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  1. 1. You are not a member of this wiki. Join now Dismissguest|Join|Help|Sign InActions Wiki Home Recent Changes Pages and Files Members Manage WikiNavigation Home About Me Readings ---- Blooms Digital Taxonomy Blooms - Remembering Blooms - Understanding Blooms - Applying Blooms - Analysing Blooms - Evaluating Blooms - Creating Starter Sheets Blooms Taxonomy and Digital Approaches Blooms and the Three Storey Intellect Blooms, Learning styles and Graphical Organisers Rubrics - Blooms Digital Taxonomy Blooms and Assessment Blooms Analysis Tools SOLO Taxonomy ---- Digital citizen Digital Citizen - AUA Digital Citizen Analysis Tool Digital citizenship and BYOD Compare 20th & 21st C education Welcome to the 21st Century 21st Century Teacher 21st Century Learning Space Facilitating 21st Century Learning 21st Century Assessment 21st Century Pedagogy
  2. 2. Neomillennial Learning styles Understanding Digital Children Conscious Competence Model Tech Audit Tool ---- Traditional practice and digital approaches Starter Sheets ICT and Learning Style Multiple Intelligences and ICT ICT and the Visual Learner ICT and the Auditory Learner ICT and the Read/Write Learner ICT and the Kinesthetic Learner Learning Style scenarios Pedagogic Skills, IWBs and Technology ---- LOTI Ed = MC3 ---- The 3 is of internet safety Comic creation tools Web 2.0 tools Web 2.0 Office tools Web2.0 PD Resources Virtual Field trips Using Web 2.0 Wiki Mania Visible Thinking ----Become a committed sardine*
  3. 3. Blooms Digital Taxonomy Edit 4 0 60…Table of ContentsSynopsis:Key ResourcesBlooms Digital Taxonomy - Quick Sheets.Introduction and Background:Blooms Domains of learningThe Cognitive Domain - Blooms TaxonomyBlooms Revised TaxonomyBlooms Revised Taxonomy Sub CategoriesBlooms as a learning process.Is it important where you start? Must I start with remembering?Blooms Digital TaxonomyBlooms Digital Taxonomy Summary MapBlooms Digital Taxonomy and Collaboration.Resources:Web 2.0 TutorialsAcknowledgements:This is the introduction to Blooms Digital Taxonomy. The different taxonomical levels canbe viewed individually via the navigation bar or below this introduction as embedded pages.Synopsis:This is an update to Blooms Revised Taxonomy which attempts to account for the newbehaviours and actions emerging as technology advances and becomes more ubiquitous.Blooms Revised Taxonomy describes many traditional classroom practices, behaviours andactions, but does not account for the new processes and actions associated with Web 2.0technologies, infowhelm (the exponential growth in information), increasing ubiquitouspersonal technologies or cloud computing.Blooms Digital Taxonomy isnt about the tools or technologies rather it is about using theseto facilitate learning. Outcomes on rubrics are measured by competence of use and mostimportantly the quality of the process or product. For example. Bookmarking a resource isof no value if the resource is inappropriate, invalid, out of date or inaccurate.Blooms Digital Taxonomy lends itself to problem and project based learning where thestudent must work through the entire process of development and evaluation. The 21stCentury Fluency Projects 6D model for Solution Fluency is an excellent example of how towork through the project or problem based learning frame work.
  4. 4. Blooms Digital Taxonomy has been translated into Spanish by Claudia Uribe de Piedrahita,the Director of Eduteka and is available at Resourcesblooms Digital taxonomy v3.01.pdf Details Download 14 MBblooms elluminate.pdf Details Download 11 MBTaxonomiaBloomDigital.pdf Details Download 531 KBBlooms Digital Taxonomy - Quick Sheets.The Blooms Digital Taxonomy Quicksheets are resources I have created as a quick and easysummary of the six different taxonomic levels of Blooms Digital Taxonomy. They define thedifferent taxonomic levels, provide the Digital Taxonomy Verbs with some possibilities forclassroom use.
