Ed anxiety&depression


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Emotional Disorder Presentation:
Anxiety & Depression

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Ed anxiety&depression

  1. 1. Kelly Meikle & Sylvia Harper<br />Emotional Disorders:Anxiety Disorders & Depression<br />
  2. 2. Anxiety Disorders <br />Anxiety disorders affect 12% of the population in Canada, causing mild to severe impairment.<br />There are seven main anxiety disorders in children/youth: Social Anxiety Disorder, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Specific Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Separation Anxiety.<br />There are 3 main types of depression: Major Depression, AKA clinical depression or unipolar depression, Bipolar Depression, AKA manic depressive illness, and Dysthymia Depression, which is chronic and a less severe form of depression.<br />Other types of depression are: Seasonal Affective Depression (SAD), post-partum depression, and adjustment disorder with depressed mood.<br />Emotional Disorders <br />Depression<br />
  3. 3. Anxiety Disorder <br />The most common anxiety disorder is Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) which occurs when a person is consumed with worry. These worries might be everyday things that others might not have difficulty putting aside to concentrate on other thoughts. Students who experience anxiety cannot cope with the lack of control of things in their lives. They are often perfectionists, worrisome, and may be constantly seeking reassurance, but difficult or impossible to put at ease.<br />If excessive worrying and other symptoms are present for more than six months, and not in response to a traumatic experience, a student may have GAD.<br />Depression is a mental illness in which a person has feelings of sadness, instability, loneliness, worthlessness, hopelessness, and guilt. It is a common mental disorder and can be treated successfully. <br /> Depression is not always recognized in children and young adults, therefore, they do not always get the treatment they need.<br />Definitions<br />Depression<br />
  4. 4. Anxiety Disorder<br />There are many factors that can contribute to a person’s chances of developing anxiety. The potential causes have been divided into three groups, genetics and early learning, brain biochemistry, and the fight or flight mechanism.<br />Although younger children can show signs of excessive worry, children usually develop GAD at about 12 years old.<br />Girls are more likely to have GAD than boys: 2 out of every 3 children with GAD are girls.<br />Approximately half of children with an anxiety disorder will continue to suffer from it when they are adults.<br />Many children with GAD also have other anxiety problems. The most common problems are social anxiety, depression, separation anxiety, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).<br />There is no one cause to depression. Depression can be a result of a combination of many different factors such as biological (biochemical imbalances in the brain), genetics (a child is more likely to have depression if one parent suffers from it), and psychosocial factors (Distressing life events or environmental stress such as divorce, death of a loved one, abuse, family violence, etc.).<br /> <br />Studies have shown that over one third of teens are likely to experience anywhere from mild to severe depression. When the teenagers are asked themselves, up to 40% of male teenagers and close to 50% of female teenagers have reported feeling depressive symptoms. In Manitoba, statistics say that approximately 24% of the population over the age of 10 suffers from depression at some point in their lives.<br />Causes & Prevalence<br />Depression<br />
  5. 5. Anxiety Disorder<br />Physical: Stomach aches, muscle aches or cramps, sweating, shortness of breath, dizziness/faintness, headaches, hyperactivity, nausea/vomiting, pain, sleep problems, restlessness.<br />Emotional: Anxiety, drops in academic performance, poor attendance, problems with attention & concentration, distractibility, fear, irritability, perfectionism, lacking social skills, negative thinking, exaggeration of possible negative outcomes, excessive worrying.<br />Decline in academic performance.<br />Change in appetite and appearance.<br />Overwhelming feelings of sadness or grief.<br />Anger and irritability.<br />Avoiding other people.<br />Loss of interest in taking part in activities.<br />Difficulty concentrating and making decisions.<br />Loss of energy.<br />Unreasonable feelings of guilt, helplessness, or hopelessness.<br />Feeling overwhelmed by small things.<br />Sleep disturbances<br />Substance abuse.<br />Thoughts of death, suicide or harm to others.<br />Aches and pains (such as headaches, stomach pain,joint pains or other pains).<br />Symptoms/Indicators<br />Depression<br />
  6. 6. Anxiety Disorder<br />Panic Attacks are episodes of intense panic or fear. These episodes do not occur in every case of anxiety disorder. They can come on in response to a stress trigger or they can occur randomly.<br />Some indicators of a Panic Attack include:<br />Surge of overwhelming panic, loss of control or “going crazy”, heart palpitations, chest pain, faintness, trouble breathing, choking sensation, hyperventilation, hot flashes/chills, trembling/shaking, nausea, feeling detached or unreal.<br />The most extreme case of depression is Bipolar depression. It is characterized by mood swings. These swings can be severe, ranging from extreme energy to deep despair. <br />Some symptoms of “mania” are: <br />Increased physical and mental activity and energy, Heightened mood, exaggerated optimism and self-confidence, Grandiose delusions, Impulsiveness, poor judgment, distractibility, Reckless behaviour , and in the most severe cases, delusions and hallucinations.<br />Extreme Cases<br />Depression<br />
