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Green Cats and Sustainable Mice

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Green consuming in England and UK and how to increase sustainable behaviour among citizens

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Green Cats and Sustainable Mice

  1. 1. Green Cats & Sustainable MiceGreen Cats & Sustainable MiceGreen Cats & Sustainable MiceGreen Cats & Sustainable Mice Which elWhich elWhich elWhich el how to use them for more effectivehow to use them for more effectivehow to use them for more effectivehow to use them for more effective Sara BelardiSara BelardiSara BelardiSara Belardi Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 AY 2012/2013 Green Cats & Sustainable MiceGreen Cats & Sustainable MiceGreen Cats & Sustainable MiceGreen Cats & Sustainable Mice Which elWhich elWhich elWhich elements underpin green behaviourements underpin green behaviourements underpin green behaviourements underpin green behaviour andandandand how to use them for more effectivehow to use them for more effectivehow to use them for more effectivehow to use them for more effective marketing andmarketing andmarketing andmarketing and communicationcommunicationcommunicationcommunicationcommunicationcommunicationcommunicationcommunication campaignscampaignscampaignscampaigns
  2. 2. Sara Belardi 2 Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 AY 2012/2013 Contents IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction p. 3 Part I. When the cat’s away, the mice will playPart I. When the cat’s away, the mice will playPart I. When the cat’s away, the mice will playPart I. When the cat’s away, the mice will play p. 3 1.1.1.1. Household recyclingHousehold recyclingHousehold recyclingHousehold recycling p. 3 1.1. Philosophy p. 4 1.2. Issues and limits p. 4 2.2.2.2. Green consumingGreen consumingGreen consumingGreen consuming p. 4 2.1. Philosophy p. 5 2.2. Issues and limits p. 5 3.3.3.3. ConclusionConclusionConclusionConclusion –––– Part IPart IPart IPart I p. 5 PartPartPartPart II. When the cat’s away, the mice will do as it’d playII. When the cat’s away, the mice will do as it’d playII. When the cat’s away, the mice will do as it’d playII. When the cat’s away, the mice will do as it’d play p. 6 4.4.4.4. Inner determinants of behaviour and sustainable consumptionInner determinants of behaviour and sustainable consumptionInner determinants of behaviour and sustainable consumptionInner determinants of behaviour and sustainable consumption p. 6 4.1. Profiling sustainable consumption p. 6 5.5.5.5. Marketing and communication consequences and suggestionsMarketing and communication consequences and suggestionsMarketing and communication consequences and suggestionsMarketing and communication consequences and suggestions p. 7 6.6.6.6. ConclusionConclusionConclusionConclusion –––– Part IIPart IIPart IIPart II p. 7 Part III. An Italian example: Cats, mice and noblesPart III. An Italian example: Cats, mice and noblesPart III. An Italian example: Cats, mice and noblesPart III. An Italian example: Cats, mice and nobles p. 8 AppendixAppendixAppendixAppendix p. 9 • Figures p. 9 • Notes p. 10 ReferencesReferencesReferencesReferences p. 13
  3. 3. Sara Belardi 3 Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 AY 2012/2013 IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction Answering to the compelling question: “why we buy?” is one of the most pressing challenges for marketers and communication professionals. Indeed, understanding which elements and processes underpin the people’s “consumption choice and behaviour” is fundamental, since “consumers’ response may often be the ultimate test of whether or not a marketing strategy will be successful” (Solomon et al. 2006, p. 8) and since, in every communication and marketing strategy, influencing or modifying public’s behaviour is usually the final attempt. Far beyond a mere purchasing context (Peatti & Collins 2009, p. 7), the study of consumers’ behaviour includes all the “consumption choices” which involve the selection, use or disposal of “products, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy needs and desires” (Solomon 2006, p. 6). And, also, the so-called sustainable consumption. The term identifies those choices and actions which result in an environmentally friendly behaviour. These include consumption, post-consumption and curtailment behaviours (Jansson et al. 2010, p. 358), such as purchasing organic food and less-packaging products, recycling, reducing energy and fuel consumption, and preferring public transports to private cars (MINTEL, 2011). The present essay focuses on the current scenario of green consuming in England and UK, with a reference to recycling practices as a clarifying specimen. The aim is that of picturing the drivers of the governmental actions attempted to increase sustainable behaviours among the citizens, in order to: (a) outline issues and limits of that approach (Part I) and (b) present a different path to deal more effectively with sustainable consumption (Part II). Rather than with a “classical” conclusion, the essay ends with the description of a recent campaign realized by COMIECO (the Italian National Recovering and Recycling Paper and Cellulose Materials Consortium) which shows how that approach can actually be applied. Part IPart IPart IPart I.... When the cat’s away, the mice will playWhen the cat’s away, the mice will playWhen the cat’s away, the mice will playWhen the cat’s away, the mice will play 1.1.1.1. Household recyclingHousehold recyclingHousehold recyclingHousehold recycling In England, local authorities are in charge to manage household recycling on the basis of the Household Waste Recycling Act 2003, whilst the Landfill tax and financial incentives represent by now the main instrument to improve citizens’ behaviour (DEFRA 2012, p. 3). Since 2000, household waste has been constantly decreasing, reaching its peak around 2005 and in 2008- 2012 the decrease has been just over 2% per year (DEFRA 2012, p. 2) (see Appendix, Fig.1).