  5. 5. Blooms quicksheets.pdf Details Download 1 MBTable of ContentsSynopsis:Key ResourcesBlooms Digital Taxonomy - Quick Sheets.Introduction and Background:Blooms Domains of learningThe Cognitive Domain - Blooms TaxonomyBlooms Revised TaxonomyBlooms Revised Taxonomy Sub CategoriesBlooms as a learning process.Is it important where you start? Must I start with remembering?Blooms Digital TaxonomyBlooms Digital Taxonomy Summary MapBlooms Digital Taxonomy and Collaboration.Resources:Web 2.0 TutorialsAcknowledgements:Introduction and Background:Blooms Domains of learningIn the 1956, Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist working at the University ofChicago, developed his taxonomy of Educational Objectives. His taxonomy of learningobjectives has become a key tool in structuring and understanding the learning process.He proposed that learning fits into one of three psychological domains (see below illustration1): the Cognitive domain – processing information, knowledge and mental skills the Affective domain – attitudes and feelings the Psychomotor domain – manipulative, manual or physical skills
  6. 6. Blooms Domains of learning. Made with C-MapBlooms Domains of learning. Made with C-MapBenjamin Bloom is best know for, Blooms Taxonomy which examines looks at thecognitive domain. This domain categorizes and orders thinking skills and objectives. Histaxonomy follows the thinking process.The Cognitive Domain - Blooms TaxonomyThis categorized and ordered thinking skills and objectives. His taxonomy follows thethinking process. You can not understand a concept if you do not first remember it, similarlyyou can not apply knowledge and concepts if you do not understand them. It is a continuumfrom Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) to Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS). Bloomdescribe each category as a gerund. They are arranged below in increasing order, from lowerorder to higher order.Drawing 1. Blooms TaxonomyDrawing 1. Blooms TaxonomyBlooms Revised TaxonomyIn the 1990s, a former student of Bloom, Lorin Anderson and David Krathwohl, revisedBlooms Taxonomy and published this- Blooms Revised Taxonomy in 2001. Key to this isthe use of verbs rather than nouns for each of the categories and a rearrangement of thesequence within the taxonomy. They are arranged below in increasing order, from LowerOrder Thinking Skills (LOTS) to Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS).Drawing 2. Blooms Revised TaxonomyDrawing 2. Blooms Revised TaxonomyBlooms Revised Taxonomy Sub Categories
  7. 7. Each of the categories or taxonomic elements has a number of key verbs associated with itLower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) Remembering - Recognising, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding Understanding - Interpreting, Summarising, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying Applying - Implementing, carrying out, using, executing Analysing - Comparing, organising, deconstructing, Attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating Evaluating - Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, Experimenting, judging, testing, Detecting, Monitoring Creating - designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, makingHigher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)The elements cover many classroom activities and objectives but they do not address the newobjectives presented by the emergence and integration of Information and CommunicationTechnologies in to the classroom and the lives of our students.This revision is fundamentally based on the revised taxonomy proposed by Anderson et al,but is more inclusive of digital technologies and digital cognitive objectives.Blooms as a learning process.Blooms Taxonomy in its various forms represents the process of learning. It has beensimplified in some case like the Three Story Intellect (Oliver Wendell Holmes and ArtCosta), but it still essentially represents how we learn.Before we can understand a concept we have to remember itBefore we can apply the concept we must understand itBefore we analyse it we must be able to apply itBefore we can evaluate its impact we must have analysed itBefore we can create we must have remembered, understood, applied, analysed, andevaluated.Some people may argue about that you do not require some of the stages for each and everytask, action or process; some too may argue about the necessity to reach the creation level forall activities. This is the choice of the individual.Is it important where you start? Must I start with remembering?I dont think it is. The learning can start at any point, but inherent in that learning is going to
  8. 8. be the prior elements and stages.Blooms Digital TaxonomyBlooms Digital Taxonomy Summary MapBlooms Digital Taxonomy Concept map.Blooms Digital Taxonomy Concept map.Blooms Digital Taxonomy and Collaboration.In the Diagram above, Collaboration is included as a separate element as well as someelements being shared. Collaboration can take many forms (see above) and value of thecollaboration can vary hugely. This is often independent of the mechanism used tocollaborate. Also collaboration is not an integral part of the learning process for theindividual, you dont have to collaborate to learn, but often your learning is enhance by doingso. Collaboration is a 21st Century skill of increasing importance and one that is usedthroughout the learning process. In some taxonomic levels the collaboration verbs areincluded as an element of Blooms Digital taxonomy and in others its is just a mechanismwhich can be use to facilitate higher order thinking and learning.Collaboration is not a 21st Century Skill, it is a 21st Century Essential.In a recent blog post from the official google blog, Google identified the following as keytraits or abilities in 21st Century Employees:“... communication skills. Marshalling and understanding the available evidence isnt usefulunless you can effectively communicate your conclusions.”“... team players. Virtually every project at Google is run by a small team. People need towork well together and perform up to the teams expectations. ”Source: we look at UNESCOs publication “The four pillars of Education, Learning: TheTreasure within” Collaboration is a key element of each of the four pillars.
