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< VoLTE >
New horizon for voice revenue
Faisal	Mobarak
Core	Network	Planning
Grameenphone
VoLTE,	an	acronym	for Voice over LTE,	which	is	based	on	the IP	Multimedia	Subsystem (IMS)	network,	with	specific	
profiles	for	control	and	media	planes	of	voice	service	on LTE defined	by GSMA in	PRD	IR.92. This	approach	results	in	
the	voice	service	(control	and	media	planes)	being	delivered	as	data	flows	within	the	LTE	data	bearer.	
This	means	that	there	is	no	dependency	 on	(or	ultimately,	requirement	for)	the	legacy	circuit-switched	voice	
network	to	be	maintained.	VoLTE	has	up	to	3	times	more	voice	and	data	capacity	than	3G	UMTS	and	up	to	6	times	
more	than	2G	GSM.	Furthermore,	it	frees	up	bandwidth	because	VoLTE’s packets headers are	smaller	than	those	of	
unoptimized VoIP/LTE.
What	is	VoLTE	?
q In	May	2014, Singtel introduced	the	world's	first	commercial	"full-featured"	VoLTE	service	in	Singapore,	initially	
only	in	combination	with	the Galaxy	Note	3.
q In	June	2014, KTshowcased	the	world’s	first	cross-border roaming	services based	on	Voice	over	LTE.	The South	
Korean operator partnered	with China	Mobile to	develop	VoLTE	roaming	services.
q In	October	2014,	China	Mobile, KPN and iBasis have	successfully	 implemented	the	first	international	VoLTE	
roaming	between	mobile	operators	based	on	IMS	local	breakout	architecture	with	a	home	routing	systems.
q In	November	2014, Verizon and AT&T have	announced	the	companies	are	enabling	VoLTE-to-VoLTE	
connections	between	their	respective	customers.	VoLTE	interoperability	between	Verizon	and	AT&T	customers	
is	expected	to	be	available	in	2015.	Testing	and	design	are	being	done	between	both	companies	using	third	
party	networks	such	as	Alcatel-Lucent.
q In	11	July	2015,	SEATEL	Cambodia	have	announced	the	world's	first	commercial	100%	VoLTE	service	without	
2G/3G	in	Cambodia.
q On	16	September	2015, Telstraannounced	that	they	had	started	enabling	VoLTE	across	its	network,	including	
calling	to National	Broadband	Network and	business	 and	enterprise	services	with HD handsets.
History	of	VoLTE
Current	VoLTE	Operator
Current	VoLTE	Handsets
VoLTE	Architecture
MME	– Mobility	Management	Entity
HSS	– Home	Subscriber	Server
PCRF	– Policy	and	Charging	Rules	Function
CSCF	– Call	session	Control	Function
BGCF	– Breakout	Gateway	Control	Function
MGCF	– Media	Gateway	Control	Function
MRF	– Media	Resource	Function
VoLTE	Deployment	Challenges
q VoLTE	Core	&	Handset	:	The	successful	 roll	out	of	the	high	definition	HD	voice	and	video	calling	service	that	
promises	high	quality	data	and	clearer	voice	calls	requires	VoLTE	technology	to	be	simultaneously	 available	
within	the	mobile	network	core	as	well	as	in	mobile	handsets.	At	this	point,	most	mobile	operators’	core	
infrastructures	are	not	fully	equipped	to	simultaneously	 support	circuit-switched	and	packet	voice.	In	
addition,	VoLTE-enabled	handsets	are	not	widely	available	today.
q Economy:	VoLTE	promises	to	move	wireless	calls	from	the	legacy	circuit-switched	network	to	the	all-IP-based	
LTE	network,	but	the	formidable	task	of	supporting	both	switched-circuit	and	packet-based	technologies	is	
not	economical	for	mobile	operators	in	markets	where	LTE	is	not	yet	deployed.	
q Roaming:	Mobile	operators	have	not	completely	fleshed	out	VoLTE	call	interoperability	issues	to	support	
customers	who	are	roaming.
q LTE	&	Small	Cell	deployment:	VoLTE’s successful	 deployment	depends	heavily	on	nationwide	deployment	of	
LTE	technology	and	the	adoption	of	LTE-based	small	cells	for	in-building	voice	enhancements.	At	this	point,	
the	adoption	of	LTE-based	small	cells	for	residential	and	enterprise	applications	is	still	very	low.
VoLTE	Migration	Scenario
VoLTE
2014
LTE	Data	
Since	Dec-2010
CSFB
Since	Dec-2011
The	Opponent:	OTT	VoIP
OTT	VoIP	vs	VoLTE
OTT	VoIP	vs	VoLTE
NSN	Smart	Labs recently	tested	both,	OTT	VoIP	and	VoLTE	and	found	that	in	all	5	measured	KPIs	VoLTE	is	better:
1.	Smartphone	battery	use
VoLTE	clients	consumed	approximately	40%	less	than	OTT	VoIP	clients.
