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EPA Technical Assistance Grant - Beaufort SC Northwest Quadrant

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fBackground: In July of 2012, the City was awarded a $100,000 Technical Assistance Grant from the EPA. As part of that award, in November a team of stormwater and environmental engineers, and planners came to Beaufort for three days. Working with members of the city’s planning and public works departments, they identified two specific projects that could improve stormwater management in the Northwest Quadrant, and incorporate these practices into overall street and block design. This will be a presentation of the final designs, and the design process. This is the final presentation of the design, given by Jason Wright of TetraTech at City Hall on April 3, 2013.

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EPA Technical Assistance Grant - Beaufort SC Northwest Quadrant

  1. 1. Block by Block Green InfrastructureNorthwest Quadrant Conceptual Design City of Beaufort
  2. 2. Beaufort’s Block by Block Green InfrastructureNorthwest Quadrant Conceptual Design
  3. 3. Beaufort’s Block by Block Green InfrastructureNorthwest Quadrant Conceptual DesignPreservation guidelines• Maintaining the traditional character of the block;• Maintaining the informal nature of the streets, lanes, and gardens where they exist;• Maintaining the soft edges found along neighborhood streets; and• Encouraging informal gardens throughout the neighborhood.Neighborhood Strategic Plan• Encouraging the use of rain barrels and greywater recycling;• Supporting community gardens; and• Identifying future pocket park locations.
  4. 4. Beaufort’s Block by Block Green InfrastructureNorthwest Quadrant Conceptual DesignWhat is Green Infrastructure?Stormwater management strategy that uses natural hydrologicfeatures to manage water and provide environmental andcommunity benefits. How do we make this… function more like this?
  5. 5. Green Infrastructure Under Natural Conditions Runoff is ....But increases After Limited.... Development 5
  6. 6. Beaufort’s Block by Block Green InfrastructureNorthwest Quadrant Conceptual DesignWhat is Green Infrastructure?Stormwater management strategy that uses natural hydrologicfeatures to manage water and provide environmental andcommunity benefits. How do we make this… function more like this?
  7. 7. Green Infrastructure - Multiple Benefits  Water quality  Cost savings  Flood and  Community identity hydromodification  Recreational control greenspace  Rainwater capture and  Reduced urban heat use island effect  Increased groundwater  Wildlife habitat recharge and baseflow  Enhanced property  Improved air quality values  Reduced energy  Carbon sequestering consumption  Aesthetic benefits
  8. 8. Multiple Benefits Category Indicator Reduced Stormwater VolumeEnvironmental Reduced Peak Flow Rate Reduced Pollutant Loading Increased Groundwater Recharge Reduced Energy Use and Heat Island Effect Reduced Particulate Matter Increased Carbon Sequestration Improved Quality of Life and AestheticsSocial Increased Recreational Opportunities Job Creation Reduced Infrastructure CostsEconomic Reduced Pumping Costs Increased or Stabilized Property Values
  9. 9. Economic Benefits
  10. 10. Economic Benefits
  11. 11. Effects of Water Pollution Photo courtesy of NRCS
  12. 12. BMP Functions Hydrologic controls Removal processes Evapotranspiration or flow attenuation Biotransformation/ Storage/detention phytoremediation Bioaccumulation volatilization) photolysis; Other (e.g., Infiltration Filtration Sorption Settling Structural BMPs Bioretention + (+) o o + o + + (o) Permeable pavement + (+) – – + – – – – Infiltration basin + + (o) o + o + + (o) Cisterns/rain barrels + – – – – – – – – Note: ( ) optional function; + major function; o secondary function; – insignificant function
