Mc Kay Ch22 Sections 2 & 3 V2008


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Mc Kay Ch22 Sections 2 & 3 V2008

  1. 1. Industrialization in Continental Europe AND Capital and Labor c.e. 1815-1900 Eastview High School – AP European History Chapter 22 – The Revolution in Energy & Industry Sections 2 & 3 McKay et al. 8 th ed.
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>Why does industrialization come later and more cautiously on the continent than it did in Great Britain? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are the national variations so wide spread from country to country across the continent? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the essential differences and similarities to the British model? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the social consequences of the new industrialization? </li></ul>
  3. 3. National Variations <ul><li>1750-1830 Britain industrialized faster than other countries. Twice as fast as France. </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium follows Britain, France grows gradually </li></ul><ul><li>1913 Germany and US closing in on Britain, rest of Europe and Japan grows, while other Asian states lose ground (India, China) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Challenge of Industrialization <ul><li>Revolutions and wars on Continent slow economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Tough to compete with GB. Economically and technologically they’re too advanced </li></ul><ul><li>Continental countries have three advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich traditions of putting-out enterprise, merchant capitalists, and urban artisans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could simply copy the British ways of doing things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power of strong, central governments could be used to promote industry </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Agents of Industrialization <ul><li>Cockerill, in Belgium, brings British industry secrets to other parts of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Harkort, in Germany, fails at industrializing the country. Shows how difficult duplicating British achievements can be </li></ul>
  6. 6. Government’s Role <ul><li>Governments aided industrialists by erecting tariffs, building roads/canals, and financing railroads </li></ul><ul><li>Thinkers and writers (List) believed industrialization would advance the nation “Economic Nationalism” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List supported tariff-free zone in Germany “Zollverein” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Banks played a more important role on the continent than in GB. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial banks like Credit Mobilier became important in France and Germany. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These industrial banks mobilized savings of thousands of small investors and invested in railroads and industry. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. A New Class of Factory Owners <ul><li>As Watt and Harkort illustrate, capitalist owners were locked into a highly competitive system </li></ul><ul><li>Early industrialists came from varied backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Some from merchant families, some from artisans backgrounds  </li></ul><ul><li>Quakers and Scots were important in Britain, while Protestants and Jews were important in France </li></ul><ul><li>As factories grew, opportunities declined </li></ul><ul><li>Wives and daughters of businessmen were shut out of business activity, were expected to concentrate on feminine and domestic activities. </li></ul>
  8. 8. A New Class of Factory Workers <ul><li>Many observers claimed that the Industrial Revolution brought misery to workers </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic poets Blake and Wordsworth protested life of workers, pollution of land and water </li></ul><ul><li>Luddites smashed new machines they thought were putting them out of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Engels attacked middle classes “ The Condition of the Working Class in England” </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Life of a Factory Worker <ul><li>Others such as Ure and Chadwick claimed life was improving for workers </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics of purchasing power of workers show little or no improvement between 1780 and 1820. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1792-1815 living conditions actually decline while food prices rose faster than wages . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 1840 some improvement occurs. Even though, hours of labor increased and unemployment also was present </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diet and supply of clothing improved, but housing did not. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Working Conditions <ul><li>Working in factory meant more discipline and less personal freedom . Factory whistle replaced more relaxed pace of cottage work </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal of cottage workers to work in factory led to child labor </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of pauper children forbidden in 1802. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban factories and coal mines attracted whole families and preserved kinship ties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children and parents work long hours </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Parliament and Child Labor <ul><li>Robert Owen proposes limiting hours of labor and child labor </li></ul><ul><li>Factory Act of 1833 limits child labor and number of hours children can work in textile factories . </li></ul><ul><li>Factory owners required to establish elementary schools for children of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Subcontracting led to close relationship between subcontractor and work crew. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subcontracting helped maintain kinship ties </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Sexual Division of Labor <ul><li>New pattern of “separate spheres” emerged. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men were primary wage earner, women had limited opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Married women were less likely to work outside the home after 1 st child born </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women confined to low-paying, dead-end jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasons for reorganization along gender lines is debated </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deeply ingrained “patriarchal tradition” from pre-industrial craft guilds. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factory discipline conflicted with women’s priority with children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual division was to control the sexuality of working-class youth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions in coal mines illustrate this. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Early Labor Movement <ul><li>Many jobs changed slowly. Farm and domestic labor was still most common. Small-scale handicraft production unchanged in many crafts. </li></ul><ul><li>Working class solidarity and class consciousness developed, many employers saw unions as a restriction on industrial growth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination Act of 1799, outlawed unions and strikes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1813-1814 law ended wage regulations allowed labor market to flood with women and children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workers continued to strike, Combination Acts repealed in 1824 . </li></ul><ul><li>Owen and others tried to create a national union of workers. After 1851 “New Model Unions” won benefits for their members. </li></ul><ul><li>Chartism was workers political movement. Sought universal male suffrage, shorter work hours, cheap bread. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Questions for your review <ul><li>What are some of the difficulties faced by the continental economies in their efforts to compete with the British? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was William Cockerill and what is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Freidrich List and what is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>What role did continental banks play with regard to industrialization? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you characterize railroad construction on the continent? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the early industrialists get labor and capital? </li></ul><ul><li>What does Engels put forth in his work The Condition of the Working Class in England ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why were family units hired in the early factories? </li></ul><ul><li>When do members of the British working class see improvements? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the impact of the Factory Act of 1833? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the scholarly debate about the origins of the sexual division of labor during the Industrial Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the “Amalgamated Society of Engineers? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the impact of the Combination Acts on the labor movement? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Chartist movement and what are the key demands? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Mines Act of 1842…what impact does it have on labor? </li></ul>