  4. 4. Sara Belardi 4 Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 AY 2012/2013 1.1 Philosophy Out of the four basic resources available to Governments to implement various types of policy –information, finance, coercion and organisation (Hood 1986, in Ritch et al. 2009)–, the last three of them are arguably the most used by the English authorities to manage household waste and recycling. Particularly the Landfill tax, the main driver for authorities to reduce waste to landfill according to DEFRA (2012, p. 3), embodies both coercive and financial resources, thus making coercion the main means employed to influence citizens’ actions. From a consumer behaviour perspective, this approach can be interpreted as based on operant conditioning (Skinner, 1938), according to which human actions can be influenced by positive (rewards) and negative reinforcements (punishments): the first teach us which activities to perform, whereas the latter teach us which to avoid (Solomon 2013, p. 113-114). In this sense, coercion represents a negative reinforce that, based on a cause-effect mechanism, citizens have learnt to avoid by improving their recycling skills. 1.2 issues and limits Despite the general growth, since 2005 the percentage of household recycling has gradually decreased and, between 2011 and 2012, it has been the smallest for 10 years (DEFRA 2012, p. 3). According to DEFRA, this could indicate that “authorities have already exploited the easiest targets in terms of recycling” and that “increasing challenges in influencing behaviour change” are rising (DEFRA 2012, p. 3). 2.2.2.2. Green consumingGreen consumingGreen consumingGreen consuming When widening the look on the whole panorama of sustainable consumption, UK seems to be living its greenest era. According to the report “Green Lifestyle in UK” published by MINTEL (2011), currently two thirds of adults (estimated 27 million) have become greener. Among them, almost 19 million describe themselves as either ‘fairly green’ or ‘very green’, 6 out of 10 are over-55s and most of them are women (MINTEL 2011, p. 4-5) (see Appendix, Note 1). Finally, the exploit of green habits concerns both consumption and post-consumption/curtailment behaviours. This evolution seems to be mainly driven by economical rather than environmental concerns though. According to MINTEL, “more than half of people (51%) own energy-efficient appliances or boilers because they reduce bills, compared to around 3 out of 10 who own them because they are better for the environment” (MINTEL 2011, p. 4). The same holds for curtailment behaviours, such as saving water or energy. Income level and belonging social class of the greenest typos of citizens (see appendix, Fig. 2) also confirm the economic ground of sustainable consumption, being the lower-income households (< £9,500 a year) the most likely to say that they are ‘fairly’ or ‘very green’. In turn, wealthier households (> £50,000 a year) are inclined to say that they are ‘not green at all’ (MINTEL 2011, p. 5).
