Western Imperialism V2008


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Western Imperialism V2008

  1. 1. WESTERN IMPERIALISM 1880-1914 Eastview High School – AP European History McKay, et al., 8 th edition – Chapter 26 Section 3
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>Why do western powers rush to create or enlarge vast political empires abroad? </li></ul><ul><li>How is this ‘new imperialism’ different from earlier imperialism (1816-1880)? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the apparent consequences of this imperialistic effort? </li></ul>
  3. 3. New Imperialism <ul><li>1880-1914 European nations scrambled for political as well as economic control over foreign nations. </li></ul><ul><li>This scramble led to tensions among competing nations, and wars with non-European nations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Africa before 1880 <ul><li>Before 1880, European descent on Africa limited. </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa, British and Dutch Afrikaners whites fought a war over land and gold. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boer War won by British, established new Union of South Africa . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State was ruled by white minority of Afrikaners </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Scramble for Africa <ul><li>British occupation of Egypt and Belgian exploration of the Congo started race for colonial possessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin conference (1884-1885) laid ground rules for new imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European claims to African countries had to be based on military conquest . a.k.a. effective occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No single European power could claim whole continent. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany entered race for colonies and cooperated with France vs. British . French goal was control of Lake Chad. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Rhodes Colossus <ul><li>Cecil John Rhodes , PC , DCL , ( July 5 , 1853 – March 26 , 1902 [1] ) was a British-born South African businessman , mining magnate, and politician. He was the founder of the diamond company De Beers , which today markets 60% of the world's rough diamonds and at one time marketed 90%. He was an ardent believer in colonialism and was the coloniser of the state of Rhodesia , which was named after him. Rhodesia, later Northern and Southern Rhodesia , eventually became Zambia and Zimbabwe respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodes profited greatly by developing Southern Africa 's natural resources, the proceeds of which funded the Rhodes Scholarship upon his death. Rhodes is famous for having declared: &quot;To think of these stars that you see overhead at night, these vast worlds which we can never reach. I would annex the planets if I could; I often think of that. It makes me sad to see them so clear and yet so far.&quot; [2] </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Fashoda Crisis <ul><ul><li>British under Kitchener massacred Muslim tribesmen at Omdurman (1898) in their drive to conquer the Sudan and nearly went to war with the French at Fashoda . ( Fashoda Crisis ) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Imperialism in Asia <ul><li>Dutch extended control in East Indies while French took Indochina. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Asians fled from plantation and gold mine labor, to seek opportunities in towns. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia and the United States also expanded into Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia moved into the Caucasus and central Asia as well as China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US took Philippines from Spain, put down revolt led by Philippine patriots. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Causes of New Imperialism <ul><li>Economic motives , especially trade opportunities, were important, but economic benefits were limited because colonies were too poor to buy much. </li></ul><ul><li>Political and diplomatic factors also encouraged imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies seen to be crucial for national security, military power, and international prestige . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many saw colonies as essential to great nations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nationalism, racism, and Social Darwinism contributed to imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German historian Treitschke claimed colonies essential to show racial superiority and national greatness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special interest groups, military, and adventurers favored expansion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western tech/military superiority fostered imperialism. (machine gun, quinine, steamship, telegraph ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic, Political, Diplomatic </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism, Racism, Social Darwinism </li></ul>
  10. 10. The White Man’s Burden? <ul><li>Imperialists felt they had a duty to civilize more primitive, nonwhite peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Kipling’s “white man’s burden” </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries brought Christianity and education, also European racism </li></ul><ul><li>An Excerpt from Kipling’s White Man’s Burden </li></ul><ul><li>Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Critics of Imperialism <ul><li>What did Hobson maintain in his book Imperialism ? </li></ul><ul><li>British economist J.A. Hobson: Imperialism result of capitalism , only special-interest groups benefit from colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Others condemn on moral grounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebelled against crude Social Darwinism of imperialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accused imperialists of double standard: liberty and equality at home, military dictatorship and discrimination in the colonies . </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Questions for your review <ul><li>What is the MOST striking difference between the new imperialism and earlier European expansion? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the results of the Berlin Conference? </li></ul><ul><li>What was Bismarck’s position concerning the acquisition of colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries participated in the wave of imperialism AFTER 1880? </li></ul><ul><li>What ‘principle’ did European powers need to claim an African territory? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Treitschke and what did his writings reflect? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Hobson maintain in his book Imperialism ? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Cecil Rhodes? What is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Labouchere? What is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Conrad? What is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Jules Ferry? What is his contribution to this history? </li></ul>