedures• More important as incident increases in size and complexity – Mutual aid resources – A regional approach is logical
  108. 108. 5 Accountability Officer• Should not be the safety officer – Safety officer is mobile. – Accountability officer is stationary.• The accountability officer is an informational resource for the safety officer, RIC, and IC.
  109. 109. 5 Safety Officer• Safety is everyone’s responsibility. – Whether or not a safety officer has been assigned• Safety officer monitors all areas.• SOPs outline when position is established – When IC can no longer effectively monitor safety at the scene
  110. 110. 5 Alternative Egress (1 of 2)• Interior stairs – Preferred means of access and egress• Fire escapes – Additional means – Provide access to upper floors
  111. 111. 5 Alternative Egress (2 of 2)• Proper laddering – Should be accomplished early in operation• Provides alternative means of egress• Addressed in SOPs• Location of ladders must be communicated to crews.
  112. 112. 5 Rapid Intervention Crews• Staffing is not sufficient until: – Safety and tactical positions are covered – Tactical reserve is available.• Critical need to provide rescuers for fire crews – RIC: no substitute for safe and effective operations
  113. 113. 5 Fire Fighter Rescue• IAP will reduce the need for emergency rescues. – Risk-versus-benefit analysis – Good tactics – Company-level attention to safety
  114. 114. 5 Safe Interior Operations (1 of 2)• Maintain crew integrity• Provide hose line protection• Provide means of communications• Maintain contact with the hose line
  115. 115. 5 Safe Interior Operations (2 of 2)• Maintain contact with a wall or rope• Indicate door leading to where fire fighters are working• Learn self-survival techniques
  116. 116. 5 RIC Officer• Determines need for special tools – Based on: • Construction type • Occupancy • Fire location • Other factors – Could be identified through pre-planning
  117. 117. 5 Common RIC Tools (1 of 2)• Rescue ropes, search ropes, guideline ropes• Thermal imaging camera• Patient carrier, webbing, or harness• Portable ladders for above- and below- grade rescues
  118. 118. 5 Common RIC Tools (2 of 2)• Forcible entry tools• Wire cutters and other hand tools• Lighting equipment
  119. 119. 5 RIC Operations• RIC should have access to pre-plans.• Critically important to train and practice – Preferably under live fire conditions
  120. 120. 5 Hose Lines• Avoid opposing hose lines.• Interior hose lines should attack from same point. – Communications between units is essential.
  121. 121. 5 Master Streams• Improperly operated on the exterior will push fire into the building, endangering anyone inside
  122. 122. 5 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)• Appropriate level established by IC and safety officer• Overhaul phase – Removing SCBA is questionable• Removing PPE inside fire building is unsafe
  123. 123. 5 Overhaul Safety (1 of 2)• Safety considerations: – Structural damage/stability – Smoke and airborne contaminants – Cutting hazards – Holes in floors
  124. 124. 5 Overhaul Safety (2 of 2)• Safety considerations (continued): – Damaged stairways – Utility hazards – Overhead hazards – Visibility
  125. 125. 5 Rehabilitation• NFPA 1584: Recommended Practice on the Rehabilitation of Members Operating at Incident Scene Operations and Training Exercises – Provides guidelines for hot and cold weather rehabilitation
  126. 126. 5 Three Phases• Pre-incident hydration and preparation• Incident rehabilitation• Post-incident recovery• Dependant on: – Weather conditions – Length of time on the scene – Activity level
  127. 127. 5 Informal Rehab• Takes place at the company apparatus – Should be in cold zone – Members can “dress down” while resting and rehydrating – Should not be placed near exhaust fumes
  128. 128. 5 Formal Rehab• Established area for rehab – Should provide shade and mechanical cooling or heating • Dependant on weather conditions – Water or sports drinks and healthy food should be available.
  129. 129. 5 Two-Cylinder Rule• Requires Rehab after a second, 30-minute SCBA cylinder• Rest period should be at least 20 minutes
  130. 130. 5 Critical Incident Stress• Stress management is related to rehab. – Best to take action at incident scene – Critical incidents • Fire in which fire fighters are seriously injured or killed • Fire in which children are seriously injured • Fire that results in one or more fatalities
  131. 131. 5 Signs of Critical Incident Stress• Shaking or trembling• Loss of muscular control• Blurred vision• Respiratory difficulties• Confusion and disorientation• Chills• Signs and symptoms of shock
  132. 132. 5 Proactive Measures• Schedule breaks – Designated rehab area• Rotate frontline personnel• Check personnel for signs and symptoms.
  133. 133. 5 Summary (1 of 2)• The primary rescue technique is extinguishing fire. – Heat, smoke, and toxic gases must be vented.• Structure becomes safer once fire is extinguished.
  134. 134. 5 Summary (2 of 2)• Measures to reduce fire fighter injuries and deaths: – Improved PPE – PASS devices – Rapid intervention crews – Accountability systems – NIMS – Rehab

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