  5. 5. Sara Belardi 5 Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 AY 2012/2013 2.1. Philosophy Once again, such a result can be explained in terms of positive Vs. negative reinforces. Non-wise consumption causes negative consequences on the citizens (raise of bills) who, in turn, have learnt how to avoid them by increasing curtailment and frugal choices. 2.2 Issues and limits Nevertheless, this explanation shows some limits of the punishment/rewards mechanism. Being the reinforce and the behavioural response causally –that is, mechanically– linked, it is indeed expectable that, failing the former, also the latter would vanish. In other words, if the condition of curtailment behaviour consists in the constraints of monetary pressure, this stimulus could also cease to represent a negative reinforce when the consumer is a wealthier one. This is confirmed by the MINTEL report which shows how, the wealthier the consumers, the less green their habits. Indeed, given a higher income, the main reason to curtailment (benefit the bank account) loses its strength and cogency. But also is proved by the fact that, those who are ready to accept all the compromises of one’s lifestyle required to be “greener” –which arguably correspond to deeper and long-term habit changes–, amount to less than 50% of the people (MINTEL 2012, p. 11). 3.3.3.3. ConclusionConclusionConclusionConclusion –––– Part IPart IPart IPart I As it has been shown, English authorities have used financial coercion as a negative reinforce to influence citizen’s behaviour toward sustainable habits such as recycling. However, the case of “spontaneous” green behaviours has shown that economic stimuli are not strong enough to influence consumers’ behaviour deeply and on the long run. Indeed, financial constrains are merely external and transient, insomuch as just a mechanical and “superficial” response corresponds to them –and wealthy living conditions are enough to invalidate that response. In other words, as long as the economic stimulus lasts, so would the curtailment and eco-friendly response. But, once the stimulus ends, also the green behaviour would cease. Therefore, to the British people, no more financial coercion or economic recession would result in a return to past, non-environmental consuming habits. Subsequently, as long as economic factors are the only lever (used) to influence consumers’ (non)green habits, their effects are expectable to be just temporary and driven by concerns other than environmental ones. (When the cat’s away, the mice will play).
  6. 6. Sara Belardi 6 Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 AY 2012/2013 Part IIPart IIPart IIPart II.... When the cat’s is away, the mice will do as it’d playWhen the cat’s is away, the mice will do as it’d playWhen the cat’s is away, the mice will do as it’d playWhen the cat’s is away, the mice will do as it’d play 4.4.4.4. IIIInner determinants ofnner determinants ofnner determinants ofnner determinants of behaviour andbehaviour andbehaviour andbehaviour and sustainable consumptionsustainable consumptionsustainable consumptionsustainable consumption In determining any behaviour, motivation is central. This rises in correlation to a certain behavioural choice, which the individual (or group) see as necessary to satisfy their need(s) (Solomon et al. 2006, p. 80). Needs, in turn, as Maslow showed (1970, in Solomon 2013, pp. 151-152), can be linked either to the physiological, emotional or intellectual spheres (see Appendix, Fig. 3). This implies that different types of needs can coexist, bringing together the related values and beliefs. Inners values, beliefs and needs, when linked to our “world experience”, determine our attitudes toward what surrounds us (for example: Taylor and Todd, 1995; Jannson, 2010). These work as a filter between us (what we believe in/what we know/what we want) and the reality (physical and social), and are also fundamental in leading our behaviour and choices. Numerous researches have proven that values, beliefs and attitudes are central also in “green decision- making”. They are indeed central in the model developed by Taylor and Todd (1995), as well as for Jansson (2010) and Jackson (2005). Particularly, the latter considers values, beliefs and attitudes as powerful as “social norms, financial incentives and infrastructural constrains” in influencing “ecologically conscious consumer behaviour” (Jackson 2005, in Pepper et al. 2009, p. 126). Same conclusion is reached by Foxall et al. (2006), who face the issue from a revised behavioural perspective (see Appendix, note 3). According to them, a social marketing approach (stimulus-response based), is unlikely to provide the “required integrative framework for understanding the ways in which consumer behaviour impacts […] the environment” (Foxall et al. 2006, p. 114). This is firstly because “commercial marketing is generally a short-term activity” whereas environmental problems “have a long-term duration and effect”; and, secondly, because it lacks “attitudinal-behavioral consistency” (Foxall et al. 2006, p. 114) (see also Appendix, note 3). 4.1 Profiling sustainable consumption Proper sustainable consumers are therefore fundamentally lead by their set of values, beliefs and linked behavioural attitudes. As ethical consumers, awareness is one of their main traits (Berry & McEachern, 2006, p. 70) and pro-environmental acts are understood in terms of activities such as recycling, purchasing green products (Connoly 2003, in Pepper et at. 2009, p. 134) and respecting the environmental agenda (Jensen 2002, in Pepper et al. 2009, p. 134), rather than “passivities” such as reducing levels of consumption (Connoly 2002, in Pepper et al. 2009, p. 134). A green consumer is someone who consumes differently (Pepper et al. 209, p. 126) and information about “different ways to behave” plays a central role too (Ritch et al. 2009, p. 171). This represents an opportunity from the Government’s perspective, since “it is in their power to strengthen […] ethical consumer practices through better information provision” (Berry & McEachern, 2006, p. 71).