  9. 9. Learning to know Learning to do Learning to live together Learning to be( [10]So to prepare our students, our teaching should also model collaboration. A vast array ofcollaborative tools are available; wikis, classroom blogs, collaborative document tools,socialnetworks, learning management systems - Many are available at no cost. If you have not yettried them, look at: wikis – wet paint and wiki spaces Classroom blogs – edublogs, classroomblogmeister, blogger Collaborative document tools – Google documents, zoho documents, adobe Buzzword Social Networks – ning learning managements systems – Moodle, Blackboard, Web CT, First Class.These tools are enablers of collaboration, and therefore enablers of 21st centuryteaching and learning.RememberingTable of ContentsRememberingAnderson and Krathwohls taxonomy – RememberingKey Terms - Remembering:Rubrics and resourcesRememberingexternal image remembering-300x155.jpgWhile the recall of knowledge is the lowest of the taxonomic levels it is crucial to learning.Remembering does not neccesarily have to occur as a distinct activity.For example. The rote learning of facts and figures.Remembering or recall is reinforced by application in higher level activities. Recognising Listing Describing Identifying Blooms_searching.jpg
  10. 10. Retrieving Naming Locating FindingAnderson and Krathwohls taxonomy – Remembering 1. Remembering: Retrieving, recalling or recognising knowledge from memory. Remembering is when memory is used to produce definitions, facts or lists, or recite or retrieve material.This element of the taxonomy infers the retrieval of material. In a digital age, given the vastamount of information available to us it is not realistic to expect students to remember everyfact or figure. However, it is crucial that students can use digital means to find, record,organise, manage and retrieve the important resources they need. This is a key element giventhe growth in knowledge and information.The digital additions and their justifications are as follows: Bullet pointing - This is analogous with listing but in a digital format. Highlighting – This is a key element of most productivity suites, encouraging students to pick out and highlight key words and phrases is a techniques for recall. Bookmarking or favouriting – this is where the students mark for later use web sites, resources and files. Students can then organise these. Social networking – this is where people develop networks of friends and associates. It forges and creates links between different people. Like social bookmarks (see below) a social network can form a key element of collaborating and networking Social bookmarking – this is an online version of local bookmarking or favourites, it is more advanced because you can draw on others bookmarks and tags. While higher order thinking skills like, collaborating and sharing, can and do make use of these skills, this is its simplest form - a simple list of sites saved to an online format rather than locally to the machine. Searching or “googling” - Search engines are now key elements of students research. At its simplest for (here) student are just entering a key word or phrase into the basic entry pane of the search engine. This skill does not refine the search beyond the key work or term.Key Terms - Remembering:Recognising, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming,locating, finding, Bulletpointing, highlighting, bookmarking, social networking, Social bookmarking,favouriting/local bookmarking, Searching, googling,
  11. 11. external image remembering-digital-300x154.jpgRubrics and resources bookmarking rubric.pdf delicious v2.pdfUnderstandingTable of ContentsUnderstandingAnderson and Krathwohls taxonomy – UnderstandingKey Terms - Understanding:Rubric and resourcesUnderstandingexternal image understanding-300x155.jpgUnderstanding builds relationships and links knowledge. At this taxonomic level the studentsshould understand the processes and concepts essentially they are able to explain or describethese. They can summarise and rephrase these into their own words.There is a clear difference between remembering, the recall of facts and knowledge in itsvarious forms like listing, bullet points, highlighting etc, and understanding. One only has tolook at the young child who can count from 1 to 10 but can not tell you how many fingersyou are holding up. Or the student who can recite for you the first 20 elements of the periodictable in sequence but can not tell you about each or relate their position in the table to thenumber of electrons in the outer shell and from there explain the behaviour of the element.This Understanding is building relationships and constructing meaningThe following are some of the key terms for this aspect of the Taxonomy.
