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  4. 4. DEFINITIO N:Minimalism describes movements invarious forms of art and design,especially visual art and music, where thework is set out to expose the essence oridentity of a subject through eliminating allnon-essential forms, features or concepts.
  5. 5. Minimalism is reducing your work to theessential and using less to do more. In orderto do minimalism well we need a strongunderstanding of basic design principles. Whenwe master minimalism we master design.
  7. 7. As a specific movement in the arts it isidentified with developments in post–WorldWar II Western Art, most strongly withAmerican visual arts in the 1960s and early1970s. Prominent artists associated with thismovement include Donald Judd, JohnMcCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, RobertMorris, Anne Truitt, and Frank Stella. It isrooted in the reductive aspects of Modernism,and is often interpreted as a reactionagainst Abstract expressionism and a bridgeto Postminimal art practices.
  8. 8. Minimalism emerged in the late 60′s in New York,but its roots are anchored in Europe, in the earlyideas of German architect Ludwig Mies Van DerRohe, one of the most important architects of thiscentury. Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe develops hisideas about the purity of the forms (precursor ofminimalism) during his tenure in the direction of theSchool of Art and Design at the Bauhaus inGermany in the late 30′s. After the second worldwar, he emigrated to the United States, a countrywhere it was known as an influential architect anddesigner, and became a U.S. citizen.
  9. 9. STEVE REICH Minimalism is something we take for granted.The idea that there is virtue in stripping away,that simplicity can be beautiful, and give riseto its own special kind of complexity, is onethat feels as old as the world itself – but it’srelatively new.
  10. 10. Purity in art can be achieved through simplicity andunity. Minimalism is a primarily American art movementoften characterized as a reaction to the Second WorldWar.
  11. 11. Minimalism in Literature -”less is more”Minimalism always doesn’t mean things in small quantities , it is ,keeping the famous one-word imaginary poem: Lighght -by Aram Saroya The word describes itself
  12. 12. Minimalism in literature in simple terms:• A sentence should contain no unnecessary words.• A paragraph no unnecessary sentences ( for the same reason that a drawing shouldhave no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. )
  13. 13. • Minimalism, in essence, is describing the most, in the least words possible.• Minimalist authors abstain adverbs and prefer allowing context to dictate meaning.• The main essence of minimalism : it allows the reader to take active role in creation of the story.• Allows readers to choose sides based on oblique hint, rather than reacting to the direction of the author.
  14. 14. • Minimalism makes specific demands, with its specific narrative techniques : Reading “less” demands that the reader do more.• Minimalist short stories refuses to provide easy answer to the many question it raises.
  15. 15. Elements of minimalistic writing:• Reduced vocabulary• Shorter sentences• Slight narratives which reveal more than resolve• Use of unadorned language.• Fewer adjectives and when used, not extravagant .
  16. 16. • Showing , not telling the reader, as a primary means of communicating information.• Reticence towards the expression of a characters thoughts or feelings.
  17. 17. • An example of such writing would be like this: Unabridged - I yearned for a break, so I stood up and walked over to the coffee machine. Grabbing a cup of coffee, I walked back to my desk, to find out that someone had turned on the fan above my desk. Minimalist - I took a coffee break. Walking back to my desk, I heard the fan.
  18. 18. • Here, the emotion of yearning has been toned down to almost nothing as the character simply takes a break. Turning on the fan can be written as hearing the fan. This relies on the readers sense of logic, as hearing the fan will be related to it being turned on.A simple example of minimalist poetry is one by George Swede: M SS NG Thiiief!
  19. 19. • The art of literary minimalism seeded around 1960s and 1970s, a result of the then ongoing meta-fiction trend.• There are some beliefs that minimalism in prose was actually initiated by the 1940s crime-fiction writers like James M. Cain, the writings of whom were imbued with the least of words and yet put forth a description of many.
  20. 20. • However, literary minimalism was brought to center-stage through the guiding hands of authors such as Ernest Hemingway’s “cat in the rain” (his collection of short-stories and works earlier than the 70s), Raymond Carver’s “A Small, Good Thing”, Ann Beattie and many more around the 1970s.