  7. 7. Sara Belardi 7 Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 AY 2012/2013 5.5.5.5. Marketing and communication consequences and suggestionsMarketing and communication consequences and suggestionsMarketing and communication consequences and suggestionsMarketing and communication consequences and suggestions By underlying the limits of any approach to sustainable behaviour which is exclusively focused on external negative reinforces (see par. 2 and 2.2), the MINTEL report has also highlighted some potentials inherent to the scenario of UK’s green consumption. Eco-consumers are divided into two groups: those who “act greenly”, lead by environmental concerns (such as: Landfill expansion Depletion of non-renewable; Energy resources; Impact of the ozone layer/global warming – MINTEL, 2011), and those, the majority, who are driven by other concerns. Leaving aside the economical constrains, one of the key factors which determines green-behaviour is the social pressure linked to the “halo effect” of sustainable consuming (MINTEL 2011, p. 3 and p. 9). This means that, due to the “significant media coverage dedicated to environmental issues”, people are “embarrassed to admit to not being environmentally conscious” (MINTEL 2011, p. 9). This pressure acts on people by crashing with their need for social recognition (one of the “ego needs”, according to Maslow) and thus creating cognitive inconsistency (disharmony among thoughts, feelings and behaviour – Solomon 2013, p. 278) and motivating the choice for a greener behaviour. The necessity of cognitive coherence may be used by marketers to build more effective communication strategies. The “Green lifestyle in UK” case shows indeed that, different means, can still lead to same (desired) results –that is, sustainable behaviour. Appealing to values, beliefs and attitudes remains central. Which are the appealed values my although vary. Therefore, to “cause” environmental friendly behaviours and, eventually, raise green awareness, convincing communication campaigns may, more or less subtly, refer to values and desired states others than explicitly environmental ones. These could for example include “social recognition”, “fair society” or “healthier living”. Such an use of deeply felt needs could enhance the audience’s involvement and therefore increase their attention to the delivered messages. And, finally augment the potential of influencing their behaviour (see Appendix, Note 4). 6.6.6.6. ConclusionConclusionConclusionConclusion –––– Part IIPart IIPart IIPart II One’s inner set of values, beliefs and attitudes is central to influence their behaviour. This especially holds for sustainable consumption. Basing any marketing communications plan on them is therefore central to enhance the strategy’s success. Those values, when used, should not necessarily link directly to environment protection. Rather, as long as they are relevant to the public, could also refer to other spheres of personal and social life. Their relevance among the targeted public would increase their attention and involvement with the messages delivered through the communication campaign, thus helping the “sender” (both marketers and Authorities) to influence their consumption choices and change their behaviours on a medium to long-term scale, while growing green awareness. (When the cat’s is away, the mice will do as it’d play)
  8. 8. Sara Belardi 8 Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 AY 2012/2013 Part III.Part III.Part III.Part III. Cats, mice and noblesCats, mice and noblesCats, mice and noblesCats, mice and nobles 7.7.7.7. An Italian exampleAn Italian exampleAn Italian exampleAn Italian example Designed to support Comieco (the Italian National Recovering and Recycling Paper and Cellulose Materials Consortium), the “A choice which ennobles” campaign has been launched in Italy in December 2012 and offers quite a good example of non-environmental values and attitudes used to advocate green behaviour among citizens. The campaign combines both visual and content elements and runs both on published and “on air” media (national and local radio). By exploiting the ambivalent meaning of the words ‘noble’ and ‘ennoble’ (which, also in Italian, have a literal and a figurative sense), the commercials directly link the choice of recycling to growing moral nobility. At the same time, though, thanks to the use of “aristocratic signs” (in the visual version, aristocratic cloths from the XVIII century; in the radio version, appellations such as “Countess Bianchi” and “Baron Rossi” referred to the protagonists of the commercials), the green choice is also connected to another type of nobility –a social and visible one. Social recognition, together with the urge to reduce social pressure, are therefore the “hidden” values and needs involved in the campaign. Which, in turn, attempts to advocate the choice of a sustainable and environmental-friendly behaviour (recycling) by referring to values and needs linked to the ego and self- actualization spheres. Comieco naComieco naComieco naComieco national campaign (December 2012)tional campaign (December 2012)tional campaign (December 2012)tional campaign (December 2012) Visual adv: “Recycling: a choice which ennobles” Radio commercial: “We are all nobles… Recycling: a choice which ennobles”
