Australia is one of the 14 independent countries
of Oceania and is the world's sixth largest.
Surrounded by the Indian, Pacific and Antarctic
Glacial, is separated from Asia by the Arafura
and Timor seas.
The 7,686,850 km ² of Australia are located in the
Indo-Australian plate. Australia has a coastline of
With 2228 m altitude, Mount Kosciuszko on the Great
Dividing Range is the highest mountain in Australia
The Australian hydrography is clear evidence of the
drying process that suffers the island continent, the
two major rivers, the Murray Darling and despite
having greater lengths than 2000 km lead over most
of his meager flow section that gives the
appearance of narrow streams
The Monument to Pope John Paul II, is a
bronze statue depicting Pope John Paul II,
located on the side of the Cathedral of St.
Mary of Sydney in Sydney city.
The Gay and Lesbian Holocaust Memorial
(Memorial to the Holocaust of gays and lesbians) is
a monument located in the Green Park Sydney
(Australia) opened on 27 February 2001.
The Hyde Park Obelisk is an obelisk located in Hyde Park in the
city of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales in Australia.
Serves as a sewer vent designed to remove harmful sewer
gases that move above street level. Inspired by Cleopatra's
Needle on the banks of the River Thames in London.
The fauna of Australia consists of a huge variety of animals:
Some 83% of mammals, 89% of reptiles, 90% of fish and insects
and 93% of amphibians that inhabit the continent are endemic to
Australia has a rich mammalian fossil history, as well as a variety of extant
mammalian species, dominated by the marsupials
Monotremes and marsupials
The monotremes differ from other mammals in their methods of
reproduction; in particular, they lay eggs instead of giving birth to live
Australia has the world's largest and most diverse range of marsupials.
Australia and its territories are home to around 800 species of
bird; about 350 of these are endemic to the zoogeographic
region that covers Australia, New Guinea and New Zealand.
Australia and its territories are home to around 800 species of
bird.About 200 species of seabird live on the Australian coast.
One very common large seabird is the Australian Pelican, which
can be found in most waterways in Australia. The Little Penguin is
the only species of penguin that breeds on mainland Australia.
1.3Amphibians and reptiles
Australia has four families of native frogs and one introduced
toad, the Cane Toad.
Australia has two species of crocodile. The Saltwater Crocodile,
known colloquially as the "salty," is the largest living crocodile
species; reaching over 7 m, and weighing over 1,000 kg they can
and do kill people.
The Australian coast is visited by six species of sea turtle.
Australia is the only continent where venomous
snakes outnumber their non-venomous cousins. Australian snakes
belong to seven families. Of these, the most venomous species.
More than 4,500 species of fish inhabit Australia's waterways; of
these, 90% are endemic. However, because of the relative
scarcity of freshwater waterways, Australia has only about 300
species of freshwater fish.
Several exotic freshwater fish species, including Brown, Brook and
Rainbow Trout, Atlantic and Chinook Salmon, Redfin Perch,
Common Carp, and Mosquitofish.
The climate of Australia varies widely due to its large geographical size,
but by far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid. Only the
south-east and south-west corners have a temperate climate and
moderately fertile soil. The northern part of the country has a tropical
climate, varied between tropical rainforests, grasslands, part desert.
The rain is variable, with frequent droughts.
The rainfall patterns across Australia are highly seasonal. It however rains
more in winter than in summer by approximately 11%, and compared to
the Earth's other continental landmasses Australia is very dry. More than
80% of the continent has an annual rainfall of less than 600 mm ; only
Antarctica receives less rainfall than Australia.
In Australia, snow falls on the highlands near
the east coast, in the states of Victoria, New
South Wales and Tasmania and the Australian
Capital Territory. There is a regular snow season
in several areas which have seasonal ski
tourism industries. Sometimes snow has even
been reported in the mountains of South
Australia, Western Australia and Queensland,
though this is rare.
The flora of Australia comprises a vast assemblage of
plant species estimated to over 20,000 vascular and
14,000 non-vascular plants, 250,000 species of fungi and
over 3,000 lichens.
Prominent features of the Australian flora are
adaptations to aridity and fire which include
scleromorphy and serotiny
3.1 Vascular plants.
Australia has over 30,000 described species of vascular
plants, these include the angiosperms, seed-bearing nonangiosperms
The fungal flora of Australia is not well
characterised; Australia is estimated to
have about 250,000 fungal species of
which roughly 5% have been described.
Knowledge of distribution, substrates and
habitats is poor for most species, with the
exception of common plant pathogens
The Australian Government's Threatened
Species Scientific Committee has
identified 15 biodiversity hotspots in
Australian and 85 characteristic
Mel Gibson: One of the most recognizable Australian actors, was in
this country where he developed his love of film, which brought him
back to America to star in classic franchises like Lethal Weapon and
Mad Max, and then also switching to the address, The acclaimed
Hugh Jackman: Much of his success as an actor owes the role of
Wolverine in X-Men, which allowed him to become famous, his talent
does not end with a character and played the classic Van Helsing and
was nominated for an Oscar for his
role in the musical Les Miserables.
Heath Ledger :
Maybe today is the most iconic Australian actor. His most memorable role,
that of the Joker in The Dark Knight (2008) unfortunately will forever be linked to his death long before
the premiere, which gives it a dark and dramatic tinge to it would have been just one of the best
performances in recent years. His talent had already been demonstrated in several previous films,
mainly Brokeback Mountain (2005).