  21. 21. • Minimalist authors, or those who are identified with minimalism during certain periods of their writing careers, include the following:• Raymond Carver, Bret Easton Ellis, Charles Bukowski, K. J. Stevens, Amy Hempel, Bobbie Ann Mason, Tobias Wolff, Grace Paley, Sandra Cisneros, Mary Robison, Frederick Barthelme, Richard Ford, Patrick Holland and Alicia Erian
  23. 23. “You can kill people with sound. And if youcan kill, then maybe there is also the soundthat is opposite of killing. And the distance between these two points is very big. And you are free--you can choose. In arteverything is possible, but everything is not necessary.” ― Arvo Pärt
  24. 24. The term "minimal music" was derived around 1970by Michael Nyman from the concept of minimalism,which was earlier applied to the visual arts.The ideathat there is virtue in stripping away, that simplicitycan be beautiful, and give rise to its own special kindof complexity, is one that feels as old as the worlditself – but it’s relatively new.In music in particular, minimalism was the single mostimportant idea of the last century, the one that madepossible virtually all that we now listen to and holddear, from punk and techno to ambient and grime.Minimalism wasn’t just a movement, it was aparadigm shift: it brought about a sea change in theway that sound is made, heard and thought of.
  25. 25. STEVE REICHStephen Michael"Steve" Reich is anAmerican composer whois one of the pioneeringcomposers of minimalmusic along with LaMonte Young,TerryRiley, and Philip Glass..he was keen to find anew musical languagethat truthfulyreflected ,as he putit ,”the real contex oftailfins ,chuckberry,andmillions of burgers sold”
  26. 26. For Come Out (1966), Reich re-recorded a fragment of DanielHamm (of the falsely accusedHarlem Six) speaking the words“come out to show them” ontwo channels, initially playingthem in unison. They quickly slipout of sync; gradually thediscrepancy widens andbecomes a reverberation. Thetwo voices then split into four,looped continuously, then eight,and so on, until the actual wordsare unintelligible, deconstructedinto tiny rhythmic and tonalpatterns.
  27. 27. PHILIP GLASSPhilip Glass is an Americancomposer. He is often said to beone of the most influentialcomposers of the late 20thcentury.His music is also oftencontroversially described asminimalist, along with the work ofthe other "major minimalists" LaMonte Young, Terry Riley andSteve Reich.Hearing Reich’s PianoPhase in 1967, and like himdrawing influence from themusics of India and Africa, PhilipGlass simplified his owncompositional style, and setabout creating works that reliedupon phasing and loop patterns.
  28. 28. • Early works tended to be abstract, but from the mid-1970s his attention shifted towards the stage. His first operatic triumph, Einstein on the Beach, did much to reinvigorate the international contemporary opera scene. Profoundly interested in traditional cultures, Glass often draws on Eastern traditions, as in Monsters of Grace (1997), a multimedia collaboration based on the writings of Rumi.
  29. 29. A year later Reichunveiled his own firstmajor work, It’s GonnaRain, based aroundrecordings of a sermonabout the end of theworld given by a blackPentecostal street-preacher. Reichtransferred the sermonto multiple tape loopsplayed in and out ofphase, with segmentscut and rearranged.The effect wasastonishing
  30. 30. MINIMALISM IN MOVIESMinimalism in movie posters is something that is becomingmore and more popular, as we can clearly see from the examplesshowcased above, there are many more minimal posters fromrecent years compared to the amount seen in the 90 ′ s andearlier.
  31. 31. This BatmanReturns posterfrom 1992 isone of favoriteposters in thisshowcase, as ittotally dependson brandidentity and thefamiliarity ofthe infamousBatmansilhouette.
  41. 41. 127HOUR BY3FTDEEP
  45. 45. Minimalism, chiefly Americanmovement in the visual arts and musicoriginating in New York City in thelate 1960s and characterized by extremesimplicity of form and a literal, objectiveapproach. Minimalist garments & decors
  46. 46. Minimal art, also called ABC art, is the culmination of reductionisttendencies in modern art that first surfaced in the 1913 compositionby the Russian painter Kasimir Malevich of a black square on a whiteground. The primary structures of the minimalist sculptors DonaldJudd,Carl Andre, Dan Flavin, Tony Smith, Anthony Caro, SolLeWitt, John McCracken, Craig Kaufman, Robert Duran, andRobert Morris and the hard-edge painting of JackYoungerman, Ellsworth Kelly,Frank Stella, Kenneth Noland, AlHeld, and Gene Davis grew out of these artists’ dissatisfaction withAction painting, a branch of American Abstract Expressionism basedon intuitive, spontaneous gesture that had dominated American avant-garde art through much of the 1950s.
  47. 47. The minimalists, who believed that Action painting was too personal andinsubstantial, adopted the point of view that a work of art should not referto anything other than itself. For that reason they attempted to rid theirworks of any extra-visual association. Use of the hard edge, the simple form, and the linear rather than painterly approach was intended to emphasize two- dimensionality and to allow the viewer an immediate, purely visual response. They turned for inspiration to the impassive, quiet works of Barnett Newman and Ad Reinhardt, exponents of the colour-field branch of Abstract Expressionist painting.