  9. 9. Sara Belardi Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 • FiguresFiguresFiguresFigures Household recly AY 2012/2013 AppendixAppendixAppendixAppendix Fig. 1Fig. 1Fig. 1Fig. 1 Household reclying rates in England (2000/2001 to 2011/2012) (DEFRA, 2012) Fig. 2Fig. 2Fig. 2Fig. 2 Green typologies (MINTE 2011, p. 12) 9 2012)
  10. 10. Sara Belardi Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 • NotesNotesNotesNotes Note 1Note 1Note 1Note 1 According to Green Lifestyle in UK Report (MINTEL, 2011), the consumption and post-consumption/curtailment behaviour: declare to recycle, almost 90% of the considered sample turn off appliances when not in use, (36%) to private cars. Regarding food purchasing, buying products with less packaging, grown locally and, when possible, organic, are also habits spread among almost half of the population and 11). Note 2Note 2Note 2Note 2 “The Integrated Waste Management Model suggests that garbage reduction behavior is a function of behavioral intention and perceived behavioral control. Intention norm, and perceived behavioral control. These three determinants of intention are modeled as a function of certain beliefs. Attitude is a function of both personal and societal relative advantages and complex subjective norm is a function of both internal and external normative influences; and perceived behavioral control is a function of self-efficacy and facilitating conditions (Taylor & Todd 1995, AY 2012/2013 Fig. 3Fig. 3Fig. 3Fig. 3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs According to Green Lifestyle in UK Report (MINTEL, 2011), the current exploit of green habits concerns both consumption/curtailment behaviour: for example, 92% of the interviewed people recycle, almost 90% of the considered sample to turn down the heating when not at home or and 53% to drive less, preferring public transports (46%) or cycling Regarding food purchasing, buying products with less packaging, grown locally and, when possible, organic, almost half of the population, especially among women “The Integrated Waste Management Model suggests that garbage reduction behavior is a function of behavioral intention and perceived behavioral control. Intention is, in turn, determined by attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. These three determinants of intention are modeled as a function of certain beliefs. Attitude is a function of both personal and societal relative advantages and complex subjective norm is a function of both internal and external normative influences; and perceived behavioral efficacy and facilitating conditions (Taylor & Todd 1995, p. 10 exploit of green habits concerns both 92% of the interviewed people turn down the heating when not at home or to drive less, preferring public transports (46%) or cycling Regarding food purchasing, buying products with less packaging, grown locally and, when possible, organic, , especially among women (MINTEL 2011, pp. 7-8 “The Integrated Waste Management Model suggests that garbage reduction behavior is a function of is, in turn, determined by attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. These three determinants of intention are modeled as a function of certain beliefs. Attitude is a function of both personal and societal relative advantages and complexity: subjective norm is a function of both internal and external normative influences; and perceived behavioral p. 195).
  11. 11. Sara Belardi Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 The Integrated Waste Management Model NoteNoteNoteNote 3333 Foxall et al. and the Behavioural Perspective ModelFoxall et al. and the Behavioural Perspective ModelFoxall et al. and the Behavioural Perspective ModelFoxall et al. and the Behavioural Perspective Model Discussed in ththeeir article published in 2006, the BMP represents an integration of the classical Behaviourist model (which interprets the mind as a “black box” and links “mechanically” incoming stimuli to outgoing subject’s responses). From this perspective, consumer behavi (and reinforced) by their personal history and utilitarian and informational consequences. The former, are “functional results of buying and using products and services: they derive from the practical application of the product itself in some consumption situation derived and symbolic, depending above all on the actions and reactions of other people p. 104). This, according to the authors, should allow an integrated into account both long-term duration and effects of a chosen behaviour, and the necessary consistency between attitudes and behaviour (Foxall et al. 2006, p. 104). The BPM AY 2012/2013 The Integrated Waste Management Model Foxall et al. and the Behavioural Perspective ModelFoxall et al. and the Behavioural Perspective ModelFoxall et al. and the Behavioural Perspective ModelFoxall et al. and the Behavioural Perspective Model (BPM)(BPM)(BPM)(BPM) article published in 2006, the BMP represents an integration of the classical Behaviourist model (which interprets the mind as a “black box” and links “mechanically” incoming stimuli to outgoing subject’s responses). From this perspective, consumer