A few disclaimers:- This is not a talk that Iremoved from my “shelf oftalks”;-This is not the definitive guideto 21st Century learning andteaching;- I am not an expert who willfill your “empty heads” withmy encyclopedic knowledge;- There are many, many waysto discuss this topic; mine isjust one way, my way...
English in Learning Teaching the 21st in the 21st in the 21st Century Century Century
More people use English today than have used any other language in the history of the world.(David Crystal, 1997)Crystal, D. (1997). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Kachru’s three circles (1986) Expanding circle Outer circle Inner circleKachru, B.B. (1986). The alchemy of English: The spread, functions and models of non-native English.Oxford: Pergamon.
McKay, S. (2002). Teaching English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress.
Linguistic and cultural formsexpressed through ELF arelikely to be hybrid, dynamicand continuously adapting tolocal needs, global influences,and the demands ofcommunicating acrosscultures.Baker, Will. The cultures of English as a lingua franca. TESOLQuarterly, 43 (4), December 2009 , 567-592(26).
– Can non-native varieties by accepted as “standard”? – How much grammatical variation is possible? – Can non-native but intelligible pronunciation be accepted as standard? – What about pragmatic and discourse variation? – Is a “common core” possible? – Has the pluricentricity of English been reflected in ELT materials and international tests? – Shouldn’t native speakers also learn how to use EIL?Clyne and Sharifian (2008). English as an Internatinal Language:Challenges and Possibilities. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics.28.1-28.16. DOI: 10.2104/aral/0828.
Of course, in one sense the problem goes away if you re-construe the goals of instruction as being those that are defined by the learner and driven by the learner’s needs, rather than being predetermined by the curriculum designer or the coursebook writer. If you take an ESP approach, for example, and, start off by identifying the kinds of contexts the learner is going to operate in, with whom and for what purposes, using what kinds of texts and registers, at what degree of intelligibility, in combination with what other languages, and employing what kinds of skills and strategies, you don’t have to label the goals as EFL, ESL, ESP, ELF or EIL – or anything! Leave the labelling to the sociolinguists.Thornbury, Scott (2011). E is for ELF. An A-Z of ELT. Web. April 3, 2011.
ELF as a Function Every classroom activity, every material already has the potential to become part of an ELF pedagogy. What teachers need to do is look at those elements critically, asking important questions such as, “What variation might there be to this form/utterance/interaction/habit?” “How can I better present such variation to my students?” “If we change the context of this particular interaction, what else will need to change?” “Who are the participants in this interaction? What do we know about them? How does this kind of information help us make decisions about what and how to say what we have to say?” “How do I as a teacher and person respond to difference and variation? How do my views of the above impact my teaching?” “What is the context in which my students are likely to use language? Can I emphasize those while also introducing other scenarios/varieties of language/vocabulary items/cultural orientations?”Friedrich, 2011 - http://nnest.blog.com/author/isabela.villasboas/
Studentsnowadays donot need towait for acurriculum toteach themwhat they wantto learn.
NO! They need teachers to teach them the contentand skills they will need in the future! - problem-solving - critical thinking - working collaboratively - thinking creatively
Human society has experienced three profound social, economic, and cultural transformations— the agrarian revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and now the electronic revolution.Cookson Jr., Peter W. What would Socrates Say?Educational Leadership, 67 (1), pp 8-14.
We need to be on the right Technology side of history if we are to solves all the survive and thrive. If we problems harness them correctly, we can blend the best of our traditional intellectual linear culture—Socrates wisdom of the 5th century BCE— with the current digital culture, creating a newTechnology makespeople dumber learning and intellectual environment consistent with the cognitive and Peter W. expressive demands of the Cookson Jr. 21st century.
We must overhaul and redesign the current school system.(…) Mass education belongs in the era of massive armies,massive industrial complexes, and massive attempts at socialcontrol. (…)If we stop thinking of schools as buildings and start thinkingof learning as occurring in many different places, we will freeourselves from the conventional education model that stilldominates our thinking.
Technical fixes to our outdated educational system arelikely to be inadequate. We need to adapt to a rapidlychanging world.The 21st century mind will need to successfullymanage the complexity and diversity of our world bybecoming more fluid, more flexible, more focused onreality, and radically more innovative. Four elements ofthe 21st century mind could be the basis of a newapproach to education. - Critical reflection - Empirical reasoning - Collective intelligence - Metacognition
Five minds for the future: -Disciplined -Synthesizing - Creative - Respectful - Ethicalhttp://www.uknow.gse.harvard.edu/teaching/TC106-607.html
• The two brains work together. • Learning is the formation of new synapses and new dendrite branches. • Learning is effortful; we have to strengthen the neural network for retention. • 83% of sensory communication is seen, not heard • Learning another language gives you a better brain.Janet Zadina, 2011. • The brain does not separate emotion from cognition.
Anticipates the future• Ensures that the preparation of today’s children is always focused on preparing them for the world(s) in which they will live and work— not the current world in which the teachers have to navigate and dwell
• Fosters peer relationships:- Students may have 500 Facebook friends, but do they know how to be a friend?- Technology can foster isolation; therefore interpersonal relationship skills must be taught in our classrooms so that our students can go on to be effective in the workplace and fulfilled in their lives
• Can teach and assess all levels of learners: – 21st-century educators must be ‘Situational Leaders.’ They must assess where each and every student they teach is at relative to ‘Learning Ability’ and ‘Commitment to Learning.’ They must work to bring all students up to a level where pedagogical learning is replaced by andragogy or an adult learning style, where students have a say in their own learning.
• Is able to assess effective vs. non-effective technology: – The effective 21st-century teacher will need to be adept in judging the educative and non-educative use of technologies made available to them and to their students at school and at home. The potential downside of technologies is their potential for non-productive use— wasting time and resources. The upside though, is significant if used properly.”
What Tech Tools Should Be Required Knowledge for Teachers? By Mary Beth Hertz 8/3/11http://www.edutopia.org/blog/technology-skills-required-knowledge-mary-beth-hertz
It’s not about the tools. Tools come and go, but beingable to see the forest for the trees is a life-long skill.
There are a few essential things that teachers should know:• compose and check email and know how to attach files to anemail• know that there are more choices than Google for searching theInternet• be able to locate resources on the Internet and be able toevaluate sites for accuracy and relevance• know how to navigate, find, save and open files and applicationson a computer of any OS.
if you want to be part of an extended learning network or community, you have to be findable. And you have to participate in some way. The people I learn from on a day-to-day basis are Googleable. They’re findable, they have a presence, they’re participating, they’re transparent. That’s what makes them a part of my learning network. If you’re not out there—if you’re not transparent or findable in that way—I can’t learn with you. (Richardson, 2010)http://www.edweek.org/tsb/articles/2010/10/12/01richardson.h04.html?intc=bs&sms_ss=delicious&at_xt=4cb70612312f6b0e,0
• Is a lifelong learner: – Flexible, willing to accept and embrace change, willing to make mistakes; – Willing to learn from colleagues and students; – Able to pose open-ended questions to students without having to know one exact answer;
• Is a lifelong learner: (my additions) – Curious about subject-matter – in our case, English; – Interested in students’world: what they listen to, watch, wear, talk about, use, etc; – Connected; – Engaged in various types of professional development opportunities; – Able to reflect on how he/she teaches.
“It’s not the doing thatmatters; it’s thethinking about the doing.”