  13. 13. BMP Design  Bioretention  Bioswales  Planter Boxes  Permeable Pavement  Green Roofs  Water Harvesting  Cisterns  Rain Barrels  Sand Filters  Vegetated Swales  Vegetated Filter Strips
  14. 14. Bioretention Areas
  15. 15. Bioretention Schematic Runoff Vegetation on Surface MediaUnderdrain System
  16. 16. Bioretention Areas Pollutant removal functions  Sedimentation (temporary)  Trash, TSS, Phosphorus  Microbial Processes  Nitrogen, Pathogens  Chemical Processes  Metals, Phosphorus  Exposure to Sunlight & Dryness  Pathogens, Oil & Grease
  17. 17. Bioretention Areas• Soil Media DepthWhere are pollutants removed? TSS TP Temp TN Pathogens Metals Oil & Grease
  18. 18. Bioretention Areas www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater
  19. 19. Integrating into Landscape www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater
  20. 20. Integrating into Landscape
  21. 21. Parking Lots Port City Java, Market www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater
  22. 22. Parking Lots www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater
  23. 23. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater
  24. 24. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater
  25. 25. Bioretention Areas + 4 Hours +14 Hours
  26. 26. Bioretention Areas Mulch and Vegetation  Drought tolerant vegetation  Periodic inundation  Native species Consider size and appearance at maturity
  27. 27. Bioretention Variations Bioswales
  28. 28. Bioretention Variations Transportation Corridor  Right-of-way
  29. 29. Permeable Pavement  Allows for rainfall infiltration  Low traffic surfaces (driveways, parking lots, walk ways)  Provides peak flow mitigation, volume storage, and some water quality improvement
  30. 30. Permeable Pavements  Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICP)  Concrete Grid Pavers (CGP)  Pervious (Porous) Pavements (PC & PA)  Plastic Reinforcing Grids (PG)
  31. 31. Permeable Pavement
  32. 32. Permeable PavementStore/Treat the design storm volume  within base and sub-base reservoirs • d=V/A×n – d = Gravel Layer Depth (ft) – V = Water Quality Volume – A = Surface Area (square ft) – n = Porosity (0.3 to 0.4) Structural Design  • Total traffic Guide for Design of Pavement Structures AASHTO  In situ soil strength (1993) •  Environmental elements to the Guide for Design of AASHTO Supplement  Bedding and Structures (1998) Pavement reservoir layer design • AASHTO Flexible Pavement Method
  33. 33. Permeable Pavement These systems should be installed by a qualified professional • The only exception is very small backyard patios where BMP failure will not be hazardous to human health • A list of professionals qualified in permeable paver installation is available through the Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute (ICPI) – www.icpi.org • More information on pervious concrete is available through the Carolina Ready Mixed Concrete Association (CRMCA) – www.crmca.com
  34. 34. Permeable Pavement
  35. 35. Permeable Pavement 6 inches pervious concrete Washed no 57 stone (Min 6”)
  36. 36. Permeable Pavement 6 in 6-9 in12-18 in
  37. 37. Permeable Pavement Grid Pavers Sand PICP with gravel fill Washed No. 57 StoneInterlocking Concrete Pavers Pea Gravel Washed No. 57 Stone
  38. 38. Permeable Pavement
  39. 39. Permeable Pavement 6 in 6-9 in 12-18 in
  40. 40. Permeable Pavement
  41. 41. Permeable Pavement
  42. 42. Permeable Pavement
  43. 43. Permeable Pavement
  44. 44. Permeable Pavement
  45. 45. Permeable Pavement
  46. 46. Permeable Pavement
  47. 47. Vegetated Infiltration Basin
  48. 48. Vegetated Infiltration Basin
  49. 49. Vegetated Infiltration Basin
  50. 50. Photo credit: Jill Bicknell, Santa Clara Valley Urban Runoff Program.
