Ch19 3 & 4 Notes

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Ch19 3 & 4 Notes

  1. 1. The Growth of the Cottage Industry & Building the Atlantic Economy Eastview High School AP European History Chapter 19 – The Expansion of Europe in the 18 th Century Section 3 – The Growth of the Cottage Industry Section 4 – Building the Atlantic Economy McKay, et al., 8 th edition
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>Why were the fundamental economic factors of European society beginning to change, and what were the dimensions of these changes? </li></ul><ul><li>How did these changes affect people and their work? </li></ul><ul><li>How did these changes foreshadow the upcoming Industrial Revolution and which countries take the lead? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Putting-Out System
  4. 4. Shortcomings of the Putting-Out System <ul><li>The production in the countryside is unregulated (no guild standards) which leads to inconsistent quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to enforce quotas. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes with workers over weights of materials delivered. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty making workers produce steadily. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of the Putting-Out System <ul><li>Peasant communities had always made some clothing, processed some food, and constructed some housing for their own use. </li></ul><ul><li>By the eighteenth century the pressures of rural poverty required peasants to search for ways to supplement their way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The putting-out system (rural industry) is utilized to supplement income and is an opportunity for merchant capitalists. </li></ul><ul><li>The putting-out system employs rural families. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Building the Atlantic Economy <ul><li>Mercantilism and Colonial Wars </li></ul><ul><li>English mercantilism was characterized by government regulations that served the interests both of the state and of private individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Mercantilism in other European countries generally served only state interests. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mercantilism and Colonial Wars <ul><li>The Navigation Acts of 1651  1663 were a form of economic warfare against Dutch domination of Atlantic shipping. They gave British merchants and ship owners a near monopoly on trade with Britain’s North American colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>After defeating the Dutch, England fought a series of wars with France for maritime domination of the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War of the Spanish Succession (1701  1713) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War of the Austrian Succession (1740  1748) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Seven Years’ War (1756  1763) ended with British winning full control over India and North America. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American colonists referred to this as the French and Indian War </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Land & Labor in British America <ul><li>In Britain’s North American colonies cheap land and scarce labor resulted in the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rapid increase in the colonial population in the eighteenth century. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>import of African slaves to tobacco plantations in southern colonies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>growing prosperity for British colonists. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Atlantic Economy (18 th century) <ul><li>Britain and especially England profited from the mercantile system . </li></ul><ul><li>As trade with Europe stagnated, colonial markets took up the slack . </li></ul><ul><li>English exports grew more balanced and diverse . </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Atlantic Slave Trade <ul><li>The forced migration of millions of Africans was a key element in the Atlantic system and western European economic expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>After 1700, Britain was the undisputed leader of the slave tra de. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing demand led to rising prices for African slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Africans participated in the trade . </li></ul><ul><li>After 1775, a campaign to abolish slavery developed in Britain . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Revival in Colonial Latin America <ul><li>Under Philip V (r. 1700  1746) Spain recovered economically and successfully defended her American colonies . </li></ul><ul><li>Rising silver exports in the eighteenth century helped create a class of wealthy Creole (Spanish blood born in America) merchants. </li></ul><ul><li>Creole estate owners dominated much of the peasant population through debt peonage, really a form of serfdom . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Adam Smith and Economic Liberalism <ul><li>Smith challenged mercantilist ideas with his defense of free trade and his argument for keeping government interference in the economy to a minimum ( The Wealth of Nations [1776]). </li></ul><ul><li>Smith was one of the Enlightenment’s most original thinkers . </li></ul><ul><li>His work became the basis of the classic argument for economic liberalism and unregulated capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith argued that government has “only three duties ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense of the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil order within the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsor indispensable public works and institutions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Questions to check your understanding <ul><li>What were the factors surrounding the English Navigation Acts? How did they help British merchants? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the French government try to improve living standards for the rural poor? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the shortcomings of the putting-out system? </li></ul><ul><li>Who worked the plantations in Virginia? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was employed by the putting-out system? </li></ul><ul><li>Who led the Spanish revitalization in Spain in the eighteenth century? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were the Mestizos? Who were the Creole? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the decisive round in the colonial conflict between England and France? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do the British win the American component of the Seven Years’ War – what decision helped turn the tables? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Spain recover after 1700? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Adam Smith? What is his most famous work and what argument does he make in this written work? </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1770s, who experiences the largest trade increase with the British? </li></ul>

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