4 Learning Objectives (1 of 7)• Compare the division-of-labor concept as used in industry to company-level deployment.• Describe structural firefighting functional assignments.
4 Learning Objectives (2 of 7)• Enumerate engine and ladder company fire-ground functions and tasks.• Analyze tactics for the first-arriving fire company in relation to life safety.
4 Learning Objectives (3 of 7)• Apply engine and ladder company tasks to coordinating and controlling company-level deployment.• Explain the importance of company unity to incident organization and accountability.
4 Learning Objectives (4 of 7)• List situations where splitting companies may be acceptable.• Evaluate the positive and negative aspects of pre-assigning tasks, tools, and fire-ground positions.
4 Learning Objectives (5 of 7)• Assess proper and improper ventilation methods in regard to achieving the operational priorities of life safety, extinguishment, and property conservation.• Given the fire and victim locations, determine the best vent location.
4 Learning Objectives (6 of 7)• Describe safe and efficient positioning of apparatus.• Apply engine and ladder company tasks at a structure fire.
4 Learning Objectives (7 of 7)• Analyze company operations at a structure fire scenario.• Develop an incident action plan utilizing engine and ladder company functional assignments.
4 Overview (2 of 2)• Primary responsibility is to work within the overall incident action plan. – Freelancing cannot be tolerated. – First-in units can go to work quickly using SOPs. • Allows IC time to evaluate options while maintaining control
4Division of Labor Principle (1 of 3)• Basis for the Industrial Revolution• Developing job skills in a concentrated area allows greater productivity.• “Jack of all trades, master of none”— overcome by developing a high level of expertise in a limited number of tasks
4Division of Labor Principle (2 of 3)• Stresses need for pre-assigning duties – Fire fighters should be cross-trained. – Ensures that everyone is familiar with what will be expected of them
4Division of Labor Principle (3 of 3)• Divides tasks into functional areas: – Command responsibilities – Engine company tasks – Truck company tasks – Emergency medical services (EMS) – Special operations – Support services
4 Engine Company Operations• Performing rescue operations• Establishing a water supply• Advancing and operating hose lines
4 Engine Company Tasks (1 of 4)• Usually first to arrive – First-in officer initiates the attack. – Provides a means of moving water from a water supply to the fire• Life safety is the first priority. – Victims and fire fighters
4 Engine Company Tasks (2 of 4)• Life safety objectives – Place attack lines in position – Provide safe evacuation routes• Conduct a cursory search – Occupants may only need direction and guidance.
4 Engine Company Tasks (3 of 4)• Position hose lines or remove occupants? – Difficult decision based on: • Immediate danger to the occupants • Available staffing and resources • Time before additional resources arrive • Extent of fire involvement • Equipment available to perform rescue
4 Engine Company Tasks (4 of 4)• Life safety is top priority.• IAP directs resources towards evacuation of endangered occupants.
4 Truck Company Operations• Conduct primary search• Rescue trapped victims• Ventilate• Force entry• Ladder the building• Check for fire extension• Access concealed spaces
4 Truck Company Tasks (1 of 3)• “Ladder company” = “truck company”• Aerial device not necessary at every fire or in every department – Still necessary to have truck company functions assigned
4 Truck Company Tasks (2 of 3)• Responsible for a wide variety of tasks – Staffing is crucial.• Activities are limited during defensive attacks. – Elevated master streams
4 Truck Company Tasks (3 of 3)• Low-staffing situations – May need to assist engine company • Not the most effective use of personnel
4 Rescue• Indirect activity for engine companies – Hose lines between victims and the fire• Direct activity for truck companies – Ventilate – Primary search, remove victims – Ladder building
4 Control and Coordination (1 of 3)• IC coordinates all activities.• Truck companies work in areas above the fire.• Engine company works at controlling the fire.
4 Control and Coordination (2 of 3)• If the fire is not controlled, truck companies need to be notified to evacuate. – Retreat protected by engine company
4 Safety and Control• Operating units must work as groups. – First-in truck company is exception to the rule • Permissible to split into separate crews
4 Company Unity (1 of 2)• It is not freelancing when a crew is split into separate teams. – Each crew should have a team leader.• Other exceptions – Inside/outside crew – Must comply with two-in/two-out rules
4 Company Unity (2 of 2)• Operator may remain at apparatus.• Company should remain together whenever possible.• Company unity facilitates accountability. – Officer can verify safety of crew.
4 Quint/Quad Companies• Multi-function apparatus – Engine and truck company operations – Staffing may or may not be sufficient. • Dictates tasks able to be performed• Activities covered by SOPs
4 Ventilation (1 of 3)• One of the IC’s most important tactical considerations – Given a high priority• Can have a positive effect on all three fire-ground priorities
4 Ventilation (2 of 3)• Can adversely affect all three priorities – Fire stream placed into a vent opening – Venting in the wrong location• If inadequate, an offensive attack rarely will be successful.
4 Aerial Apparatus• Aerial device use – Obtain a safe operating angle• Aerial device not being used – Parked out of way but close to entry point • Access to tools, ladders, and other equipment
4Common Positioning Errors (1 of 3)• Aerials placed under wires• Unsafe and unstable positions• Not allowing enough room to extend the outriggers• Apparatus/staff cars blocking access to the fire area or front of the building
4Common Positioning Errors (2 of 3)• Pumpers placed where pre-connected attack lines are difficult to lay• Blocking streets or fire hydrants – Large-diameter hose
4Common Positioning Errors (3 of 3)• Not securing essential attack positions• Positioning where they cannot be quickly repositioned – Dead ends• Responding through the fire area – Causes unnecessary congestion
4 Summary (1 of 3)• The IC improves efficiency by coordinating activities – Division-of-labor concept• Engine company – Basic fire department unit – Primary duty is to apply water
4 Summary (2 of 3)• Engine company tasks – Obtaining a water source – Setting up and engaging pumps – Advancing hose lines into structure – Fulfills life safety priority by extinguishing fire • Building becomes much safer. • Checks areas for victims
4 Summary (3 of 3)• Truck company responsibilities – Gaining entry – Laddering building – Controlling fire spread – Evacuating occupants – Conducting primary and secondary searches