  51. 51. Stormwater Wetlands Reduce Nutrients Slow Flow of Water
  52. 52. Stormwater Wetlands
  53. 53. Stormwater Wetlands
  54. 54. Stormwater Wetlands
  55. 55. Stormwater Wetlands
  56. 56. Stormwater WetlandsA Diverse System of Herbaceous Plants tends to limit mosquito populationHuman Introduction of Gambousia affinis NOT recommended www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater
  57. 57. Multi-Benefit Use
  58. 58. Beaufort’s Block by Block Green InfrastructureNorthwest Quadrant Conceptual Design
  59. 59. Beaufort’s Block by Block Green InfrastructureNorthwest Quadrant Conceptual Design US Marine Corps Air Station Golf Professionals Club Laurel Bay 116 Beaufort Northwest Quadrant 802 Project Location Burton Beaufort Beaufort 280 21 281 170 802 Port Royal Legend Par is Project Location Shell Point M ale co Northwest Quadrant Boundary n City of Beaufort Limits Highway Marine Corps Recruit Depot Major Road Parris Island Railroads (Local) Lake/Pond/Stream/River City of Beaufort Swamp/Marsh 0 0.5 1 2 Miles South Carolina Cities Project Location
  60. 60. Beaufort’s Block by Block Green Infrastructure BOUNDARY STNorthwest Quadrant Conceptual Design WILMINGTO N ST UNION ST BA GG ET CONGRES S ST T ST BLADEN ST CHURCH ST GREENE ST RIBAU T RD Northwest MONSON ST NEWCASTLE ST D WASHINGTON ST MARS H R HAMAR ST Quadrant HARRINGTON ST Beaufort DUKE ST ADVENTURE ST BLADEN LN PRINCE ST ELTON LN PILOT ST KING ST KING ST EUHAW ST GLEBE ST HEYWARD ST WAIGHT ST NORTH ST NORTH ST T YS CRAVEN ST BA Historic ST Downtown SIM MS Beaufort River Beaufort T RD PO DE Legend City of Beaufort Streets 0 200 400 800 Feet South Carolina Northwest Quadrant Boundary Northwest Quadrant
  61. 61. Charrette Process Work session with director and staff Site selection and preliminary concept plans Presentations to staff and officials Final concept plans and report Final presentation
  62. 62. Implementation Regulating Plan  T3 Neighborhood General  T4 Urban Neighborhood and Neighborhood Center  T5 Urban Center/Corridor Localized Improvements Public Right of Way and Block Level Solutions
  63. 63. Transects Integration of Green Infrastructure techniques into the planning and development process Consistent, predictable costs and performance, and replicable results Adaptable to local conditions Ancillary benefits and values  Aesthetics, identity, energy…..
  64. 64. Localized Improvements Correct drainage issues Improve streetscape and reduce maintenance Create community value Demonstrate progress Planned and Constructed incrementally
  65. 65. Project Criteria s ment nsect t enefi prove Techn ration of of T ra ts ood B fi Bene lity age Im ology n r Q ua bor h ra tio nst la ry Demo Neigh Dr ain Wate Integ AncilCandidate Project/TransectsSection 8 Housing Church and Washington Streets ○  ○ ○  Private Lot between Prince and Hamar ● ● ○  ● ●Glebe Street Extension ● ●   ● Stormwater Dry Pond Hamar and Washington ○  ○  ● ●Green Street along Pilot from Prince to North StreetConnection of Duke and Princeton ○    ● ●Duke Street from Bladen to Pilot Street ● ● ●   ●Candidate ImprovementsBump Outs for Tree Space ● ●   ● ●Vegetated Curb Extensions ● ●   ● ●Residential on-lot Permeable Pavement ● ● ●  ● ●
  66. 66. T3 – Neighborhood
  67. 67. T3 – Neighborhood
  68. 68. T4 – Neighborhood Center
  69. 69. T4 – Neighborhood Center
  70. 70. T5 – Urban Corridor/Center
  71. 71. T5 – Urban Corridor/Center
  72. 72. 20 15 BAGGETT ST HAMAR STUNION ST 20 GREENE ST 20 20 25 20 WASHINGTON ST 20 20 DUKE ST ADVENTURE ST 15 Legend Storm Sewers PRINCE ST Streets BLADEN ST Duke Street Catchment Proposed Vegetated 15 Basin Catchment 20 Beaufort Parcels Infiltration Basin Elementary PILOT ST Elevation, ft 5 KING ST School KING ST 10 GLEBE ST 15 25 20 25 25 25 25 25 25 City of Beaufort 0 50 100 200 Feet South Carolina Project Contributing Areas
  73. 73. Prince Street and Hamar Street• Vegetated Infiltration Basin• Open Community Park Space• Large watershed
  74. 74. Prince Street and Hamar Street• Water Volume and Quality Treatment• Community Park Space• Aesthetic Improvement