  48. 48. Minimal Art emerged as a movement in the 1950s andcontinued through the Sixties and Seventies. It is a term usedto describe paintings and sculpture that thrive on simplicityin both content and form, and seek to remove any sign ofpersonal expressivity. The aim of Minimalism is to allow theviewer to experience the work more intensely without thedistractions of composition, theme and so on. There areexamples of the Minimalist theory being exercised as early asthe 18th century when Goethe constructed an Altar of GoodFortune made simply of a stone sphere and cube. But the20th century sees the movement come into its own.
  49. 49. Minimal Art is related to a number of othermovements such as Conceptual Art in the way thefinished work exists merely to convey a theory,Pop Art in their shared fascination with theimpersonal and Land Art in the construction ofsimple shapes. Minimal Art proved highly successfuland has been enormously influential on thedevelopment of art in the 20th century.
  50. 50. Minimalism is an art movement, bornin the twentieth century, which describesvarious forms of art, music, literature,design and architecture, where the work isreduced to the bare essentials.In web design, minimalism refers to theuse of the smallest amount of images,colors, shapes, values and lines. The site isstripped down to the fundamentals requiredto convey the message. Minimalist webdesigns generally rely on type and simpleshapes to do the communicating.
  51. 51. Robert Morris, an influential theorist and artist, wrote athree part essay, "Notes on Sculpture 1-3", originallypublished across three issues of Artforumin 1966. In theseessays, Morris attempted to define a conceptual frameworkand formal elements for himself and one that wouldembrace the practices of his contemporaries. These essayspaid great attention to the idea of the gestalt - "parts...bound together in such a way that they create a maximumresistance to perceptual separation." Morris later describedan art represented by a "marked lateral spread and noregularized units or symmetrical intervals..." in "Notes onSculpture 4: Beyond Objects", originally publishedin Artforum, 1969, continuing to say that "indeterminacyof arrangement of parts is a literal aspect of the physicalexistence of the thing."
  52. 52. Minimal sculpture is composedof extremely simple,monumental geometric formsmade of fibreglass, plastic, sheetmetal, or aluminum, either leftraw or solidly painted withbright industrial colours. Likethe painters, minimalistsculptors attempted to maketheir works totally objective,unexpressive, andnon-referential.
  53. 53. In both music and the visual arts, minimalism was an attempt toexplore the essential elements of an art form. In minimalist visualarts, the personal, gestural elements were stripped away in order toreveal the objective, purely visual elements of painting andsculpture. In minimalist music, the traditional treatment of formand development was rejected in favour of explorations of timbreand rhythm—musical elements largely unfamiliar to Western listeners.
  54. 54. Minimalist photography is known to be theart of less. Such calm pictures focus mainlyon a few essential elements for composing theperfect shot. This type of photography artprovides a challenge — by arranging only oneor two elements in a scene to share aparticular message across.
  56. 56. Men’s Fashion: The Art of Minimalism
  57. 57. ON THE RUNAWAYS:Many renowned designers haveseemingly more simple design.pushed their ideas and feelings ontothe catwalk with the resoundingmessage being that less ismore; and with that, fewer coloursand patterns create an overall moresubdued yet elegant aesthetic. Itwould be confused to infer designershave not put as much effort intocreating garments with all sorts ofelaborate detailing and textures, withthose that have crafted a less clutteredand
  58. 58. Casual Minimalism Minimalism does not only pertain smart clothing. Casual minimalism isone just as easily achieved as a tailored approach, but is most likely aimedmore at post-grads and older. Dressingfor the weekend can be as simple as a good pair of shoes or ‘adult’ trainers(clean, obviously), coupled with good quality jeans and shirt underneath a V-neck or cardigan, one of which should be the same colour as your shoes or jeans.
  59. 59. AccessoriesDetails are of the utmostimportance when you are notwearing any bold statementpieces. Therefore acquiring or utilisingaccessories will add a touch of flavour toyour outfit which can only make it moreinteresting. An idea might be for yourclothes to be one of two colours, and tohave one statement accessory to add amore obvious point of interest to yourlook. A true minimalist might worrythat such a ploy could shade theminimalistic aspect of the rest of the look– as he might if you also had too manyaccessories – which is why sensiblypicking one or two intriguingdetails is vital
  61. 61.   FASHION TRENDS FROM YOUR MINIMALIST LIFE 1. Develop your personal style.   2. Don’t chase trends. 3. Don’t read fashion magazines. 4. Realize you’re not in the spotlight.   5. Be aware of the impact. 6. Think timeless. . 7. Shop your closet.  According to the American Heritage Dictionary, one of thedefinitions of "minimalism" is the "use of the fewest and barestessentials or elements, as in the arts, literature, or design". Youmay be interested in having a minimalist wardrobe because it islow maintenance. Perhaps you notice that people in minimalistclothes tend to look simple and sophisticated. Applying minimalismto your wardrobe is about choosing quality over quantity. Itsnot just about black and white.
