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The founding fathers and philosophies of learning


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The founding fathers and philosophies of learning.

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The founding fathers and philosophies of learning

  1. 1. The founding fathers and philosophies of learning Beatriz Rodríguez
  2. 2. introduction Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  3. 3. John Locke (1632-1704) Beating wife was a men’s right. Restoration of King Charles II 1659 Reign of William and Mary Reign of king James II Reign of Queen Anne Beheading of king Charles Civil war in England Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  4. 4. o Look published “Some Thoughts Concerning Education” in 1693. o His views on education were radical. o He was part of the group of English philosophers known as the empiricists, who believe that knowledge and understanding of the world comes through “sensory experience”. o Which lies on what we know as the “sciences” at the root of which lies the concept of “empirical thinking” whereby we observe, acquire and quantify data.Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  5. 5. o He strongly held that individuals should use their own reasons to explore what is true as opposed to simply accepting what they are told by the authority. o He held the view of individuals born as a “blank slate” (tabula rasa). o Experiences gained through senses. o He saw the purpose of education as that of instilling within individuals a strong sense of virtue. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  6. 6. o He also emphasized the importance of learning how to learn. o He placed considerable emphasis upon the importance of language and communication. o Learning should be enjoyable. o He laid down the building blocks for future thinking around the importance of play and the development of language. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  7. 7. What benefits can early years practitioners gain from observing and recording the behavior of young children? How reliable can their interpretations of this observations be?
  8. 8. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) 9 days after giving birth to him At the age of 10 his father moved away His father remarried. Great plague London 1665 Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  9. 9. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) o His philosophy of education is that all human being are born “good”. o He believed individuals inherit much of what would contribute to their potential make-up. o He held that individuals inherit the propensity to be good. o He sees societies as agents of potential perversion. o He saw education as the means by which the natural make-up of individuals could be developed to improve them and also improve society. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  10. 10. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) o For him developing the character of individuals was a fundamental goal of those education processes in school. o For Rousseau the role of the tutor was of the upmost importance. o Growing children increased awareness of the world around them. o They increase their understanding of humility, honesty, dishonesty and respect for themselves and for others. o He saw education as being 'l'art de former des homes' or the art of forming men. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  11. 11. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) o Rousseau saw the role of the tutor 'as being that of guiding the child in such a way that the child learns the difference between right and wrong not as a result of punishment but as a result of understanding the consequences of their actions. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  12. 12. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) He was one of the first proponents of developmental education. 1st stage: from birth – 12 years • Children was influence and directed in their thinking and actions and also by emotions and impulses. 2nd stage: 13 – 16 • Reason begins to take over from emotions. After 16 the child moves to adulthood Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  13. 13. Friedrich Froebel (1782-18529) 9 month after his birth Around 10 years old he went to live with his uncle Married to WilhelmineIn 1818 She died in 1839 Leaving no children Remarried Louis In 1851 Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  14. 14. Friedrich Froebel (1782-18529) His own school in 1816 “On the education of man” 1826 Teachers training for the Swiss government He opened a school named “kindergarten” in 1837Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  15. 15. Friedrich Froebel (1782-18529) o Froebel view play as central to the education of children o He believed passionately in the importance of children expressing themselves through play. o He liberated the notion of play and made it central to the education. o He held the view that individuals were born creative and through their active believe in God developed as good members of society. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  16. 16. Friedrich Froebel (1782-18529) o Froebel set about creating specialized education materials. o He believed being active for children was important. o He recognized the value of music in education f young children and the value of singing. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  17. 17. John Dewey (1859-1952) American Civil war Billy the kid Second world war Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  18. 