A tool to support policy making and implementation for sustainable consumption STAVE Systematic Tool for Behavioral Assumption Validation and Exploration Good Practice Guide If you are interested in understanding and addressing citizens’ daily behavior in any policy context STAVE may suit you The STAVE tool was developed in the context of the EU Pachelbel Project (Policy Addressing Climate Change and Learning about Consumer Behaviour and Everyday Life) (GA 244024) www.pachelbel.eu
This guide aims at helping potential users of the STAVE tool to get a feel of what the tool does and how it can help in policy making and policy implementation for sustainable consumption What is the STAVE tool ? How can I know if it suits my needs? A detailed description of the STAVE tool can be found in the STAVE Manual The STAVE tool was developed and tested in the climate change and sustainabilitycontext in the framework of the EU funded project Pachelbel. Its characteristics and capabilities enable the STAVE tool to serve meaningfully in other policy contexts where citizens’ daily behaviour is a fundamental concern
What is STAVE? A tool to support policy making and implementation for sustainable consumption A strategy to link the sphere of policy-making with the sphere of everyday lay citizen behaviours A set of procedures/methods to identify policy- makers’ concerns, engage citizens in reflecting about the policy area, “capture” the related everyday behaviours and discourses, and feed them back to the policy makers. The STAVE trials carried out in the framework of the Pachelbel project in six EUcountries focused on defining new policy initiatives and/or validating existing policy measures dealing with the promotion of sustainable behaviors in 6 EU countries.
Is STAVE a suitable tool for me?The evidence gathered through the STAVE trials indicate that it is a strong tool to dealwith everyday citizen behaviors, especially in areas that do not involve highly polarized issues (public opposition, demonstrations, conflicts of interests, etc.). • Does your policy issue relate to “everyday Yes citizen behaviours”? • Is your policy issue a highly controversial No one? • Are you ready to commit to an “engagement” Yes process? • Are you ready to involve a “STAVE operator” Yes (with social science skills) in the process? STAVE is a deceptively simple but sophisticated tool. To make the best of it the owner of the process (policy maker) needs to be committed to it, and social science skills should be integrated through calling upon a so-called “STAVE operator”.
The STAVE processIf you are considering the possibility of implementing STAVE , these are the four key steps to be followed 1. Clarifying objectives 2. Preparing the intervention 3. Implementing the process 4. Providing feedback
A visual representation of the key four steps to be followed if you are considering the use of STAVE 1 2 Clarifying objectives Preparing the intervention x x x x 3 Implementing the processTOOLKIT Meeting 1 Meeting 2 Meeting 3 4 Providing feedback
1. Clarifying objectives This very first step aims to help you clarify your needs and concerns = your demand 1 2 Clarifying objectives Preparing the intervention x x x x 3 1 Implementing the process Clarifying objectives TOOLKIT Meeting 1 Meeting 2 Meeting 3 4 Providing feedback Characterize your policy context A reflection focused on these three aspects will facilitate the proper Specify your “policy issue” definition of your objectives. Characterize your citizen contextTo this end, a so-called “Project Group” involving representatives of the policy makerand the STAVE operator should be established so your STAVE process can benefit from , and properly integrate, the most pertinent inputs.
Characterize your policy contextYour demand will be closely linked to your own policy profile, so please place your institution in the following figure according to your level of government, and experience with social research as well as with public participation process. Level of government Local Regional National Familiar Experience with public participation Unfamiliar Unfamiliar Familiar Experience with social research The STAVE trials showed that your specific policy profile will influence greatly the type of intervention you will wish to prepare, and the type of feedback that will be most useful to improving your policy design and implementation.