  12. 12. Interpreting Summarising Inferring Paraphrasing Classifying Comparing blooms_and_wordprocessing.jpg Explaining ExemplifyingAnderson and Krathwohls taxonomy – Understanding2. Understanding: Constructing meaning from different types of function be they written orgraphic.The digital additions and their justifications are as follows: Advanced and Boolean Searching - This is a progression from the previous category. Students require a greater depth of understanding to be able to create, modify and refine searches to suit their search needs. Blog Journalling – This is the simplest of the uses for a blog, simply a student “talks” “writes” or “type” a daily or task specific journal. This show a basic understanding of the activity report upon. The blog can be used to develop higher level thinking when used for discussion and collaboration. Categorising & Tagging – digital classification - organising and classify files, web sites and materials using folders, using Del.ico,us and other similar tools beyond simple bookmarking. This can be organising, structuring and attributing online data, meta-tagging web pages etc. Students need to be able understand the content of the pages to be able to tag it Commenting and annotating – a variety of tools exist that allow the user to comment and annotate on web pages, pdf files and other documents. The user is developing understanding by simply commenting on the pages. This is analogous with writing notes on hand outs, but is potentially more powerful as you can link and index these. Subscribing – Subscription takes bookmarking in its various forms and simple reading one level further. The act of subscription by itself does not show or develop understanding but often the process of reading and revisiting the subscribe feeds leads to greater understanding.Key Terms - Understanding:Interpreting, Summarising, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining,exemplifying, Advanced searching, boolean searching, blog journalling, tagging,
  13. 13. categorising and tagging, commenting, annotating, subscribingexternal image understanding-digital-300x155.jpgRubric and resources blogging rubric.pdf threaded discussion rubric.pdf (This is a two part rubric withEvaluating in the more complex format) advanced search rubric.pdf Starter sheet - Adv Google search.pdfApplyingTable of ContentsApplyingAnderson and Krathwohls taxonomy – ApplyingKey Terms - Applying:Rubrics and resourcesApplying"Alan looked at the beaker of clear liquid that had turned a light shade of red as he addedlitmus liquid. He recalled the facts about litmus paper which changes colour when exposedto an acid or a base (alkaline). He understood that the red change indicated an acid and bluea base. He applied this knowledge to discover what he could about the unknown liquid hehad found in the old soft drink bottle. He quickly realised that the liquid was not just waterand was unsafe to handle."In this example a student applied facts and process he had learnt to a situation. Applyingcould be using a process, skill or set of facts.The following are some of the key terms for this aspect of the Taxonomy.
  14. 14. external image applying-300x153.jpg Carrying out Using Executing Implementing Showing blooms_and_DTP.jpg ExhibitingAnderson and Krathwohls taxonomy – Applying3. Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through executing or implementing.Applying related and refers to situations where learned material is used through productslike models, presentation, interviews and simulations.The digital additions and their justifications are as follows: Running and operating - This the action of initiating a program. This is operating and manipulating hardware and applications to obtain a basic goal or objective. Playing – The increasing emergence of games as a mode of education leads to the inclusion of this term in the list. Students who successfully play or operate a game/s are showing understanding of process and task and application of skills. Uploading and Sharing - uploading materials to websites and the sharing of materials via sites like flickr etc. This is a simple form of collaboration, a higher order skill. Hacking – hacking in its simpler forms is applying a simple set of rules to achieve a goal or objective. Editing – With most medias, editing is a process or a procedure that the editor employs.Key Terms - Applying:Implementing, carrying out, using, executing, running, loading, playing, operating, hacking,uploading, sharing, editingexternal image applying-digital-300x153.jpg
  15. 15. Rubrics and resources wiki editting rubric v2.pdf collaboration rubric.pdf using elluminate etc Skype rubric.pdf also evaluating element iwb_use_rubric.pdf Teachers IWB taxonomy - students.pdf googlemaps rubric.pdf starter sheet - googlemaps.pdf collaborative editing using online WP rubric.pdfAnalysingTable of ContentsAnalysingAnderson and Krathwohls taxonomy – AnalysingKey Terms - Analysing:Rubrics and Resources:Analysing"Alison sent an email to her classmates with the URL or web address of the google form shehad created. The Google form asked her peers 10 basic questions about themselves. Theseincluded their age, ethinicity, sex, suburb they lived in and whether they had a mobile phone.She collected in the data (Raw facts and figures) and processed these into information(processed and organised data). She was able to present her findings as a series of graphsincluding a pie graph for sex, and a histogram or bar graph for age, and as a map showingthe local suburbs and the number of her peers in each. She has linked the data in the form,spreadsheet and graph."Alison has applied a process to develop a google form to collect information. Once theinformation is collected she has processed the data into a graphical format and is able to
