Gibson Text Overview


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Gibson Text Overview

  1. 1. A Quest for Learning in Social Studies A review of the Textbook for EDEL 335 Or “What does Dr. Sue say?
  2. 2. Introduction: Setting Goals
  3. 3. Reflective Practice <ul><li>Personal perceptions act as filters </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs needs to be examined </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs determine actions: instruction, materials, assessment, and more </li></ul>
  4. 4. Constructivism <ul><li>How people learn </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is an active process of constructing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The individual nature of learners is valued </li></ul><ul><li>Active engagement is paramount </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning is enhanced through interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation - supports for learning </li></ul>
  5. 5. Basic Beliefs About Learning <ul><li>Process of building and revising previous knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance - context important </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative - engagement with others </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughtful reflection </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problem 1: Why is Social Studies Taught in School?
  7. 7. Citizenship <ul><li>Fundamental to democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Informed </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledgeable </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>SS has been “assigned” the responsibility for this </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cultural Conservation Orientation <ul><li>Passing on societal core values </li></ul><ul><li>“ Truths” to pass on </li></ul><ul><li>Referred to as “passive” citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Tends to be dominated by teacher-centred curriculum </li></ul>
  9. 9. Disciplines Orientation <ul><li>Need to understand concepts and processes contained in the disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Each discipline has its own structure and method of inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures are standardized and organized </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed as “rigorous” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Inquiry Orientation <ul><li>Citizenship must be able to identify and solve complex, diverse problems </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis is on the search for knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Demands active involvement of students </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome of investigations not known ahead of time. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cultural Transformation Orientation <ul><li>Basis is a broad social concern for social justice </li></ul><ul><li>Development of skills necessary to change and improve existing social practices </li></ul><ul><li>Active involvement and student opinions are crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection on moral issues </li></ul>
  12. 12. Personal Development Orientation <ul><li>Development of the self is crucial to good citizenship. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>Personal efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Search for own personal meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Character-values-morals </li></ul>
  13. 13. Respect for Diversity Orientation <ul><li>All people/groups have value </li></ul><ul><li>The good citizen appreciates the values of different groups </li></ul><ul><li>“Emotional Generosity” </li></ul><ul><li>Combating prejudice/stereotyping </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependence of people across cultures </li></ul>
  14. 14. Global Orientation <ul><li>Worldwide interdependence of people </li></ul><ul><li>“ National Citizenship” is too narrow </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of pluralism, and skills to cope with rapid change </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of finite resources </li></ul><ul><li>Examination of broad issues (e.g. environmental problems) </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Hidden Curriculum <ul><li>Norms and values that are implicitly taught </li></ul><ul><li>Unexamined beliefs can result in a hidden curriculum where practices do not match beliefs. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Problem Two: How to Select and Organize the Content for Teaching in Social Studies
  17. 17. Your Goals, Interests, Experiences <ul><li>The Program of Studies specifies what must be taught </li></ul><ul><li>There is much room for elaboration, and other topics related to general outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>There is a lot of freedom within the Program of Studies </li></ul>
  18. 18. Children’s Needs, Interests, Past Experiences <ul><li>Brain-based learning. Early. Experiential. Integrative. Challenging </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Levels. Maturation. Social Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Intelligences. 8 evolving intelligences. Differences are to be taken seriously. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Curricular Requirements <ul><li>Provincial Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Approved Learning Materuals </li></ul>
  20. 20. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul>
  21. 21. A Sidebar About History <ul><li>Most controversial </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread belief that history is not taught, or taught well </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Conservation - has tended to present one viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Now- multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Build on Social History </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stories” of different groups. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The School Community and Beyond <ul><li>The context does matter </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and communities are different </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers need to be sensitive to local conditions - especially when dealing with controversial issues. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Available Resources <ul><li>Amount and kinds of resources differ </li></ul><ul><li>Texts are first choices, but not enough </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Truths approach will use a wide variety of resources - many unique to local communities. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Organizing for Instruction <ul><li>Program of Studies is the legal document </li></ul><ul><li>Text can provide an organizing structure </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding Horizons - based on developmental levels </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns based </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic/Integrated </li></ul>
  25. 25. Problem 3: How Should You Go About Locating and Selecting Resources for Social Studies?