Characterize your policy issueThis step will help you to specify the policy issue suitable for your STAVE process as well as the particular questions that may guide its appropriate design and implementation Specify your policy issue The STAVE trials showed that the tool can properly address quite a wide range of “policy issues”, such as domestic energy savings – including citizens interaction with smart meters , transportation habits, recycling, buying domestic appliances, etc. Define the specific policy questionsThe specific questions STAVE can deal with include:Knowledge gaps? Need to know more about specific citizen behaviors, or gainevidence on lay persons reasoning and actions? Acceptability of specific policies/strategies? Public views on specific policy options? Engaging specific groups in policy strategies (“access”)? Consider the exploratory/validatory dimensionDepending on your “policy issue” and “questions” you may use STAVE to explore newpolicy options or to validate existing ones. Most of the STAVE trials entailed acombination of both.
Characterize your citizen context You will engage pertinent groups of citizens to reflect (directly or indirectly) on yourquestions, in order to “capture” the related behaviours and discourses (step 3). Suchknowledge will be then be fed back to you and your project group (step 4) so you can consider/integrate/etc. it in your policy making & implementation .Define your target group (“concerned public”): The STAVE trials engaged laycitizens living in relevant types of buildings, neighborhoods or areas (segmented acrosssignificant socio-demographic variables), or alternatively, identified stakeholders (such as shopkeepers from a very specific neighborhood) • Citizens The target • Stakeholders group The target • Does it entail daily or infrequent behaviours? behaviour • Does it entail controversy? Define your target “behaviors” (the ones that policy seeks to foster): The STAVE trials dealt with daily behaviors related to energy consumption, transportation, etc. STAVE also worked well with mundane but less FREQUENT behaviors, such as purchasing home appliances. The STAVE Manual and Operator will help you to define your target groups and target behaviors
2. Preparing the intervention (design and monitoring) The second step aims to help you design your STAVE intervention with the support of the STAVE operator and the STAVE Manual2 Preparing the intervention 1 2 Clarifying objectives Preparing the intervention x x x x x x x x 3 Implementing the process TOOLKIT Meeting 1 Meeting 2 Meeting 3 4 Providing feedback Defining the policy makers’ roleDeciding the sampling of concerned public Deciding on research tactics
Defining the role of policy makers In Step 1 we mentioned the need to create the so-called “Project Group” involving representatives of the policy maker and the STAVE operator so your STAVE process can benefit from , and properly integrate, the most pertinent inputs. Now we specify the requirements for such a “project group” to perform properly. Requirements for the Policy Group Be ready to engage with the feedback activities during the STAVE process Be ready to interact with the STAVE operator to refine your objectives and questions through the process Designate a policy actor to be actively involved as a monitoring partner to the STAVE operator throughout the implementation processIn the STAVE trials one or two policy partners were consistently involved in dialoguewith the operator through meetings, phone conversations or electronic interactions. Findings from previous steps in the process can be analyzed, objectives can be reconsidered, and new (“external”) circumstances can be properly integrated. During the STAVE trials, refinements of the intervention (adjusting the objectives oradapting the process) were driven by the policy partner and/or by the STAVE operator
Deciding the sampling of the concerned publicA sample of citizens from your “concerned public” has to be defined in order to createyou “citizen group/s”. Once your citizen group is arranged, the STAVE tool will“translate” your needs/demands to such group/s, “capture” the related every day laybehaviours and discourses, and feed them back to you in meaningful ways. How to make a decision on the most appropriate segmentation for your citizen group/s? Heterogeneous composition: members showing a wide range of socio- demographic (and other) characteristics + This will give access to a broad spectrum of everyday behaviours - It may inform more about individual idiosyncrasies, than about a social reality Homogeneous composition: members with similar socio-demographic (and other) characteristics + This will tap into socially shared ways of life - Conformity of contributions so different experiences may not be revealed There is no “perfect” solution so a careful trade-off of each option, considering its pros and cons, should be developed by the Project Group
Deciding on research tactics In line with other research, Pachelbel found that the way you “frame” your issue/question has an impact on the kind of answers you will get. For instance, you can view “recycling” as a personal environmental commitment to address climatechange, or as the efficient way to respect municipal trash collection arrangements, or as a combination of both. Citizen group members may offer a third or fourth view… The Project Group should consider the following STAVE options with the operator: How to frame the invitation to the citizen group?: in environmental terms or in a more daily/mundane terms? How to introduce the process?: as one to explicitly address a specific policy problem or as a more "open" one? Research evidence suggests that if you frame STAVE as being explicitly about environmental issues, some participants may have a tendency to respond with “aspirations”, rather than with actual practices. Through the Project Groups, the STAVE operator (and Manual) would help in assessing the appropriate framing and approach for your case.
