Ch21 Section 3 The French Revolution


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Ch21 Section 3 The French Revolution

  1. 1. THE REVOLUTION IN POLITICS, 1775-1815 AP European History – Eastview High School Ch21 Section 3 – The French Revolution, 1789-1791 (McKay, et al., 8 th ed.)
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>To what extent is the French Revolution an attempt to create a government based on Enlightenment ideals? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the major long- and short-term causes of the French Revolution? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Anatomy of a Revolution <ul><li>There is a theory about how and why revolutions take place, and much of it is based on the French Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Crane Brinton, Anatomy of Revolution : He uses the analogy of a fever to explain revolutions: </li></ul><ul><li>SYMPTOMS (Causes) </li></ul><ul><li>CRISIS (The Escalation) </li></ul><ul><li>DELIRIUM/HIGH POINT (Radical Phase) </li></ul><ul><li>RELAPSE/THERMIDOR (Reactionary Phase) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutions occur when : pressure groups organize for reform, allegiance of the intellectuals switches, class antagonisms increase, governments are short of money, governments are inefficient and the governed are impatient. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Old Regime France
  5. 5. Causes of the French Revolution <ul><li>A. Intellectual : Enlightenment ideas about liberty and equality influence the upper classes </li></ul><ul><li>B. Social : Society is still organized based on feudal concepts, no longer matching reality » resentments </li></ul>
  6. 6. Causes of the French Revolution <ul><li>C. Political : Bourgeoisie (3rd estate) demands a say in the government; nobles want to retain or increase their power </li></ul><ul><li>D. Economic : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government unable to pay national debt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1780’s are a time of bad harvests, rising unemployment, rising prices, and poverty » restlessness of the masses </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Economic Conditions
  8. 8. Causes of the French Revolution <ul><li>E. Development of a public sphere of political debate </li></ul>
  9. 9. Causes of the French Revolution Marie Antoinette – Queen of France Louis XVI – King of France
  10. 10. Beginnings of the French Revolution <ul><li>A. 1787 “Assembly of Notables” - Louis XVI wants to introduce new taxes, but the nobles refuse approval </li></ul><ul><li>B. The attempt to reduce/abolish the parlements’ power leads to a noble revolt -- The only way to raise new taxes is to get them approved by the Estates General </li></ul>
  11. 11. Beginnings of the French Revolution <ul><li>C. The Estates General is summoned in 1789- delegates are chosen, and asked to list their grievances (cahiers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Both the nobility and the bourgeoisie want liberal changes: constitution, individual liberties, limited powers of the king, a representative body </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Beginnings of the French Revolution <ul><ul><li>2. But the problem is voting- the meeting is deadlocked for 6 weeks because the 3rd estate demands that voting go by individuals, not estate </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Beginnings of the French Revolution <ul><li>3. Abbe Sieyes: What is the Third Estate? - the 3rd estate is the only politically significant group; nobles are obsolete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st What is the Third Estate? Everything! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd What does it demand? To become something! </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. “The Third Estate Awakens!”
  15. 15. Key Events Leading to Revolution <ul><li>D. Louis XVI closes the hall of the 3rd estate </li></ul><ul><li>E. June 17, 1789: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third Estate declares themselves the National Assembly, and three days later, takes the Oath of the Tennis Court </li></ul></ul><ul><li>F. Louis summons an army at Versailles (sides with the nobility) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Rising Tension & Mob Mentality <ul><li>G. This incites the “angry mob” reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A crowd gathers outside the Invalides to obtain weapons </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Storming of the Bastille <ul><li>Bastille Day - July 14, 1789-the Parisian mob storms the Bastille to get gun powder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. 98 attackers are killed, kill 6 of the guards, and the commander </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>symbolic attack on the king’s authority </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Storming of the Bastille Death of DeLaunay, governor of the Bastille
  19. 19. Site where the Bastille once stood
  20. 20. Rural Responses <ul><li>H. “The Great Fear” - peasant rebellions in the country against feudal lords (summer 1789) </li></ul><ul><li>I. Louis forces the 1st and 2nd Estates to join the National Assembly- The Revolution has begun!! </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Great Fear
  22. 22. Questions to check your understanding <ul><li>What characteristics of the American Revolution influenced the French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1780s, what percent of France’s budget was spent on interest payments on the debt? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you define classical liberalism? How is it manifested in the American and French revolutions? </li></ul><ul><li>Does 18 th century liberalism call for economic equality? Explain. </li></ul><ul><li>What did the grievance petitions from all three estates call for? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Third Estate according to Abbe Sieyes? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were the primary representatives of the Third Estate? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the “Tennis Court Oath”? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was the National Assembly driven toward more “radical action” in the summer of 1789? </li></ul><ul><li>How did common Parisian women play key roles in the early years of the Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the “Great Fear”? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the National Assembly (1789-1791) broaden women’s rights? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” specifically guarantee? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the specific accomplishments of the National Assembly? </li></ul>