behaviour is seen as equally influenced (and reinforced) by their personal history and utilitarian and informational consequences. The former, are “functional results of buying and using products and services: they derive from the practical application of the oduct itself in some consumption situation” (Foxall et al., 2006, p. 103), whereas the latter are “socially derived and symbolic, depending above all on the actions and reactions of other people , should allow an integrated explanation of consumer behaviour term duration and effects of a chosen behaviour, and the necessary consistency between attitudes and behaviour (Foxall et al. 2006, p. 104). The BPM - Behaviourist Perspective Model 11 article published in 2006, the BMP represents an integration of the classical Behaviourist model (which interprets the mind as a “black box” and links “mechanically” incoming stimuli to our is seen as equally influenced (and reinforced) by their personal history and utilitarian and informational consequences. The former, are “functional results of buying and using products and services: they derive from the practical application of the 3), whereas the latter are “socially- derived and symbolic, depending above all on the actions and reactions of other people” (Foxall et al. 2006, explanation of consumer behaviour, which takes term duration and effects of a chosen behaviour, and the necessary consistency
  12. 12. Sara Belardi 12 Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 AY 2012/2013 Note 4Note 4Note 4Note 4 “Involvement is defined as a ‘person’s perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs, values and interests’ (Zaichkowsky, J.L. 1985). The word ‘object’ is used in the generic sense and refers to a product (or a brand), an advertisement or a purchase situation […] Involvement can be viewed as the motivation to process information. To the degree that there is a perceived linkage between a consumer’s needs, goals or values and product knowledge, the consumer will be motivate to pay attention to product information. When relevant knowledge is activated in memory, a motivational state is created that drives behaviour (e.g. shopping). As felt involvement with a product increases, the consumer devotes more attention to ads related to the product, exerts some cognitive effort to understand these ads and focuses more attention on the product-related information in them (Celsi, R. and Jerry, C.O. 1988)”. (Solomon 2013, pp. 105-106).
  13. 13. Sara Belardi 13 Consumer Behaviour – Assignment 2 AY 2012/2013 ReferencesReferencesReferencesReferences • DEFRA (2012) Local authority collected waste management statistics for England – final annual results 2011/12 [online]. UK: DEFRA. Available at: http://www.defra.gov.uk/statistics/files/mwb201112_statsrelease.pdf [Accessed on: 30 November 2012] • Berry, H. and McEacher, M. (2006), Informing ethical consumers. In The Ethical Consumer, pp. 69- 87). London (UK): SAGE • Connolly, J. and Prothero, A. (2003), Sustainable consumption: consumption, consumers and the commodity discourse. Consumption, Markets and Culture, 6, p. 275–291. • Foxall, G.R. et al. (2006), Consumer Behavior Analysis and Social Marketing: The Case Of Environmental Conservation. Behavior and Social Issues, 15, p. 101-124 • Harrison, R. et al. (2006) • Jackson, T. (2005) Motivating Sustainable Consumption: A Review of the Evidence on Consumer Behaviour and Behavioural Change. Sustainable Development Research Network, Policy Studies Institute, London. • Jansson, J. et al. (2010), Green consumer behavior: determinants of curtailment and eco-innovation adoption. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 27/4 (2010), p. 358–370 • MINTEL (2011), Green Lifestyles in UK – Report presentation [online]. June. UK: MINTEL. Available at: http://academic.mintel.com/ [Accessed on: 5 November 2012] • Peatti, K. and Collins, A. (2009) Perspectives on sustainable consumption. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33, p. 107–112 • Pepper, M. et al. (2009), An examination of the values that motivate socially conscious and frugal consumer behaviours. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33, p. 126–136 • Ritch, E. et al (2009), Plastic bag politics: modifying consumer behaviour for sustainable development. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33, p. 168–174 • Schacter, D.L. et al. (2010), Psicologia generale. Bologna (Italy): Zanichelli • Skinner, B.F. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. Cambridge, Massachusetts: B.F. Skinner Foundation • Solomon, R.M. at al. (2006), Consumer Behaviour. A European Perspective. 3rd ed. Harlow (England): Prentice Hall • Solomon, R.M (2013) Consumer behaviour: buying, having, being. International edition. 10th ed. New Jersey (USA): Pearson • Taylor, S. & Todd, P. (1995). The Integrated Model of Household Garbage Reduction. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 14(2), pp. 192-204 • Watson, B.J. (1913) Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it. Psychological Review, 20, p. 158-177. Available online at: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Watson/views.htm [Accessed on: 5 January 2013]

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