3. Implementing the STAVE process The third step aims to help you implement your investigation 1 2 Clarifying objectives Preparing the intervention x x x x 3 Implementing the process TOOLKIT 3 Meeting 1 Meeting 2 Meeting 3 4 Implementing the process Providing feedback Diary 1 Diary 2TOOLKIT Meeting 1 Meeting 2 Meeting 3 Pattern of implementation The Tool Kit
Pattern of implementationOnce your process is designed , the next step entails engaging with citizens in order to capture their real behaviors and related discourses on your policy issue. The STAVE trial “standard” sequence: Diary 1 Diary 2 Group 1 TOOLKIT Meeting 1 Meeting 2 Meeting 3 Diary 1 Diary 2 TOOLKIT Group 2 Meeting 1 Meeting 2 Meeting 3 Diary 2 Group 3 TOOLKIT Diary 1 Meeting 1 Meeting 2 Meeting 3 STAVE group activities are designed to generate discourse revealing the understandings and practices related to sustainability that are shared among lay citizens. Combining elements of research and of engagement, the STAVE process in our example is conducted with three separate groups of participants. It entails threemeetings of each single group of citizens (Reconvened Focus Groups), with an interval period of 7-10 days, during which a diary is produced by participants.
Pattern of implementation Deciding the number of citizen groups: The STAVE standard “protocol”, as implemented in Project Pachelbel, was based on 3 citizen groups for each STAVE implementation. This number provedconvenient both in practical terms (resources required) and in terms of quality of outputs (providing comparability and in-depth evidence). Deciding the temporal sequence of your citizen groups: Sequential: Simultaneous: Group 1 can be implemented in All three groups run in advance to test and refine the parallel; allowing comparisons process to be then applied in among groups groups 2 and 3 The STAVE operator (and the STAVE Manual) would help in identifying the appropriate number of groups and temporal sequence for your specific policy objectives.
The Tool Kit TOOLKIT Meeting 1 Meeting 2 Meeting 3 • Diaries • EVOC/CAPA • Simulated news article • Oval mapping • Diaries feedback • Resource allocation task •Policy questions • Evaluation QuestionnaireThe STAVE tool kit integrates a number of techniques and procedures (deceptively simple but sophisticated) to engage with your citizen groups.A detailed description of the component parts of the tool kit, together with indications on its implementation, is included in the STAVE Manual.
