A serious mental disorder characterized by: Disordered thoughts Delusions of persecution or grandeur Hallucinations Behaviors (withdrawn or detached)
Symptoms Positive: delusions, hallucinations, abnormal actions, or thought disorders. Negative social withdrawal, lack of affect, and reduced motivation.
Possible Causes Heritability Children born to parents with schizophrenia have a better chance of inheriting the disease themselves, than if a second or third degree relative had it. If identical twins are born, and one has schizophrenia, there is a 60% chance of the other twin having the disease as well
Possible Causes Biochemical Dopamine Hypothesis: schizophrenia is caused by excessive dopamine activity in the system. This can be worsened by abusing drugs such as cocaine or amphetamines, as these drugs further increase dopamine levels Evidenced from the observation that a large number of antipsychotics have dopamine-receptor antagonistic effects
Epidemiology Research suggest several environmental factors: -Season of birth: greatest during winter months -Viral epidemics: associated with viral diseases -Latitude: increased incidence further from equator -Prenatal malnutrition: ? -Maternal stress: ?
The cause of schizophrenia now appears to be a disturbance of normal brain development. Genetic predisposition may make individuals more susceptible Obstetric complications may cause individuals without genetic predisposition to develop schizophrenia
Pharmacology of Schizophrenia Chlorpromazine: A phenothiazine A “typical neuroleptic”; a nonspecific dopamine receptor blocker; first prescribed antischizophrenic drug. Clozapine: An “atypical neuroleptic”; an antipsychotic drug that blocks D4 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Little effect on D2 receptors
Consequences of Drug Treatmentof Schizophrenia Supersensitivity: Increased sensitivity of neurotransmitter receptors Tardive dyskinesia: A movement disorder characterized by involuntary movements of the face and neck.
Comparisons to Head Trauma Schizophrenics with have similar symptoms as those with frontal lobe damage. Frontal lobe size Ventricle size Cerebral gray matter decreases
Famous Schizophrenics John Nash- mathematician Eduard Einstein- son of Albert Einstein Mary Todd Lincoln- wife of Abraham Lincoln Jack Kerouac- author Louis Wain- artist