  62. 62. A Minimalist’s Train of Thought•Less money spent means more money saved•More money saved means the longer you can live infinancial peace and security•Financial peace and security comes from owning less•Less stuff owned means less to carry around, move or haveto travel with•Less responsibility for your stuff also means lessmaintenance and more time•The more time you have, the more relaxed you will feel•The more relaxed you are, the less you will care aboutstuff
  63. 63. If you care less about stuff, it means you’ll care less about imageIf you care less about image, you will care more about experiences andmemoriesIf you care more about experiences and memories, you will be happierwith lessIf you are happier with less, you’ll never want or need for moreThe less you want or need for more, the more you will feel free- The Everyday MinimalistSTANDARD, CLASSIC WARDROBE OF A MINIMALISTMENAssumed criterion:1.Business casual during the week2.Fun on the weekends (possibly with or without children)3.Also attend events such as weddings & dinners on occasion4.You do laundry weekly, because as a minimalist, you will not have many (clean)outfits to last for months without laundry5.Live in a place with 4 seasons: Spring, Summer, Autumn & Winter
  64. 64. Minimalist designA BRIEF HISTORY • Minimalist design dates to the work of Dutch De Stijl artists from early 1900s. • These furniture builders created pieces that promote harmony, order and were simple in nature. • The movement was led by architect Ludwig Miles van der Rohe whose design motto was "less is more." Other significant minimalist designers were : • Buckminster Fuller, whose goal was "doing more with less," • Dieter Rams whose motto was "less is better."
  65. 65. Van der Rohe – ‘Less Is More’ • Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886 to 1969) was a German architect who was considered a pioneer of modern architecture. • His architectural style during post-World War I laid the groundwork for minimalist design. • Van der Rohe strived for simplicity and clarity in his architectural designs by: • Using modern materials like steel and plates of glass • Having a minimal structural framework • Including lots of open space.
  66. 66. Tadao Ando • The Japanese architect Tadao Ando creates buildings, in which light, water, wind and concrete co-exist to perfection. Ando uses mainly concrete and glass. • The Famous Minimalist Architect uses the natural resources to their full extent, so as to restore the natural binding between the building and nature, lost in the cities’ modernization process. • One of his favourite elements is water. That’s why he builds his buildings close to water areas, added naturally and harmoniously to the exterior. • Ascetically clean shapes, where beauty is the only leading power – this is a characteristic element of Tadao Ando’s minimalistic style.
  67. 67. Alvaro Catalan de Ocon CANDIL MILANO LAMP • Alvaro Catalán de Ocóns Candil Milano aims to create a focus on the beauty of light by reducing all other components to enhance the sensory experience. • While the technical principle remains the same, reducing the lamp to its three basic elements, in this case the use of materials reflects on the different physical properties necessary to make the electrical apparatus work. • Copper and brass are optimum conductors, while wood acts as a perfect insulator.
  68. 68. Bruna Canepa- minimalistic renderings Bruna Canepa’s collection of minimalistic renderings, reminiscent of Dutch abstract artist Piet Mondrian• Bruna Canepa is a São Paulo- based illustrator and architect student, fascinated with space and buildings from her native city.• Her diagrams combine clean geometrics with simple yet effective coloration to create these exploded view drawings.• With her innovative illustrations and futuristic style, Canepa is certainly one to watch.
  69. 69. Alexander Wang • FOOTWEAR, NYFW, S/S 13, S/S 2013, WOMEN • Alexander Wang’s minimalist lines shined in his new S/S 13 collection. • For Spring, the NY-based designer proposes sleek single-sole sandals as base for geometric T-strap uppers. • His touch of irreverence is manifested through supporting “garters” that emerge from the counter and buckle just below the knee. • A polished and semi-gloss surface adds to the minimal approach to Wang’s footwear selections, which appear in stark basics such as black, white and silver.
