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Policies that Changed the Internet
Step back to the mid-2000s
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2004-04
2004-08
IANA IPv4 Free Pool
The community had become complacent about
exhaustion.
It had been a case of the ‘boy who cried wolf’
where people had stopped paying attention to
stories about IPv4 exhaustion… they had not
given much thought to the eventual day when
there would be no more addresses left for
IANA to allocate.
Izumi Okutani
Former JPNIC Policy Liaison
“
”
First come, first served
• First come, first
served was the norm
• If that continued,
APNIC region would
probably eaten most
remaining space
• What about Africa?
• Was this fair?
3%
35%
28%
7%
27%
AFRINIC APNIC ARIN LACNIC RIPE NCC
Global
IPv4
/8s
A final /8 each
103/8
104/8
179/8
185/8
102/8
Heading to 103/8
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
500000
East Asia
South East Asia
South Asia
Oceania
/24s
A soft landing: /22 from the last /8
13,000+ delegations from 103/8 –
without this policy, addresses would
have exhausted long ago
Innovation has continued in APAC:
1000s of new ISPs, data centres
and start-ups since 2011
Emerging economies have benefitted
• BD: 68 members → 473 members
• PK: 51 Members → 146 Members
• KH: 25 Members → 74 Members
• MM: 2 Members → 53 Members
• PH 93 Members → 222 Members
Making it last: 103/8
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
500000
East Asia
South East Asia
South Asia
Oceania
/24s
A brief aside: How’d we get to /22?
• Minimum requirement
set at /21, had to show
use of /23
• Hard for start-up ISPs
in emerging economies
to do – stifling growth
• Policy changed the
requirements and min
allocation to /22
• Great example of
community adjusting
policy to its needs
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
IPv4 Delegations by Size
/22 /21
Scarcity bites
103/8
/18?
… /22
😢
/20 💰
/18 💰
🤩
/18
The policy was deeply divisive because it
recognized that addresses were being
transferred between parties for financial gain.
But the movement of addresses wasn’t going
to stop. If we didn’t have this policy, the
accuracy of the registry – which the community
relies on – could be severely impacted.
Geoff Huston
APNIC Chief Scientist
“
”
IPv4 transfers take off
0
50
100
150
200
250
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Within APNIC Region
Accessing IPv4 in other regions
Legacy holders
IPv4 transfers take off
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Between RIR Regions
Within APNIC Region
What about IPv6?
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Delegations
Prop-057
Global policy
Prop-031
Prop-035
Prop-037
Prop-041
Global policy
(Revised)
Prop-121
Prop-122
Prop-102
Prop-101
Prop-083
Prop-073
Prop-082
Prop-016
What’s the common thread?
All these policies were created
by people just like you!
17
GET INVOLVED!
What is a Policy?
In the APNIC region, a policy refers to the rules and requirements or
criteria that one must meet to be eligible to receive IP and ASN resources.
A policy proposal is a formal, written submission that outlines an idea for
a new policy. If a policy proposal is successful it will become a policy.
Why do we need resource policy?
IP address and AS numbers are public shared resources.
APNIC policies ensure that these resources are managed
properly and distributed with the goal of fairness and
consistency in mind.
The common aim of a policy is to ensure proper usage of
Internet number resources according to the technical and
operational needs of the network. This is vital for the
continued stable growth of the Internet.
Policy change
Policies change constantly.
They evolve as the needs of the technical community change
Good policy relies on a range of opinions
APNIC policies are developed by Members and the Internet
community in a bottom-up process of consultation and
consensus.
What’s APNIC’s role?
• The APNIC Secretariat is the organization that manages
resources, implements policy and provides a range of
services to the community
• APNIC staff
o Provide information and support to people who want to be involved in
the policy development process
o Provide support to the Policy SIG
o Help authors to draft proposal wording
o Manage the implementation of policy changes
o Inform the policy changes to the community
Who can Participate?
Policies are developed by and for the Asia Pacific
Internet community, which includes the APNIC
membership.
Anyone can participate in the policy development
process for managing and distributing IP addresses.
