Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia

  1. 1. Alex Nichols Pd. 4-5
  2. 2.  A serious mental disorder characterized by:  Disordered thoughts  Delusions of persecution or grandeur  Hallucinations  Behaviors (withdrawn or detached)
  3. 3. Symptoms Positive:  delusions, hallucinations, abnormal actions, or thought disorders. Negative  social withdrawal, lack of affect, and reduced motivation.
  4. 4. Possible Causes Heritability  Children born to parents with schizophrenia have a better chance of inheriting the disease themselves, than if a second or third degree relative had it.  If identical twins are born, and one has schizophrenia, there is a 60% chance of the other twin having the disease as well
  5. 5. Possible Causes Biochemical  Dopamine Hypothesis: schizophrenia is caused by excessive dopamine activity in the system.  This can be worsened by abusing drugs such as cocaine or amphetamines, as these drugs further increase dopamine levels  Evidenced from the observation that a large number of antipsychotics have dopamine-receptor antagonistic effects
  6. 6. Epidemiology  Research suggest several environmental factors:  -Season of birth: greatest during winter months  -Viral epidemics: associated with viral diseases  -Latitude: increased incidence further from equator  -Prenatal malnutrition: ?  -Maternal stress: ?
  7. 7.  The cause of schizophrenia now appears to be a disturbance of normal brain development.  Genetic predisposition may make individuals more susceptible  Obstetric complications may cause individuals without genetic predisposition to develop schizophrenia
  8. 8. Pharmacology of Schizophrenia  Chlorpromazine: A phenothiazine  A “typical neuroleptic”; a nonspecific dopamine receptor blocker; first prescribed antischizophrenic drug.  Clozapine:  An “atypical neuroleptic”; an antipsychotic drug that blocks D4 receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Little effect on D2 receptors
  9. 9. Consequences of Drug Treatmentof Schizophrenia  Supersensitivity:  Increased sensitivity of neurotransmitter receptors  Tardive dyskinesia:  A movement disorder characterized by involuntary movements of the face and neck.
  10. 10. Comparisons to Head Trauma  Schizophrenics with have similar symptoms as those with frontal lobe damage.  Frontal lobe size  Ventricle size  Cerebral gray matter decreases
  11. 11. Famous Schizophrenics  John Nash- mathematician  Eduard Einstein- son of Albert Einstein  Mary Todd Lincoln- wife of Abraham Lincoln  Jack Kerouac- author  Louis Wain- artist

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