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The Western Renaissance

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The Western Renaissance

  1. 1. THE WESTERN RENAISSANCE Eastview High School – AP European History McKay, et. al, 8 th ed. – Ch30 section 1
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>How and why, in spite of the Cold War, did western Europe recover so successfully from the ravages of war and Nazism? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Postwar Challenge <ul><li>The war left Europe physically devastated and in a state of economic and moral crisis . </li></ul><ul><li>Food rationing was necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia’s border had been pushed west, as was Poland’s; thus, many Germans were forced to resettle in a greatly reduced Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The Allies treated Germany harshly . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Political, Social, & Economic reforms <ul><li>New leaders and new parties, especially the Catholic Christian Democrats, emerged in Italy, France, and Germany and provided effective leadership and needed reforms . </li></ul><ul><li>In many countries, such as Britain, France, and Italy, socialists and communists emerged from the war with considerable power and a strong desire for social reform . </li></ul><ul><li>The Marshall Plan aided in economic recovery and led to the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) ; military protection was provided through NATO. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Economic Miracles <ul><li>Led by West Germany, a European economic miracle was underway by 1963. </li></ul><ul><li>American aid helped get the process off to a fast start. </li></ul><ul><li>European nations coordinated the distribution of American aid, so barriers to European trade and cooperation were quickly dropped . </li></ul><ul><li>A free-market economy with a social welfare network brought rapid growth to Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible planning and a mixed state and private economy brought rapid growth to France. </li></ul><ul><li>A skilled labor pool , new markets for consumer products, and the Common Market stimulated economic development in Western Europe. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Toward European Unity <ul><li>Democratic republics were re-established in France, West Germany, and Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>The Christian Democrats were committed to a unified Europe, but economic unity proved to be more realistic than political unity. </li></ul><ul><li>The six-nation Coal and Steel Community marked the beginning of a movement toward European unity and led to further technical and economic cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Rome (1957) created the European Economic Community (EEC, or Common Market), whose immediate goal was to create a free-trade area by reducing tariffs. </li></ul><ul><li>However, regenerated hopes for political union in Europe were frustrated by a resurgence of nationalism in the 1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>De Gaulle, a romantic nationalist , wanted France to lead the Common Market. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He withdrew from NATO and vetoed British attempts to join the Common Market. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Decolonization <ul><li>Nationalism brought demands for political self-determination in colonial areas after the First World War. </li></ul><ul><li>The Second World War reduced European power and destroyed the Western sense of moral superiority . </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism in India and China </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi led the Indian nationalist movement, and India won limited self-government in 1937 . </li></ul><ul><li>Britain granted independence after the Second World War by creating a Hindu state of India and a Muslim state of Pakistan . </li></ul><ul><li>After a bitter civil war, the Communists forced the Nationalists out of China to the island of Taiwan in 1949 . </li></ul><ul><li>Mao Zedong began building a communist society along Soviet lines , with collectivization of the peasants and five-year plans concentrating on heavy industry. </li></ul><ul><li>The French were defeated in Indochina by Ho Chi Minh , and Vietnam was divided into two zones pending unification on the basis of free elections. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Arab Nationalism & African Independence <ul><li>Arab nationalism challenged imperial power and the new Jewish nation . </li></ul><ul><li>A Jewish state was created out of part of British-controlled Palestine (1948) and was attacked by the Arab countries, who were defeated. </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinian refugees refused to accept defeat and vowed to continue fighting to destroy the Jewish state of Israel . </li></ul><ul><li>Successful nationalist revolution took place in Egypt (1952), and the new leader, Nasser, nationalized the Suez Canal. </li></ul><ul><li>Arab nationalists in Algeria fought for and won independence from France in 1962 . </li></ul><ul><li>In most of the rest of Africa, independence was achieved without war , although many new African countries remained dependent on France and the Common Market. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, western European countries actually increased their economic and cultural ties with their former African colonies in the 1960s and 1970s—“ neo-colonialism .” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Questions for your review <ul><li>After WW2, why does the Soviet Union return to the totalitarianism of the 1930s? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Ludwig Erhard and why does he emphasize free-market capitalism in West Germany? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the factors which led to European economic rebirth (Western Renaissance)? (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Which act/treaty creates the European Economic Community? What are the consequences of this act/treaty? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the ultimate goal of Robert Schuman’s for the Coal and Steel Community? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors led to the “leveling” of European society? (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Jews in Palestine proclaimed the state of Israel when the British withdrew from Palestine in 1948. What are the immediate consequences? </li></ul><ul><li>French decolonization in sub-Saharan Africa enhanced economic and cultural ties with former colonies…how? </li></ul>

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