• Whether you are a seasoned network engineer, a decision maker, a student in the IT field, or a user of the
Internet, you can join the discussion.
You are invited to be part of this development process.
Why participate?
• It is an opportunity to learn and share experiences and best
practices in the Internet
• Policies affect your organization’s operating environment and are
constantly changing
• Ensure your organization's needs are represented
• It’s a great way to build your profile and contribute to the Internet
• You can directly impact the way APNIC manages Internet
number resources
• Make these policies work for your networks and future growth
www.apnic.net/community/policy/participate
Policy Special Interest Group (SIG) Charter
Develop policies and procedures which relate to
the management and use of Internet address
resources by APNIC, NIRs, ISPs and other
organizations within the Asia Pacific region.
What is a SIG?
A SIG, or Special Interest Group, is an open forum for the
community to discuss topics of interest. There are no entry
requirements to participate in the activity of the APNIC Policy
SIG.
You don’t “join” a Special Interest Group, you participate in it.
The first step to participation is usually to subscribe to the
SIG mailing list.
Special Interest Group Guidelines
https://www.apnic.net/community/participate/sigs/
APNIC Policy SIG
Policy SIG Chair
Sumon Ahmed Sabir
Co-Chairs
Bertrand Cherrier
Ching-Heng Ku
Secretariat Support
Sunny Chendi
George Odagi
Elected by the Asia Pacific Internet Community
Policy Development Process
APNIC policies are developed by the
community in a bottom-up approach.
This approach is part of the Policy
Development Process or commonly
referred to as the ‘PDP’.
PDP describes the process through
which policy proposals are submitted,
considered, and adopted by APNIC.
Policy Process
What are the key characteristics of the PDP?
Open
Anyone in the community - Member or not - can propose a policy. This can be a
proposed change to an existing policy or a new one altogether. Anyone can
participate from the beginning, during the discussion as well as in the decision-
making process.
Transparent
Bottom-up
APNIC publicly documents all policy discussions and decisions to provide
complete transparency of the policy development process. These documents, the
associated discussion in the mailing list, and decisions are freely available for
viewing at any time.
The Policy Development Process is driven by the Internet community - by those
who need and use these resources. It is catered to address the needs and
requirements of the Asia-Pacific Internet community. APNIC stays neutral in the
process.
Policy Development Process
30
Author
submits
proposal
Posted to
mailing list
for
discussion
Open
Policy SIG
Meeting
Consensus
at SIG and
AMM
Posted
back to the
mailing list
Consensus
is
confirmed
EC
Instructs
Secretariat
Secretariat
Implement
s
31
• Who can propose a policy idea?
• Why would you do it?
• What is required?
• Where do you start?
Complete the online form
https://www.apnic.net/community/policy/proposals/submit-a-policy-
proposal/
It all starts with a Proposal
Policy SIG Mailing list
• Some people think it’s a great idea
• Others disagree
• The author tries to convince or compromise
• The Chairs monitor the discussions and participate as
appropriate
Join the mailing list
https://mailman.apnic.net/mailman/listinfo/sig-policy
• Author presents
• People line up at the microphone
– Ask questions
– Express support
– Explain their concerns
– Argue and praise
• Remote participation is available so those not at the meeting
in-person can still fully participate
Check the conference agenda
https://conference.apnic.net/46/program
Policy SIG meeting
Consensus Decision Making
• Consensus =
– “general agreement” taking into consideration comments on the
mailing list and at the meeting.
• Objections
– Minor Objections:
• some problems may occur for some members of the community
– Major Objections:
• major problems will occur for members of the community
• Participants should “work together” to resolve objections
Chairs consider many sources
• Mailing list discussions
• Discussions at the SIG meeting
– Incl. remote participants
• Show of hands
– Not a vote, a way of
“broadly gauging opinion”
– CONFER assists remote participation
• Require one-off registration
– The Chair will ask for both
Have your say remotely
https://confer.apnic.net/
After the Open Policy Meeting (OPM)
• Consensus at the Member Meeting
• Mailing List Comment Period
• EC Endorsement
• Editorial Comment Period
• Implementation
What’s next?