  26. 26. More Personal Reflection <ul><li>Single authority </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Student needs, interests, abilities, attitudes (Note Dale’s “Cone”, Learning Styles) </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Textbook <ul><li>Depth of coverage of topics </li></ul><ul><li>Bias? </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes? </li></ul><ul><li>How is material presented? </li></ul><ul><li>Does it engage students? </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious even with “approved” resources. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Children’s Literature <ul><li>Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Personalization </li></ul><ul><li>Helpful in development of attitudes, development of social values </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes and bias must be watched </li></ul><ul><li>LA and SS outcomes can be achieved in an integrated fashion. </li></ul>
  29. 29. News Media <ul><li>Current Events is important </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens need to be aware of what is going on around them </li></ul><ul><li>Development of critical and creative thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Media literacy skills must be taught </li></ul><ul><li>Methods for using media must be varied </li></ul>
  30. 30. Technology (esp. Computers) <ul><li>Must be integrated - viewed as another tool </li></ul><ul><li>Great research tool </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals to different learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Gets students introduced to a technological world </li></ul>
  31. 31. Computer Software <ul><li>Word Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation Software (Hyperstudio, Powerpoint) </li></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized applications (e.g., Cross Country Canada) </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Web <ul><li>Critical viewing skills must be taught </li></ul><ul><li>Use of an appropriate Search Engine is important </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Field Trips growing </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the utility is still dependent on appropriate hardware, and sufficient bandwidth </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Community <ul><li>Local museums </li></ul><ul><li>Guest Speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Local businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Use of local resources help connect students to the community and help them to see relevance of concepts </li></ul>
  34. 34. Problem 4:What Approaches to Teaching Social Studies Should You Use?
  35. 35. General Approaches to Teaching <ul><li>Teacher-Directed </li></ul><ul><li>Shared-Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Student-Directed </li></ul>
  36. 36. Children’s Learning Needs <ul><li>Elaboration on previous information on </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Research </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Intelligences </li></ul>
  37. 37. Inquiry <ul><li>“Backbone” of Social Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-directed inquiry. Teacher determines question, procedures, resources, and overall structure </li></ul><ul><li>Open-Ended inquiry. Students and teachers share control, and structures can vary widely </li></ul>
  38. 38. More about Open-Ended <ul><li>K/W/L charts </li></ul><ul><li>Determine questions </li></ul><ul><li>Categorize questions </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering information </li></ul><ul><li>Determining “quality” of information </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing and presenting information </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing information </li></ul>
  39. 39. Critical Thinking <ul><li>Easier to do with open-ended inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Best when studying content “in depth” </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning levels (Bloom) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Cooperative Learning <ul><li>Development of important group process skills </li></ul><ul><li>Building of a classroom community </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning involves structure and planning for group roles (e.g., Jigsaw, Webquests) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Participation Through the Arts <ul><li>Relevance to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic play, role play, simulations, tableau </li></ul>
  42. 42. Problem 5: How Should Children’s Learning Be Assessed in Social Studies?
  43. 43. Terms <ul><li>Assessment: Gathering of Information about the learner in order to make decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation: Making a judgment about the learning </li></ul><ul><li>Reports: Sharing the assessment information and evaluative judgment </li></ul>
  44. 44. Major Categories of Assessment <ul><li>Right-Answer. Teacher-designed tests. Identifiable body of knowledge. Ranking. </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended. How students use knowledge, Student participation. Identification of growth. Authentic tasks </li></ul>
  45. 45. Assessment Tools <ul><li>Diagnostic. Planning. Determination of instructtion and student needs </li></ul><ul><li>Formative. On-going and daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Summative. Have goals and objectives been met? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Right-Answer Tests <ul><li>Structured </li></ul><ul><li>Use for classification </li></ul><ul><li>Are limited in what they can effectively test </li></ul><ul><li>Can tend to “narrow” the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to teaching of test-taking strategies. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Open-ended Testing <ul><li>Can allow for higher-order thinking questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Can involve students in development </li></ul><ul><li>Can test a wider variety of outcomes (skills, attitudes) </li></ul>
  48. 48. Demonstrations of Learning <ul><li>“Performance outcomes” </li></ul><ul><li>Models </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Debates </li></ul><ul><li>Murals </li></ul><ul><li>And many more….. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Learning Portfolio <ul><li>Purposeful (emphasis on purposeful) collection of student work </li></ul><ul><li>Can represent learning over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Can demonstrate growth </li></ul><ul><li>Actively involve students in planning, developing and presenting </li></ul>
  50. 50. Self-Evaluations <ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership (personal responsibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul>
  51. 51. Anecdotal Records <ul><li>Provide “rich” data </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Organization is key - use forms, checklists to simplify the process </li></ul>
  52. 52. Program Evaluation <ul><li>The Reflective Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Success (or lack of success) of different strategies and activities </li></ul><ul><li>Pacing </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Were learning needs met? </li></ul>