  7. 7. Anxiety Disorder<br />Behavioural Therapy<br />Cognitive-behaviour Therapy<br />Exposure Therapy<br />Medication<br />Most effective when combined with behaviour therapy<br />Duration and dosage depends on each case<br />Complementary Treatments<br />Exercise<br />Relaxation techniques<br />Biofeedback<br />Hypnosis<br />Psychotherapy <br />The exploration of events and feelings that are painful or troubling, and learning coping skills. <br />Cognitive-behavioural therapy <br />Challenges negative thinking and behaving patterns. <br />Interpersonal therapy <br />Focuses on developing healthier relationships at home and school<br />Medication <br />Helps to relieve some symptoms of depression and is often prescribed with therapy.<br />Treatment<br />Depression<br />
  8. 8. Anxiety Disorder<br />Communication Strategies: Privacy, absence of background noise, providing information in writing for future reference, compensation for short term memory and attention.<br />It may be helpful to ask the child “what if” questions when they are expressing worry and help them to look at the possibilities of what actually could happen. This can help to interrupt the child’s process of imagining catastrophes.<br />Notify the student support team, meet with parents, refer student to school counsellor, child/adolescent health worker, and/or psychologist.<br />Sensitivity and awareness of material that may impact the student emotionally will help to facilitate successful participation for the student in the classroom.<br />Create an inviting classroom by being accepting and a good listener. You should also keep a positive tone, humour is good but avoid sarcasm. Provide student with constructive suggestions and feedback that are brief and specific. Try to avoid over-generalizing (saying “always” or “never”).Develop routines or rituals that are conducive to learning.<br />Teach the student organizational strategies such as writing down assignments in a day-planner or agenda.. Encourage students to use positive self-talk and problem solving when confronted with difficult work. You may have to model this behaviour to the students. Help students organize complex assignments.<br />Strategies to Support the Learner<br />Depression<br />
  9. 9. Anxiety Disorder<br />Instructional strategies: note takers, taped lectures, hard copies of notes, overheads and handouts, computers, online services, peer assistance, individualized pacing of work, flexibility in deadlines, monitoring the homework load, extra time on tests, alternative forms of assessment, alternative setting for tests (private or semi-private), provide notice and briefing on any changes that might occur in the classroom, celebrate successes with risk-taking. <br />Maintain a pleasant, interested tone and be prepared to listen. Find out what motivates students and how they learn best. Be aware of any special needs or learning problems. Initiate conversation.<br />Use advance organizers when presenting assignments. Have handouts or put outlines on the board of the day’s activities. <br />Make accommodations for assignments and exams such as alternative settings, extra time to hand in homework, during tests or waiting for a response.<br />Instructional Strategies<br />Depression<br />
  10. 10. Anxiety Disorder<br />An anxiety disorder can affect a child’s ability to enjoy life. Constant worry or fear leaves a child feeling mentally and physically drained. <br />It is important to take into account not only the child’s learning needs, but their feelings and emotions as well. Doing so, in combination with suggested strategies, will help the child to become an active member of the classroom.<br />Depression is hard to diagnose in children and teenagers because it’s hard to tell the difference between depression and natural moodiness which is why it’s important to become familiar with the indicators of depression.<br />None of the suggestions are unique or unusual. Many of the suggestions listed about students with depression are transferable to other students who are having difficulty in school.<br />Summary<br />Depression<br />
  11. 11. http://www.anxietybc.com/<br />http://www.anxietycanada.ca/english/index.php<br />http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/docs/depression_resource.pdf **<br />http://www.camh.net/About_Addiction_Mental_Health/AMH101/top_searched_depression.html#symptoms<br />Canadian Mental Health Association, Westman Region. (n.d.). Dealing with Depression: The Silent Witness. Brandon, MB: Leech Printing.<br />http://www.canmat.org/di-depression-children-adolescents.php<br />http://www.depressionhurts.ca/en/depressionsymptoms.aspx<br />http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/specedu/guidance/resources/Youth_Depression.ppt<br />http://helpguide.org/mental/anxiety_types_symptoms_treatment.htm<br />http://library.queensu.ca/websrs/faculty_guide-Strategies-Psych.html<br />http://www.mdabc.net/balanced_living/personal/depressed_all_my_life.php<br />http://www.mooddisorderscanada.ca/documents/Consumer%20and%20Family%20Support/Depression%20fact%20Sheet%20edited%20Dec15%202010.pdf<br />http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/miic-mmac/chap_4-eng.php<br />http://www.themanitoban.com/articles/40318<br />http://www.thehealthcenter.info/child-anxiety/cause-of-anxiety.htm<br />Smith, et all. Teaching Students With Special Needs In Inclusive Settings. Toronto: Pearson, 2010. 3rd Ed.<br />Symons, Cam. The Exceptional Teachers’ Casebook. Brandon MB: Brandon University Faculty of Education, 2010. 2nd Ed. <br />References<br />