Russell Crowe: He became known worldwide for his starring role in Gladiator (2000) but before
he had starred major films (the aforementioned LA Confidential and The Insider) It probably became
the most charismatic actor participating in almost twenty films more, several of them great
Geoffrey Rush:This actor is part of the small group of those who
have won what is known as the "Triple Crown of Acting", that have been
the most prestigious awards working in film, television and theater
(Oscars, Awards Emmy and Tony Awards, respectively). One of his most
popular roles is that of Captain Barbossa in Pirates of the Caribbean saga.
However, more awards and nominations earned was his performance in
The King's Speech (2010).
The music, dance and art of the
Australian Aborigines have a remarkable
influence on the performing and visual
arts in contemporary Australia. The
nation has an active tradition of music,
ballet and theater, many performing arts
companies receive public funding
through the Australia Council for the Arts.
There is an orchestra in each capital city
and a national opera company, Opera
Australia. Australia The music includes
classical music, jazz and many other
genres of popular music.
Kylie Ann Minogue was born in Melbourne Australia is an Australian pop
singer, songwriter and actress. Kylie had a great impact in the country
especially in music, since it was the first Australian to win one Hollywood
actress and bursting the American music scene with their music.
Born in Whangarei (New Zealand) but was raised in Australia. He is a
musician, singer and songwriter, the kind of music he plays is contemporary
country music, with touches of pop and rock music, but without leaving
behind the traditional instruments of their country as the Didgeridoo. The
singer won a Grammy Award in 2005 with his song You'll Think of Me.
Daniel Merriweather: Daniel Paul Merriweather born in Melbourne,
Australia. Is a singer and composer of R&B songs During his beginnings
were not great commercial impact, however in Australia got sound on
discs, clubs and social circles.
The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional
monarchy and has a parliamentary system of
government. Queen Isabel II is currently the
head of the Australian state and uses the formal
title of Queen of Australia, fulfilling a different role
to that exercised in other Commonwealth realms.
She is nominally represented by the Governor
General at the federal level and by the governor
of each state.
There are three branches in the government of
Legislative branch: Parliament of Australia, including
the Queen, the Senate and House of Representatives.
The Queen is represented by the Governor General,
who in practice exerts constitutional power only with
the approval of the Prime Minister.
Executive: the (Governor General in accordance with
Executive Directors) Federal Executive Council. In
practice, the councilors are the Prime Minister and
Ministers of State.
Judiciary: Supreme Court of Australia and other
federal courts. The state courts are formally
independence from the Judicial Committee of the
Privy Council when the Australia Act was passed in
The food of Indigenous Australians was strongly influenced by
the area in which they lived. Most tribal groups subsisted on a
simple hunter-gatherer diet, hunting native animals and fish
and collecting native plants and fruit. The general term for
flora and fauna used as a source of native foods of Australia's
The first settlers introduced British food to the continent,
and much of which is now considered the typical food of
Australia, the Sunday roast has become a long tradition for
many Australians. Since the beginning of the 20th century,
food in Australia has increasingly been influenced by
immigrants to the nation, particularly from cultures came
Sport, backed by a climate that favors outdoor activities,
plays an important role in Australian culture. 23.5% of
Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in
organized sports activities. Internationally, Australia has
important teams in cricket, hockey, netball, Rugby League,
Ultimate Frisbee and rugby union, and also excels in cycling,
rowing and swimming. Nationally, other popular sports
include Australian rules football, horse racing, football and
Other international events that take place in this country often
include the Formula 1 race known as the Grand Prix of
Australia , Rally Australia scoring for the World Rally
Championship cricket competitions or internationally. In tennis
Australians are known for their serve and volley game and
enjoy quality players Lleyton Hewitt, Samantha Stosur, Alicia
Molik or among others, also celebrate the Australia Open in
Melbourne, one of the four tennis tournaments Grand Slam .
Dreams time also called Altjeringa: Is the time in which the world
was created,is an eternal present in which you can reach
through a ritual.Mythological stories tell of ancestors who did
things for the first time,now,the things are just copies of them
Goannas'dream: the story tells how all the animals decided to marry
each other. The goannas were vegetarian,but one day began to eat
meat from own cubs,it made them lazyand dishonest. One year there
was drought and goannas he had a secret source of water that would
not share with any animal,the boss's wife discovered the secret source
and using the forest were separated from goannas for ever.
Lumanuma's died: he was a whale that came out
of the sea in the form of man,but he was gluttonous
and abused its function when the food looked
delicius declared prohibited and could only eat.
Lumaluma keeps doing this until it started eating the
dead children,one day the people took their spears
and killed him with his two wives.
Kunapipi: is the great mother of the territory of Arhem Land
oriental,she created the earth and populated with many children,
especially animals and plants.
April 25,Anzac day: is celebrated to
commemorate the Battle of Gallipoli,in which
tens of thousands of soldiers from ANZAC
and the UK lost their lives in World War II
Christmas in Australia: is celebrated in
Australia day ( January 26) : held by the arrival of Arthur
Phillip with 11 ships of the First Fleet to Sydney in 1788.
In the largest city, the date is celebrated with a parade of
boats next to Sydney Harbour Bridge and the end of the
day, meet the best boats desfile. The night ends with
everyone singing Advance Australia Fair in front
illuminated and imposing Australian flag flying in that bay.