2.	Data	connections
OTT	VoIP	clients	generated	up	to	10x	more	data	connections	in	the	mobile	network	than	a	VoLTE	client	during	a	call.
3.	Data	volume/throughput
Most	OTT	VoIP	applications	required	between	20%	and	40%	more	throughput	than	VoLTE	clients	during	active	calls	to	
achieve	this	quality	level,	although	one	OTT	VoIP	application	showed	exceptional	performance	and	came	close	to	VoLTE.	
Overall	data	volume	consumed	over	a	period	of	time,	including	a	mix	of	active	and	stand-by	periods,	resulted	in	at	least	
50%	lower	consumption	 for	VoLTE	thanks	to	its	more	efficient	behavior	during	stand-by.
4.	Signaling	load
Typical	default	OTT	VoIP	keep-alive	patterns	activated	during	standby	created	between	100%	and	200%	higher	signaling	
load	on	LTE	networks	compared	with	VoLTE.
5.	Mouth-to-ear	Delay
The	VoLTE	client	exhibited	up	to	94%	lower	mouth- to-ear	delay	compared	to	OTT	VoIP.
OTT	VoIP	vs	VoLTE
NSN	Smart	Labs	report	showed	clear	advantages	to	VoLTE	in	battery,	bandwidth	and	signaling	consumption.
These	tests,	however,	were	conducted	under	ideal	radio	conditions	with	no	network	load.	The	Smart	Labs	team	was	
curious	what	the	results	would	be	with	a	more	realistic	scenario.	To	find	out,	the	team	tested	both	services	again	–
but	this	time	placed	the	system	under	various	non-Guaranteed	Bit	Rate	(GBR)	loads,	including	best-effort	services	
such	as	file	downloads,	 e-mail	and	Internet	browsing,	and	with	poor	radio	conditions.	It	turns	out	that	VoLTE	voice	
quality	is	not	affected	at	all	by	non-GBR	traffic
Revenue	Challenge	for	MNO’s
q Large	Investment	in	LTE	infrastructure
§ Investment	Recovery	Largely	via	Broadband	Data	Plans
q But	Revenue	needs	to	grow	Beyond	Data	Plans
§ Supplement	via	VoLTE,	RCS,	VAS
New	Revenue	Stream	on	VoLTE
1.	You	gain	more	capacity	for	data	and	voice,	using	existing	spectrum.
A VoLTE	network has	up	to	3	times	more	voice	and	data	capacity	than	3G	UMTS	— and	up	to	6	times	more	than	2G	GSM	— and	that	extra	
capacity	helps	you	sell	more	data	services. Nearly	everybody	 understood	that	part.	What	most	didn’t	know	is	that	VoLTE’s packet	headers	
are	smaller	than	unoptimized VoIP/LTE,	so	that	more	bandwidth	is	available	for	data	services.	For	instance,	in	a	cell	with	200	VoLTE	calls,	
4.4	Mbps	is	freed	up	for	data	services.
2.	VoLTE	encourages	your	customers	to	use	more	data.
Forget	about	charging	more	for	voice	or	RCS.	 Rather,	VoLTE	allows	your	enterprise	and	consumer	customers	to	easily	use	4G	LTE	data	
services	by	maximizing	their	time	on	LTE.	This	difference	helps	business	employees	stay	connected	and	work	at	LTE	speeds. For	example,	
they	can	keep	their	existing	laptop	or	tablet,	tether	it	using	WiFi or	Bluetooth	to	their	VoLTE	smartphone,	and	talk	&	work	anywhere,	
without	the	old	desk	phone’s	limitations	or	ongoing	operational	costs.	Consumers	can	multi-task,	talking	and	browsing	simultaneously.	As	
a	result,	VoLTE	fits	perfectly	into	today’s	demand	for	faster	mobile	broadband.
3.	You	can	offer	rich	IP	communications	right	now,	including	video	calling	and	content	sharing.
Video	provides	engagement	and	immediacy.	It’s	as	easy	to	use	as	voice	or	messaging,	so	your	customers	can	use	it	for	closing	sales	call	
without	the	hassles	or	variable	clarity	of	OTT	video. And	content	sharing	helps	your	customers	use	media	(files,	pictures,	videos,	location,	
etc.)	just	as	simply	and	broadly	as	texting. Instead	of	heading	over	to	email	or	DropBox,	simply	move	the	content	within	the	call	itself,	
whether	it’s	to	your	fishing	buddy	or	to	your	conference	call.	
4.	VoLTE	sets	the	stage	for	distinctive	apps	and	services.
You	can	also	develop	a	full	portfolio	of	differentiated	applications	and	services	that	give	you	a	competitive	edge.	For	example, multi-device	
services	offer	an	attractive	differentiator.	They	make	subscribers’	IP	communications	accessible	and	consistent	from	any	suitable	device,	
such	as	a	tablet,	even	when	their	smartphone	isn’t	within	reach.
MNO’s	Opportunity	:	Unifying	the	UX
MNO’s	Opportunity	:	Service	Innovation
Thanks for Listening … enjoy bdNOG4

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