The West And The World – Imperialism V2008


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The West And The World – Imperialism V2008

  1. 1. THE WEST AND THE WORLD – IMPERIALISM 1850-1910 Eastview High School – AP European History McKay, et al., 8 th edition – Chapter 26 Section 1
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>How and why did this many-sided, epoch-making expansion occur in the 19 th century? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does such an enormous gap develop between Great Britain/developed countries and the ‘Third World countries by 1970? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Rise of Global Inequality <ul><li>Examine the graph on page 856 of your text. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the causes of this enormous gap between developed and ‘third world’ countries by 1970? </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution caused a growing gap between Europe/North America and the non-industrializing areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1750 standard of living in Europe was equal to the rest of the world. By 1970 it was 25 x that of the poor countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The gap was produced by industrialization . 3 rd world didn’t make gains until after 1945. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Theories re: Global Inequality <ul><li>Jared Diamond has postulated an interesting theory revolving around the European development of Guns, Germs, and Steel . His best-selling book explains his research. </li></ul><ul><li>West gains because of use of science and technology. </li></ul><ul><li>West uses it’s economic and political power to steal riches. </li></ul><ul><li>Most agree that both theories are applicable in varying degrees depending on the country and situation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. World Colonial Holdings Prior to World War I <ul><li>Notice the vast expanse of the British Empire which included Canada, India, Australia, and a north-south route through Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>GB is the most powerful country in the world by 1914. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The World Market <ul><ul><li>Railroad, steamship, refrigeration, other technological advancements revolutionize trade patterns. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World trade expanding meant economy was interlocked centered in and directed by Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain used trade to link world. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Its empire was a market for manufactured goods. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibited colonies from raising protective tariffs so it was tough to develop own industries . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain wanted to eliminate all tariffs on traded goods. This free-trade stimulated world trade . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Suez and Panama Canals <ul><ul><li>Railroad, steamship, refrigeration, other technological advancements revolutionize trade patterns. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suez and Panama canals, modern port facilities foster intercontinental trade. </li></ul></ul>Suez Canal Panama Canal
  8. 8. Investing Capital <ul><li>Where did the largest share of European foreign investment go to specifically? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1840, Europeans invested capital abroad and in other European countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most exported capital went to US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Latin America. Went for infrastructure (ports, RR) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investment enabled more land to be settled by Europeans, pushing the native peoples out . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Opening of China <ul><li>European trade with China increased, but needed to use force. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China was self-sufficient, never interested in European goods . Qing dynasty regulated trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British/Chinese clash over opium and opening of Chinese ports. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opium War 1839-1842 led to British taking Hong Kong and opening of 4 cities. (Treaty of Nanking) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Opening of Japan <ul><li>Japan also unwilling to trade/diplomatic relations with West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persecution of Christians and attack on foreign vessels led Americans to believe they blocked their destined role in the Pacific . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American fleet under Perry “opened” Japan in 1853 with threats of naval bombardment . </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Western Advances in Egypt <ul><li>Muhammad Ali built modern state in Turkish-held Egypt, attracted European traders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drafted peasants, reformed government, improved communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants lost out because land converted from self-sufficient farms to large private landholdings to grow cash crops for export. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Financial Problems in Egypt <ul><li>Khedive Ismail continued modernization, including Suez canal, but put country deep into debt. </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent Egypt from going bankrupt, Britain and France intervene politically. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign financial control provokes a violent nationalistic reaction in Egypt, leads to British occupation of country until 1956. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Questions for your review <ul><li>The gaps in average wealth and well-being among countries and regions is the result of ? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors facilitated the growth of world trade after 1840? </li></ul><ul><li>Where did the largest share of European foreign investment go to specifically ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Japan open its shores to western trade? </li></ul><ul><li>The influx of asian immigrants into Australia and N. America was blocked at the turn of the century by ? </li></ul><ul><li>British intervention in Egypt that began in 1867 and culminated with a military takeover in 1882 was a dramatic break with earlier 19 th century European expansion because ? </li></ul><ul><li>What does Ahmed Arabi represent to western imperialism? </li></ul>