  16. 16. organise, structure and compare the information she has processed. She has selected suitablegraphs and mode of presentation based on the data types - continuous and discontinuous data.She has used a variety of technologies to enable her to collect, process (structure andorganise) and compare her results.The following are some of the key terms for this aspect of the Taxonomy. Comparing Organising Deconstructing Attributing Outlining Finding Structuring Integratingexternal image analysing-300x156.jpgAnderson and Krathwohls taxonomy – Analysing4. Analysing: Breaking material or concepts into parts, determining how the parts relate orinterrelate to one another or to an overall structure or purpose. Mental actions includedifferentiating, organizing and attributing as well as being able to distinguish betweencomponents.The digital additions and their justifications are as follows: Mashing - mash ups are the integration of several data sources into a single resource. Mashing data currently is a complex process but as more options and sites evolve this will become an increasingly easy and accessible means of analysis Linking – this is establishing and building links within and outside of documents and web pages. Reverse-engineering - this is analogous with deconstruction. It is also related to cracking often with out the negative implications associated with this. Cracking – cracking requires the cracker to understand and operate the application or system being cracked, analyse its strengths and weaknesses and then exploit these.Key Terms - Analysing:Comparing, organising, deconstructing, Attributing, outlining, finding,structuring,integrating, Mashing, linking, reverse-engineering, cracking, mind-mapping.
  17. 17. external image analysing-digital-300x156.jpgRubrics and Resources: starter sheet - google forms.pdfEvaluatingTable of ContentsEvaluatingAnderson and Krathwohls Taxonomy – EvaluatingKey Terms - Evaluating:RubricsEvaluating"Olivia read through the comments left on the project blog by her classmates and thestudents in Franklin County High School. The original post on the effect of technology on theclassroom had drawn many responses. Some were positive and some were negative. She readeach one and considered whether or not she should approve them. She evaluated the pointsthey put forward, the language and tone they are written in, the possibility that they could bemisconstruded or offer offense, judging the worth of the comments."Blogs are powerful tools for learning. They provide a medium with which to comment andcritique. In this example Alision is evaluating the comments in the moderation process. Sheis essentially critiquing, judging, checking and monitoring. The students who post commentto the posts are also evaluating the post or the reply submitted.The following are some of the key terms for this aspect of the Taxonomy. Checking Hypothesising Critiquing Experimenting Judging Testing Detecting Monitoring
  18. 18. external image evaluating-300x154.jpgAnderson and Krathwohls Taxonomy – Evaluating5.Evaluating: Making judgements based on criteria and standards through checking andcritiquing..The digital additions and their justifications are as follows: Blog/vlog commenting and reflecting - Constructive criticism and reflective practice are often facilitated by the use of blogs and video blogs. Student commenting and replying to postings have to evaluate the material in context and reply to this. Posting – posting comments to blogs, discussion boards, threaded discussions are increasingly comment elements of students daily practice. Good postings like good comments are not simple one line answers rather they structured and constructed to evaluate the topic or concept. Moderating – This is high level evaluation, the moderator must be able to evaluate a posting or comment from a variety of perspectives, assessing its worth, value and appropriateness. Collaborating and networking – Collaboration is an increasing feature of education. In a world increasingly focused on communication, collaboration, leading to collective intelligence is a key aspect. Effective collaboration involves evaluating the strengths and abilities of the the participants and evaluating the contribution they make. Networking is a feature of collaboration, contacting and communicating with relevant person via a network of associates. Testing (Alpha and Beta) – Testing of applications, processes and procedures is a key element in the development of any tool. To be an effective tester you must have the ability of analyse the purpose of the tool or process, what its correct function should be and what its current function is. Validating – With the wealth of information available to students combined with the lack of authentication of data, students of today and tomorrow must be able to validate the veracity of their information sources. To do this they must be able to analyse the data sources and make judgements based on these.Key Terms - Evaluating:Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging, testing, detecting, monitoring,(Blog/vlog) commenting, reviewing, posting, moderating, collaborating, networking,reflecting, (Alpha & beta) testing, Validating.