  70. 70. Yigal Azrouël MONASTIC MINIMALISM SEPTEMBER 9, 2012 NEW YORK, S/S 2013, WOMEN Yigal Azrouël continued to move in a minimalist direction for S/S 13, stating “nature’s architecture” as inspiration for the collection that felt more monastic than organic. • Simplicity was taken to an extreme — silhouettes were either tents or columns, and a limited assortment of fabrics in a neutral palette maintained the calm effect.
  71. 71. CUTLINE Collection• Designed by Alessandro Busana, the CUTLINE Collection is predominantly minimalist aside from its quirky dissection. Made out of wood that has been painted a light gray, the radical cuts expose the natural grain.
  72. 72. Palladium Introduces Lite Technology for Spring • MARCH 23, 2012 Palladium has unveiled a minimal technology for their upcoming spring and fall collections. • As longtime fans of the Palladium brand, it’s surprising – at first – to hear that a company who started making rubber tires for the 1920′s aviation industry would be introducing a super lightweight technology in to their well-known sturdy lugged soles.
  73. 73. Alberto Campo Baeza • Alberto Campo Baeza is among the minimalist architects whose unique blend answers to any and all preferences, as it includes hints, characteristic of many different cultures, most notably the Italian and Japanese architectural trends. • One of his most famous projects is the minimalist architecture house Casa Guerrero, built in Cádiz, Spain. • Through his works, Alberto Campo Baeza has established himself as a master of minimalism. • His ideas are renowned worldwide and go on to influence the entire Spanish  architecture and worldwide minimalist architects .
  75. 75. What were the influences on Minimalism?• Although radical, and rejecting many of the concerns of the immediately preceding Abstract Expressionist movement, like all art movements Minimalism did not emerge out of nowhere. While Minimalism abandoned the gestural expressionism of the previous generation, the Abstract Expressionists emphasis on formal qualities, such as the structure of the canvas surface and nature of the medium, over those of representation, paved the way for the Minimalists.
  76. 76. DAN FLAVIN• As one of the pioneers of Minimalism, Dan Flavin is best known for works that are entirely constructed with fluorescent light tubes. He might be considered as the first artist who physically employed electronic lighting into art. His works also established a new tradition of perceiving art and a new way of adapting specific work to • “One might not think of light as a specific places through matter of fact, but I do. And it is, as I various forms of installation said, as plain and open and direct an art and what was later known as you will ever find.” — as environmental art. Dan Flavin
  77. 77. ROBERT MORRISRobert Morris (born 9 February 1931,Kansas City, Missouri) is an Americansculptor, conceptual artist and writer.He is regarded as one of the mostprominent theorists of Minimalismalong with Donald Judd but he has alsomade important contributions to thedevelopment of performance art,minimalism, land art, the Process Artmovement and installation art. “Notes on Sculpture 1-3,” originallypublished across three issues ofArtforum in 1966. In these essays,Morris attempted to define a conceptualframework and formal elements forhimself and one that would embrace thepractices of his contemporaries.
  78. 78. DONALD JUDD• Donald Judd was an American born painter, writer and sculptor. His work placed him at the forefront of the Minimalist movement of the 1960s and 1970s.• Judd rejected Abstract Expressionism through lack of imagery, composition, and by reducing painting and sculpture to its basic elements through using natural light, simple lines, industrial materials, and solid colors on flat surfaces.
  79. 79. MARCEL DUCHAMP• Fountain is a 1917 work widely attributed to Marcel Duchamp. The scandalous work was a porcelain urinal, which was signed "R.Mutt" and titled Fountain. Submitted for the exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists in 1917, Fountain was rejected by the committee, even though the rules stated that all works would be accepted from artists who paid the fee.• Fountain was displayed and photographed at Alfred Stieglitz’s studio, and the photo published in The Blind Man, but the original has been lost.
  80. 80. JOHN MCCRAKEN• Mr. McCracken approached Minimalism — known for its literal-mindedness, industrial fabrication and resistance to interpretation — with a sense of play, craft and spirituality that was distinctly his own while also reflecting his California roots.• He was one of the few artists affiliated with the movement who did not object to its name and who made most of his work by hand, sanding and polishing his enamel, lacquer or resin surfaces until their colors achieved a flawless and reflective perfection.
  81. 81. DIETER RAMS• To designers, Dieter Rams should be an even more familiar name. Rams is a German industrial designer who was born in 1932 and was head designer at the Braun company, where he helped design things like record players, radios, calculators, and consumer appliances.• Rams heavily pursued minimalist design, focusing on including only the essential aspects of a product so that it’s not filled with non-essentials. Rams’ self- described design approach is:• Less, but better.
  83. 83. THANKYOU