Energy definition:Energy is the capacity of an object to do a work It is measured in: calories (cal) , joules (J) 1 cal = 4.18 J 1000 J = 1kJ
Types of energy1. Mechanical energy2. Electrical energy3. Electromagnetic energy4. Sound energy5. Chemical energy6. Nuclear energy7. Thermal or calorific energy
Mechanical energy:It is formed by:Kinetic energy: Is the energy that object have when they are in movement.Potential energy: Is the energy that
Electrical energy: Is the energy that is associated with electriccurrent. It makes ectrically powered machines work when the are connected to a supply of electricity.
Electromagnetic energy:Is the energy transported by electromagneticwaves. Luminous is a type of electromagnetic energy generat
Sound energy:Is the energy associated with sound waves , transmitted through vibrations.
Chemical energy:Is the energy stored in subtances during chemical processes. It can be released or absorbed.
Nuclear energy:It is the type of energy that is contained in nuclei atoms. It is released during nuclear reactions.
Thermal energy:Thermal or calorific energy is the energy that comes from the vibrations of particles.
Energy sources:Are natural resources that provide different forms of energy. This energy is tranformed for especific uses. There are two types of energy sources: -Renewable energy sources -Non renewable energy sources
Renewable energy sourcesRenewable enery sources comes from natural resources that are unlimited.
Hydraulic energy: Is the mechanical energy produce by the movement of water. We need to build dams tostore river water. Its have many advantages: its clean, cheap and non-polluting. But is so expensive and can also destroy lanscape.
Solar energy: Isthe energy produced by thermonuclear radiation from inside the sun.Solar energy is clean, unlimited and big power stations are not needed. But solar panels are expensive and sunlight depends on the season,climate and latitude.
Wind energy: Its produced by the effect of radiation on the atmosphere.Its unlimited, non-polluting and the cost of wind farm is low.But many regions havent got much wind, and wind turbines produce noise pollution.
Marine energy:There are several means for generating energy from the sea:-Tidal energy is the energy extracted form the tides.-Wave energy is the energy produce by the movement of sea waves.-Ocean thermal energy is the energy produce from the difference in temperatures between the surface os the sea and the deep sea.
Non-renewable energy sourcesNon-renewable energy sources come from natural resources that are limited.Some types of non-renewable energy causes enviromental problems.For example:Increased greenhouse effect, acid rain, oil spills, nuclear waste, rrising water temperature and atmospheric pollution.
Nuclear energy:This is the energy estored in the nuclei of atoms.There are two types:-Nuclear fusion.-Nuclear fission.
Coal:Coal was formed from the remains of plants that were buried and transformed in the absence of oxygen.Two methods for extracting coal:-Open coast mines.-Undergroud mines.
Petroleum:Its formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that have descomposed because of bacterial action.The extraction is difficult because its usually underground.The extraction is difficult because its usually underground.It can be storage and transport by two ways:Oil tankers or oil pipelines.
Natural gas:Its a mixture of gases formed from descomposed plants and animals.Natural gas is extracting by drilling.Its used in industry and in homes to produce thermal energy, and in thermal power stations to obtain electrical energy.
Enviromental impacts:Most of the energy consumed in industrialised countries comes from non-renewable energy sources.This causes enviromental problems such as:-Increased greenhouse effect:The increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere traps the sun’s rays so the temperature of the earth encreased.
-Acid rain:The acid rain is caused by burning coal and petroleum, this produce sulphur and nitrogen oxide.-Oil spills:The oil spills is caused when petroleum is accidently released into the se or because of oil tankers accident.-Nuclear waste:Nuclear waste is the radioactivity produce by the nuclear power stations and is dangerous for living beings.
-Rising water temperature:Thermal power stations produce hot water and this affect to the water of the river and the sea.-Atmospheric pollution:This is produce by the particles in suspensio, heavy metals and gases pproduce from the road traffic and insutrial.
Energy power stations:The water is heated, and this produce vapor. The vapor move turbines that produce energy. They produce mechanical energy that is transform into energy.
Wind turbines:A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy. This process is known as wind power.However, a French engineering firm has discovered another way of using this turbines.They modified the traditional wind turbine to create the WMS1000. A new turbine that can manufacture drinking water from humid air. One turbine can produce 1000 litres everyday.Now, is very expensive but people think that in the future it will be cheaper