  75. 75. 23 Prince Street and Hamar Street 22 16 17 PRINCE ST Diversion Structure Inlet & Monitoring Point Water 19 16Green Green 18 20 21 Ponding Surface Storage 22Infrastructure Infrastructure Width Length Depth Area Volume HAMAR ST 23Practice Practice Location (ft) (ft) (ft) (sq ft) (cu ft)Vegetated Legend Catch Basinsinfiltration Open Space Diversion Structure Inlet & Monitoring PointBasin Parcel Streets Storm Sewers 125 125 2.0 15,700 20,880 Proposed Inlet Line Parcels Top Footprint 24 Banks - 2:1 Sideslope Banks - Steps Bottom Footprint City of Beaufort 0 15 30 60 Feet South Carolina Implementation Areas
  76. 76. Duke Street From Bladen To Hamar• Permeable Pavement and Bioretention• Streetscape Enhancement• Aesthetic Improvement
  77. 77. Duke Street From Bladen To Hamar• Permeable Pavement and Bioretention• Streetscape Enhancement• Aesthetic Improvement
  78. 78. 20 15 BAGGETT ST HAMAR STUNION ST 20 GREENE ST 20 20 25 20 WASHINGTON ST 20 20 DUKE ST ADVENTURE ST 15 Legend Storm Sewers PRINCE ST Streets BLADEN ST Duke Street Catchment Proposed Vegetated 15 Basin Catchment 20 Beaufort Parcels Infiltration Basin Elementary PILOT ST Elevation, ft 5 KING ST School KING ST 10 GLEBE ST 15 25 20 25 25 25 25 25 25 City of Beaufort 0 50 100 200 Feet South Carolina Project Contributing Areas
  79. 79. Duke Street From Bladen To Hamar• Water Volume and Quality Treatment• Enhanced Parking Areas• Reduce Localized Flooding
  80. 80. Duke Street From Bladen To Hamar WAS HING TON ST HAMAR ST ADVENTURE ST DUKE ST BLADEN ST Green Infrastructure PRINCE ST LegendGreen Infrastructure Catch Basins Practice Width Length Surface Area Water StoragePractice Sewers Storm Location (ft) (ft) (sq ft) Volume (cu ft) StreetsBioretention Bioretention Right-of-way 200 8 0 50 100 840 6,717 City of Beaufort 9,404 South CarolinaPermeablePavement Permeable Pavement Right-of-way Feet 8 Available Implementation Area 1680 13,434 4,030
  81. 81. Duke Street From Bladen To Hamar WASHINGTON ST HAMAR ST ADVENTURE ST DUKE ST BLADEN ST Green InfrastructureGreen Infrastructure Legend Practice Width Length Surface Area Water Storage PRINCE STPractice Basins Catch Location (ft) (ft) (sq ft) Volume (cu ft) Storm SewersBioretention Right-of-way 8 182of Beaufort 1,453 2,034 ± Streets City Bioretention 0 45 90 180 South CarolinaPermeable Pavement Permeable Pavement Right-of-way Feet 8 363 2,906 872
  82. 82. Duke Street From Bladen To Hamar WASHINGTON ST HAMAR ST ADVENTURE ST DUKE ST BLADEN ST Green InfrastructureGreen Infrastructure Legend Practice Width Length Surface Area Water Storage PRINCE STPractice Basins Catch Location (ft) (ft) (sq ft) Volume (cu ft) Storm SewersBioretention Right-of-way 8 182of Beaufort 1,453 2,034 ± Streets City Bioretention 0 45 90 180 South CarolinaPermeable Pavement Permeable Pavement Right-of-way Feet 8 363 2,906 872
  83. 83. Operations and MaintenanceTask Frequency Maintenance notesMonitor infiltration and drainage 1 time/year Inspect drainage time (12–24 hours). Might have to determine infiltration rate (every 2–3 years). Turning over or replacing the media (top 2–3 inches) might be necessary to improve infiltration (at least 0.5 in/hr).Pruning 1–2 times/year Nutrients in runoff often cause bioretention vegetation to flourish.Mowing 2–12 times/year Frequency depends on the location, plant selection and desired aesthetic appeal.Mulching 1–2 times/ year Recommend maintaining 1”–3” uniform mulch layer.Mulch removal 1 time/2–3 years Mulch accumulation reduces available water storage volume. Removal of mulch also increases surface infiltration rate of fill soil.Watering 1 time/2–3 days for first 1–2 If drought conditions exist, watering after the initial year might be months; sporadically after required. establishmentFertilization 1 time initially One-time spot fertilization for first year vegetation.Remove and replace dead plants 1 time/year Within the first year, 10% of plants can die. Survival rates increase with time.Inlet inspection Once after first rain of the season, Check for sediment accumulation to ensure that flow into the then monthly during the rainy retention area is as designed. Remove any accumulated sediment. seasonOutlet inspection Once after first rain of the season, Check for erosion at the outlet and remove any accumulated mulch or then monthly during the rainy sediment. seasonMiscellaneous upkeep 12 times/year Tasks include trash collection, plant health, spot weeding, and removing mulch from the overflow device.