The Tool Kit* Particularly productive components according to the STAVE trials Oval mapping is a powerful resource to illustrate the evolution from the abstract to the specific, bridge the gap between self-perception and real behaviour, and synthesize attitudes and reasoning Diaries deliver a richness of data on daily behaviours and focus participants’ attention on their day-to-day activities Policy questions create “lay knowledge” usable in a strategic policy making process Resource allocation exercise enables a straightforward ranking of potential policy measures EVOC/CAPA questionnaire set confronts policy makers’ intuitions on citizens’ attitudes, and delivers information on individual profiles and awareness of the group participants Simulated newspaper article provides information to the groups and stimulates discussions
The Tool Kit* Particularly productive combinations according to the STAVE trials The STAVE trials identified particularly productive combinations of the tool kit components, such as the ones below Oval mapping and diaries: CAPA and diaries: The group-based oval mapping revealed High scores on the CAPA quite a lot of aspects related to the questionnaire (judging one’s own policy issue. The individually-produced capability to act in favour of diaries prompted participants to notice sustainable consumption) may what they “really do”, triggering self- contrast with the limitations reflection and making participants re- acknowledged in diaries. The think what was already discussed. This combination of tools proves combination is useful for bridging the meaningful for uncovering the gap between self-perception and real gap between aspirations and real behaviours. behaviors Diaries, resource allocation and policy questions This combination produced insight by situating citizens in their everyday life (diaries) and then inviting them to take the policy maker role (resource allocation and policy question exercises)
4. Providing feedbackThe final step aims to help you draw the insight from the group process 1 2 Clarifying objectives Preparing the intervention x x x x 3 Implementing the process4 TOOLKIT Providing feedback Meeting 1 Meeting 2 Meeting 3 4 Providing feedback Characterizing feedbackDeciding the feedback strategy
Characterizing feedback Once the experiences and discourses of your citizen groups have been captured, thenext and final step deals with “translating” such evidence back to the Project Group in a suitable way so you can consider it in your policy making & implementationThe figure below illustrates the different feedback modes applied during the STAVE trials. Your STAVE operator will help you to find the suitable one for you This feedback mode provides findings right after a session or a complete STAVE intervention – Building on the speedy responding to assumed policy feedback, the Full report makers’ needs for quickly available includes an elaborated (social and easy to understand information. sciences) analysis (by the The “speedy” feedback relies STAVE operator) that also primarily on the materials directly captures the PM responses to produced by the citizens the “speedy” mode, to draw participating in the group full insight Speedy mode Full report Combined options From a slightly elaborated “speedy mode” to the full report
Characterizing feedbackThe “speedy mode” delivers to the Project Group a visual and easy to follow presentation of the citizen group participants’ direct outputs. The STAVE operator will elaborate such a presentation for you. The “speedy mode” Example of a “speedy feedback” including extracts from group transcriptions and diaries, as well as results from oval maps, resource allocation exercise and EVOC.
Characterizing feedback Building on the speedy mode, the “Full Report” mode includes an elaborated (social sciences) analysis (by the STAVE operator) The Full Report This feedback mode has a more social research oriented focus and will be elaborated by your STAVE operator.It is based upon a qualitative analysis of the groups and diaries data (discourseanalysis of transcriptions) and a quantitative analysis of EVOC/CAPA, resource allocation and policy question exercises and evaluation questionnaire.The full report provides findings to policy makers that may detail or adjust the “speedy” findings. Ideally, it will be discussed and considered by the ProjectGroup in interaction with the operator. This dialogue may lead to an expanded final report.
Deciding the feedback strategy According to the STAVE trials, the kind of “evidence” you will require by the end of the process (in order to practically integrate the process findings in your design and/or implementation of policy initiatives) would much depend on your specific policy profile.Higher levels of government (National) and higher levels of experience with social researchand/or public participation processes may seek more elaborated feedback (i.e., full report). During the STAVE trials, Local government tended to prefer the “speedy” mode Level of government Local Regional National Familiar Spain 1 Experience with public participation UK Sweden Germnay France Spain 2-3 Unfamiliar Romania Unfamiliar Familiar Experience with social research The STAVE Operator will help to identify, and to elaborate, the most suitable feedback mode according to your policy profile.
A tool to support policy making and implementation for sustainable consumption STAVE Systematic Tool for Behavioral Assumption Validation and Exploration Good Practice Guide If you are interested in understanding and addressing citizens’ daily behaviors STAVE may suit you. This Good Practice Guide gives simple, straightforward keys to planning, designing and conducting a STAVE process.That process will call on the detailed STAVE Manual, and may benefit from the collaboration of a STAVE operator. The STAVE tool was developed in the context of the EU Pachelbel Project (Policy Addressing Climate Change and Learning about Consumer Behaviour and Everyday Life) (GA 244024) www.pachelbel.eu