10 Learning Objectives (1 of 7)• List the three tactical priorities, in priority order, and explain how property conservation can be accomplished simultaneously.• Define primary and secondary damage.
10 Learning Objectives (2 of 7)• To the untrained observer, ventilation and forcible entry may often appear to cause unnecessary property damage. Explain how proper ventilation and forcible entry actually reduce property damage while protecting occupants and fire fighters.
10 Learning Objectives (3 of 7)• Given a pressure and discharge orifice size, estimate the flow from a single and multiple sprinkler heads.• List and explain six tactics used to reduce water damage.• Explain why removing property from a building is not generally a good property conservation tactic.
10 Learning Objectives (4 of 7)• Calculate the weight of water from a nozzle discharging 350 GPM (22 L/sec) over a 10-minute period.• Describe the importance of ventilation in property conservation.• Discuss the importance of overhaul.
10 Learning Objectives (5 of 7)• Explain how thermal imaging cameras can be used to reduce overhaul damage and the precautions necessary when using thermal imaging cameras to find hidden fires.• Enumerate safety issues related to overhaul and fire investigation.
10 Learning Objectives (6 of 7)• Calculate rate of flow for a given area, and relate the rate of flow to property conservation issues.• Develop a fire scenario and apply property conservation tactics for a fire controlled by the sprinkler system or an accidental discharge from the sprinkler system.
10 Learning Objectives (7 of 7)• Develop a fire scenario and apply property conservation tactics for a fire controlled by hose lines using V/100 to determine the rate of flow.
10 Overview (1 of 4)• Property conservation tactics can substantially reduce property loss.• Three tactical priorities: – Life safety – Extinguishment – Property conservation
10 Overview (2 of 4)• Extinguishment is often the best life safety and property conservation tactic.• IC should simultaneously attend to all three operational priorities during offensive operations.• Unfair criticism often results from forcible entry, ventilation, and overhaul operations.
10 Overview (3 of 4)• Good conservation practices = good public relations• Overhaul process should be explained to owners and occupants.
10 Overview (4 of 4)• Commercial and industrial occupancies – Employees may be extremely helpful in locating valves, drains, and mechanical controls. – May have trained fire brigades
10 Property Conservation• Generally limited to offensive attacks• No longer an issue if fire crews have been withdrawn from the building due to: – Lack of resources – Deteriorating fire and building conditions• Fire fighters should never be placed at risk to save what is already lost or will be lost.
10 Estimating Indirect Damage• Primary damage – Caused by the products of combustion – Will consume more property if fire forces are reluctant to force entry or ventilate• Secondary damage – Result of fire-ground activities or a fire suppression system• IC must limit all types of property damage.
10 Fire Suppression Systems• Can cause secondary damage• Suppression efforts include: – Letting the system control the fire – Not shutting down the system prematurely• System shut down possible: – At the riser – By closing division valves – By using sprinkler stops
10 Sprinkler Head Flows• Size of the orifice opening• Type of sprinkler head• Water pressure in the system
10Evaluating Water Damage (1 of 2)• Larger-than-needed hose streams will result in less water damage. – Fire is extinguished quicker – Time water is flowing is reduced – Must be applied properly
10Evaluating Water Damage (2 of 2)• Too small of a hose line will result in both increased water and fire damage – Water flows for an extended period of time without effectively extinguishing the fire.
10 Reducing Water Damage (1 of 2)• Promptly extinguishing the fire and avoiding wash downs• Stopping the flow of water from sprinkler systems• Containing run-off
10 Reducing Water Damage (2 of 2)• Channeling the water into drains or chutes or otherwise directing it out of the building• Covering valuable property• Moving or removing valuable property
10 Evaluating Smoke Damage• Can cause considerable property damage – Smoke damage may exceed water damage.• Follows an upward path but can cause damage below the fire as well• Ventilation is an important property conservation tactic.
10 Evaluating Overhaul Needs (1 of 2)• Important tactical priority – Indicates completion of the extinguishment priority• Ensures that the fire is completely extinguished and the building is safe to re-enter
10 Evaluating Overhaul Needs (2 of 2)• Can result in what appears to be additional damage to the property – Damage is warranted to prevent further primary damage.
10 Overhaul Hazards• Fire scene discipline may deteriorate – Attitude that it is an undesirable chore• Toxic gas levels can be high. – Especially, carbon monoxide• Smoky, toxic, smoldering debris may contain asbestos or other materials.
10 Overhaul Safety• Must be accomplished in a well- planned, systematic manner• Full protective equipment required, including SCBA• Thermal imaging cameras can make overhaul more safe and efficient.• Air quality should be monitored and ventilation provided.
10 Fire Investigation• Improper overhaul can destroy a fire scene investigation.• Areas may have to be left undisturbed to facilitate an investigation.• Fire investigators can be invaluable resources to ICs.
10 Summary• Overall goal of firefighting is to save lives and protect property. – Fire extinguishment and property conservation are important steps towards this goal.• Overhaul must be accomplished in a well-planned, systematic manner.