  84. 84. Operations and MaintenancePermeable pavement operations and maintenance considerationsTask Frequency Maintenance notesForebay cleanout As needed, typical 5 – 10 Check for sediment accumulation to ensure that years flow into the retention area is as designed. Remove any accumulated sediment.Invasive species/tree Semi-annual Within the first year, 10% of plants can die.control Survival rates increase with time.Bank mowing and Monthly or as needed Frequency depends on the location, plantstabilization selection and desired aesthetic appeal.Outlet inspection and Monthly and after storms Check for erosion at the outlet and remove anycleanout greater than 2 inches accumulated mulch or sediment.Trash removal As needed Remove accumulated debris throughout the area.Rodent & mosquito As needed Inspect for signs of vector control issues. Propermanagement eradication measures should be used. Stormwater wetland operations and maintenance considerations Task Frequency Maintenance notes Impervious to Pervious Once after first rain of Check for sediment and debris accumulation to interface the season, then monthly ensure that flow onto the permeable pavement during the rainy season is not restricted. Remove any accumulated sediment, vegetative debris, or trash. Stabilize any exposed soil. Vacuum street sweeper Twice per year as needed Portions of pavement should be swept with a vacuum street sweeper at least twice per year or as needed to maintain infiltration rates. Replace fill materials 1-2 times per year (and Fill materials will need to be replaced after each (applies to pervious after any vac truck sweeping and as needed to keep voids with the pavers only) sweeping) paver surface. Miscellaneous upkeep 4 times per year or as Tasks include trash collection, sweeping, and needed for aesthetics spot weeding.
  85. 85. Cost EstimateItem No Description Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total Preparation 1 Traffic Control 15 Day $1,000.00 $15,000 2 Temporary Construction Fence 500 LF $2.50 $1,250 3 Silt Fence 500 LF $3.00 $1,500 Site Preparation 4 Excavation and Removal 775 CY $45.00 $34,875 5 Clearing and Grubbing 15,700 SF $0.75 $11,775 Vegetated Infiltration Basin 6 Fine Grading 15,700 SF $0.72 $11,304 7 Inlet Diversion Structure 1 LS $15,000 $15,000 8 Vegetation 15,700 SF $4.00 $62,800 Construction Subtotal $153,5049 Bond (5% of subtotal) $7,67510 Mobilization (10% of subtotal) $15,35011 Construction contingency (20% of subtotal) $30,701 Construction Total $207,23012 Design (40% of Construction Total) $82,892 Total Cost $290,123
  86. 86. Cost EstimateItem No Description Quantity Unit Unit Cost Total Preparation 1 Traffic Control 15 day $1,000.00 $15,000 2 Temporary Construction Fence 545 LF $2.50 $1,363 3 Silt Fence 545 LF $3.00 $1,635 Site Preparation 4 Curb and Gutter Removal 545 LF $3.30 $1,799 5 Excavation and Removal 296 CY $45.00 $13,320 Traditional Bioretention 7 Fine Grading 1,453 SF $0.72 $1,046 8 Soil Media 162 CY $40.00 $6,480 9 Filter Layer (sand and No. 8 stone) 18 CY $45.00 $810 10 Vegetation 1,453 SF $4.00 $5,812 11 Mulch 14 CY $55.00 $770 12 Curb and Gutter 278 LF $22.00 $6,116 Permeable Pavement 13 Curb and Gutter 363 LF $22.00 $7,986 14 Permeable Pavement 2906 SF $12.00 $34,872 15 Structural Layer (washed no 57 or no 2 stone) 54 CY $50.00 $2,700 16 Concrete Transition Strip 363 LF $4.00 $1,452 17 Utility Conflicts 1 LS $10,000.00 $10,000 Construction Subtotal $111,160 21 Bond (5% of subtotal) $5,558 22 Mobilization (10% of subtotal) $11,116 23 Construction contingency (20% of subtotal) $22,232 Construction Total $150,066 24 Design (40% of Construction Total) $60,026 Total Cost $210,093
  87. 87. Annual Maintenance Costs Routine Green Infrastructure Area Unit Cost Maintenance Practice (ft2) (per ft2) (monthly to 2 years)Bioretention 1,453 $2.28 $3,312.84Permeable pavement 2,906 $0.67 $1,947.02Vegetated Infiltration Basin 15,700 $1.91 $29,987.00
  88. 88. Typical Maintenance
  89. 89. Typical Maintenance
  90. 90. Questions?

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