  19. 19. external image evaluating-digital-300x153.jpgRubrics Skype rubric.pdf also applying element validating rubric.pdf 2 threaded discussion rubric.pdf (This is a two part rubric withunderstanding in the simpler format)CreatingTable of ContentsCreatingAnderson and Krathwohls taxonomy – CreatingKey Terms - Creating:Rubric and resourcesCreating"The concept was detailed and the outcomes clearly identified. The storyboard wasconstructed and transitions, timing and scene detailed. The pictures were taken and themusic sourced. Ali and Kendall uploaded the content to Animoto, the online video tool, andstructured the product, adding text and transitions to illustrate their message in the 30second timeframe they had. Applying the processes they had learnt earlier. They ran andreran the clip, evaluating the impact of their message, modifying the sequence and judgingthe changes they had made. Finally satisfied they published to the blog the clip they haddesigned, constructed, directed and produced."Creativity involves all of the other facets of the taxonomy. In the creative process thestudent/s, remembers, understands & applies knowledge, analyses and evaluates outcomes,results, successes and failures as well as processes to produce a final product.The followingare some of the key terms for this aspect of the Taxonomy. Designing Constructing Planning Producing
  20. 20. Inventing Devising Makingexternal image creating-300x154.jpgAnderson and Krathwohls taxonomy – Creating6. Creating: Putting the elements together to form a coherent or functional whole;reorganising elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning orproducing.The digital additions and their justifications are as follows: Programming - Whether it is creating their own applications, programming macros or developing games or multimedia applications within structured environments, students are routinely creating their own programs to suit their needs and goals Filming, animating, videocasting, podcasting, mixing and remixing – these relate to the increasing trend and availability of multimedia and multimedia editing tools. Students frequently capture, create, mix and remix content to produce unique products. Directing and producing – to directing or producing a product, performance or production is a highly creative product. It requires the student to have vision, understand the components and meld these into a coherent product. Publishing – whether via the web or from home computers, publishing in text, media or digital formats is increasing. Again this requires a huge overview of not only the content being published, but the process and product. Related to this concept are also Video blogging – the production of video blogs, blogging and also wiki-ing - creating, adding to and modify content in wikis. Creating or building Mash ups would also fit hereKey Terms - Creating:designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making, programming,filming, animating, Blogging, Video blogging, mixing, remixing, wiki-ing, publishing,videocasting, podcasting, directing/producing, creating or building mash upsexternal image creating-digital-300x154.jpg
  21. 21. Rubric and resources Publishing -podcasting rubric.pdf digital publishing rubric.pdf starter sheet - voicethread.pdfResources:Anderson, L.W., and D. Krathwohl (Eds.) (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching andAssessing: a Revision of Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Longman, NewYork. 2.0 TutorialsWithout a doubt one of the best resources on the web for web2.0 Technologies is thecommoncraft show. Lee LeFevers productions are clear, simple and to the point; most of allthey are "In Plain English". Here are the links:
  22. 22. external image commoncraft_logo.gif Acknowledgements: For assistance, discussion and often punctuation... Miguel Guhlin, Sheryl Nussbaum-Beach, Alan Knightbridge, Sue Cattell, Raewyn Casey, Marg McLeod, Doug DeKock, Rod Fee us er-1348074Help · About · Blog · Pricing · Privacy · Terms · Support · UpgradeContributions to are licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionShare-Alike 2.5 License.Portions not contributed by visitors are Copyright 2012 Tangient LLC.