18. John Dewey (1859-1952) o He was writing at a time when teaching was a very formal nature. o Pre school education was ill-understood o Dewey has been associated with the notion of child-centered education. o On Dewey’s philosophy lies the importance of understanding children’s experiences. o He believed education requires support and direction in structuring their own learning o Educators must acknowledge the uniqueness of each child. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  19. 19. John Dewey (1859-1952) o The curriculum should take account of and allow this differences. o Education should be seen as having a wider social purpose, preparing children to become effective members of their society. He espoused two notions: • Schools should be seen as communities in themselves. • Educators cannot alter the past experiences of children. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  20. 20. John Dewey (1859-1952) He argued that educators must: o Deal with the present and the future. o Engaging in the process of understanding the past experiences of their pupils. o Be informed of how to effect change over what the pupil will learn and in what way is relevant for each pupil. In the case of young children their experiences are of great immediate value and will affect future experiences and learning. It can be argue that we all learn from what we do, what do you think? Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  21. 21. Maria Montessori (1870 -1952) Born in italy First female medical doctor Single mother Attended a school for boys Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  22. 22. Maria Montessori (1870 -1952) o A Montessori teacher places great emphasis upon the environment in which the child learns. o The teacher is the guardian of the environment. o Montessori introduced the notion of children’s house, which has an environment that offered simulation where children were free to develop their learning. o She strongly advocated the importance of learning through their senses. o Children should take responsibility for their own learning. o She took the initiative of designing furniture suitable for the children in her children’s house. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  23. 23. Maria Montessori (1870 -1952) At the heart of the Montessori method lies the notion of stages that children pass.  1st: the child experiences significant levels of change in the areas of physical, social and emotional development, starts to take their first steps, use their first words.  2nd: they can run, jurnp and climb, and engage in conversation with others using complex and sophisticated language structures and vocabulary. They are beginning to understand the feelings of others and adapt their own behaviours and actions in accordance with these. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  24. 24. Maria Montessori (1870 -1952) 1st plane: children also develop their abilities in such important areas as; memory information processing expressive and receptive language Within the first Plane, Montessori identified what she termed 11 'sensitive' periods: • Movement • Language • Small Objects • Order • Music • Grace and Courtesy • Refinement of the Senses • Writing Fascination • Reading • Spatial Relationships • Mathematics. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  25. 25. Rudolf Steiner (1861 -1925) Born in now part of croatia Very competent linguistic mathematician Architect Scientist Classical scholar Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  26. 26. o The purpose of Rudolf’s school was to educate the children of the people who worked in the factory of Waldorf Astoria who was the owner a large cigarrete factory. o Progressive views of education become a huge success o He got engaged in teaching training. o He believed the function of education was to respond to the changing need of the children, cognitive and emotional. o There is a significant emphasize upon play, art and drawing upon likns between art and science. Rudolf Steiner (1861 -1925) Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  27. 27. o Children are not taught to read before age 7. o When older the children will be more mature and will acquire formal literacy and numeracy easily. o Children should be taught write before reading. o Children sing each day and learn to play instruments. o Assessment is done by observation. o Where possible children keep the same teacher until the secondary stage. o “Narrative approach” to learning (emphasize on listening, imagination.) Rudolf Steiner (1861 -1925) Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  28. 28. Rachel McMillan (1859 -1917) and Margaret McMillan (1860-1931) Born in New York Parents emigrated from Scotland Their father died 1865 Sister Elizabeth died 1865 Returned to Scotland Their mother died in 1877 Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  29. 29. Rachel McMillan (1859 -1917) and Margaret McMillan (1860-1931) Grandma died in 1888 Rachel moved to London London poverty Poor sanitation Jack the Ripper School became compulsory Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  30. 30. o Free school meals for children. o Regular medical inspections of school-aged children with their clinic opened in 1908. o They believed in the importance of the first years of a child’s life. o Social reformers. o Open-air learning. o Margaret argued imagination was very important in children’ education. o Caring for animals and plants. o Margaret founded the Rachel McMillan college in 1930. Rachel McMillan (1859 -1917) and Margaret McMillan (1860-1931) Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera
  31. 31. Beatriz Rodríguez Rivera