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M5 L13 grammar

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Japanese 1, Module 5 Lesson 13 Grammar Notes

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M5 L13 grammar

  1. 1. ぶんぽう: レッスン 13 Grammar: Lesson 13
  2. 2. Nihongo desu yo. にほんご ですよ。 IT’S JAPANESE, YOU KNOW.
  3. 3. にほんご ですよ。 It’s Japanese, you know. • よ is an emphasizer. Adding よ to the end of a sentence emphasizes what you are expressing in your sentence. • It does not have a direct translaAon, but could be translated as, “…you know.” • It’s also used when the speaker offers new informaAon to the listener. – For example: • どうようび は ひま ですよ。 • I am free on Saturday, you know. • えんぴつ が ありますよ。 • I have a pencil, you know.
  4. 4. Nan ji desu ka なん じ です か。 WHAT TIME IS IT?
  5. 5. なん じ です か。 What @me is it? • In Japanese, the word じ can mean either the hour (o’clock) or “Ame.” – なん じ です か。 – What Ame is it? – いま は なん じ です か。 – What Ame is it now? – いち じ です。 – It’s 1 o’clock. • Minute(s) are expressed with the word ぷん (pun) which can also be pronounced ふん (hun) depending on the preceding sound. – If the preceding sound is a vowel (a,e,i,o,u) “minutes” is pronounced ふん. – If the preceding sound is a consonant, it is pronouncedぷん. – You must memorize when either ふん or ぷん is used. Take a look at the table on the next slide.
  6. 6. To tell the Ame, you simply add the hour (じ) to the minutes (ふん or ぷん) like so: くじ じゅっぷん です。 It’s 9:10. Hour(s) Minute(s) 1:00 いちじ :01 いっぷん 2:00 にじ :02 に ふん 3:00 さんじ :03 さん ぷん 4:00* よじ :04* よん ぷん 5:00 ごじ :05 ご ふん 6:00 ろくじ :06 ろっぷん 7:00* しちじ :07* なな ふん 8:00 はちじ :08 はっぷん 9:00* くじ :09* きゅう ふん 10:00 じゅうじ :10 じゅっぷん 11:00 じゅう いち じ :11 じゅう いっぷん 12:00 じゅう に じ :12 じゅう に ふん *be aware that the pronunciaAons of 4,7, and 9 are different between hours and minutes.
  7. 7. なん じ です か。 What @me is it? • For making minutes beyond 12, take a look at these examples: – Thus, to say 45 minutes, you would say よん じゅう ごふん. – Thus, to say 30 minutes, you would say さん じゅっぷん. • 30 minutes, or half past, can also be expressed as はん (which literally means “half.”) – For example: » ごじ はん です。 » It’s 5:30. Or It’s half past 5:00. 45 minutes = よん じゅう 4 10 and ごふん 40 5 minutes 30 minutes = さん and じゅっぷん 3 10 minutes
  8. 8. ごぜん ・ ごご AM ・ PM Gozen ・ gogo
  9. 9. ごぜん ・ ごご AM ・ PM AM = ごぜん PM = ごご • In Japanese, the words to express AM and PM are placed before the Ame. – For example: • ごご いちじ です。 • It’s 1:00 PM. • ごぜん しちじ じゅう ごふん です。 • It’s 7:15 AM.
  10. 10. まえ ・ すぎ BEFORE ・ AFTER
  11. 11. まえ ・ すぎ Before ・ AOer past / aaer =すぎ to / before = まえ • In Japanese, the words to express past/aaer and to/before are placed aaer the Ame. – いちじ すぎ です。 – It’s aaer 1:00. – ごご はちじ まえ です。 – It’s before 8:00 PM. – じゅっぷん まえ です。 – It’s 10 minutes to.
  12. 12. • In lesson 7, you learned that the parAcle ごじ に AT 5:00 に can indicate locaAon and funcAon like the English “in,” “at,” or “on.” • In lesson 8, you learned that the parAcle に can be used to show direcAon and/or desAnaAon, and that に could be translated as “to.” • In Lesson 9, you learned that the parAcle に can be used to describe what you do “for” an occasion. In this lesson, we will learn one more funcAon of に. goji ni
  13. 13. ごじ に At 5:00 • The parAcle に is also used to denote a specific Ame. • Some examples of specific Ame would be: Friday, Sunday, 4:00 PM, 9 o’clock, etc. – For example: • ごじ に えいが に いきます。 • I will go to the movies at 5:00. • よじじゅうごふん に うち に かえります。 • I will return (to) home at 4:15. Note: When the specific Ame or general Ame (see the notes on general Ame adverbs in lessons 8 & 9) is the topic of a sentence, it will be followed by the topic marker は wa. – For parAcle example: • きょう は きんようび です。 • Today is Friday.
  14. 14. masenka / mashou / mashouka ませんか / ましょう / ましょうか WON’T YOU? / LET’S / SHALL WE?
  15. 15. クッキー を たべませんか。 Won’t you eat a cookie? • The verb ending ませんか is used to express “would you…(do something)?” or “won’t you…(do something)?” • You would use this and the following endings when you want to politely invite someone to do something. – For example: • おんがく を ききませんか。 • Would you listen to the music? • いきませんか。 • Won’t you go?
  16. 16. クッキー を たべましょう。 Let’s eat a cookie. • The verb ending ましょう is used to say “let’s (do something.)” – This form in par-cular is some-mes called the “voli-onal form.” • For example: – がっこう に いきましょう。 – Let’s go to school. – うち に かえりましょう。 – Let’s return (to) home.
  17. 17. クッキー を たべましょうか。 Shall we eat a cookie? • Add the ましょうか ending to a verb to say “shall we (do something)?” – For example: • テレビゲーム を しましょうか。 • Shall we play video games? • えいが に いきましょうか。 • Shall we go to the movies?
  18. 18. ませんか / ましょう / ましょうか Verb ます form ~ませんか ~ましょう ~ましょうか To go いきます いきませんか Would/won’t you go? いきましょう Let’s go いきましょうか Shall we go? To eat たべます たべませんか Would/won’t you eat? たべましょう Let’s eat たべましょうか Shall we eat? To drink のみます のみませんか Would/won’t you drink? のみましょう Let’s drink のみましょうか Shall we drink? To play/do します しませんか Would/won’t you do/play? しましょう  Let’s do/play. しましょうか Shall we play/do?
  19. 19. おわり This is the end of the Grammar Notes for this lesson. You can print these notes for your reference using the link above this slideshow.

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