• Subscribe to the mailing list
– sig-policy@apnic.net
• Review the proposals
– https://www.apnic.net/community/policy/proposals/
• Discuss with others
– Morning and afternoon tea, lunch, dinner
• Participate in Policy SIG Meeting
– Check conference program
38
39
CURRENT PROPOSALS
New proposals
– Will update closer to the date
Did not reach consensus
41
Withdrawn
42
APNIC Fellowships
• APNIC Standalone conference in September 2019
• Encourages gender and economic diversity
• Professionals, Youth, and Returning Fellows
• Package Includes:
– An economy class return flight ticket
– Twin shared hotel accommodation with breakfast and Wi-Fi
– A fixed cash allowance of AUD 100 for any incidentals
– Complimentary registration to workshop, conference and social events
• Selection Committee - volunteers from the community
43
Next Conference
44
Thanks!
45
blog.apnic.net
apnic.net/social

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Policies that Changed the Internet

  • 1. 1 Policies that Changed the Internet
  • 2. Step back to the mid-2000s 0 500000000 1000000000 1500000000 2000000000 2500000000 3000000000 3500000000 4000000000 1981-09 1991-01 1991-07 1991-09 1991-12 1992-03 1992-07 1992-08 1992-12 1993-03 1993-05 1993-10 1994-01 1994-02 1994-03 1994-04 1994-05 1994-06 1994-07 1994-08 1994-09 1994-10 1994-11 1995-01 1995-04 1995-05 1995-06 1995-11 1996-04 1996-06 1997-03 1997-04 1997-10 1998-03 1998-04 1999-07 2000-06 2000-07 2000-12 2001-04 2001-05 2001-06 2001-09 2001-12 2002-07 2002-08 2002-11 2003-02 2003-04 2003-11 2004-01 2004-04 2004-08 IANA IPv4 Free Pool
  • 3. The community had become complacent about exhaustion. It had been a case of the ‘boy who cried wolf’ where people had stopped paying attention to stories about IPv4 exhaustion… they had not given much thought to the eventual day when there would be no more addresses left for IANA to allocate. Izumi Okutani Former JPNIC Policy Liaison “ ”
  • 4. First come, first served • First come, first served was the norm • If that continued, APNIC region would probably eaten most remaining space • What about Africa? • Was this fair? 3% 35% 28% 7% 27% AFRINIC APNIC ARIN LACNIC RIPE NCC Global IPv4 /8s
  • 5. A final /8 each 103/8 104/8 179/8 185/8 102/8
  • 7. A soft landing: /22 from the last /8 13,000+ delegations from 103/8 – without this policy, addresses would have exhausted long ago Innovation has continued in APAC: 1000s of new ISPs, data centres and start-ups since 2011 Emerging economies have benefitted • BD: 68 members → 473 members • PK: 51 Members → 146 Members • KH: 25 Members → 74 Members • MM: 2 Members → 53 Members • PH 93 Members → 222 Members
  • 8. Making it last: 103/8 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 450000 500000 East Asia South East Asia South Asia Oceania /24s
  • 9. A brief aside: How’d we get to /22? • Minimum requirement set at /21, had to show use of /23 • Hard for start-up ISPs in emerging economies to do – stifling growth • Policy changed the requirements and min allocation to /22 • Great example of community adjusting policy to its needs 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 IPv4 Delegations by Size /22 /21
  • 11. The policy was deeply divisive because it recognized that addresses were being transferred between parties for financial gain. But the movement of addresses wasn’t going to stop. If we didn’t have this policy, the accuracy of the registry – which the community relies on – could be severely impacted. Geoff Huston APNIC Chief Scientist “ ”
  • 12. IPv4 transfers take off 0 50 100 150 200 250 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Within APNIC Region
  • 13. Accessing IPv4 in other regions Legacy holders
  • 14. IPv4 transfers take off 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Between RIR Regions Within APNIC Region
  • 15. What about IPv6? 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Delegations Prop-057 Global policy Prop-031 Prop-035 Prop-037 Prop-041 Global policy (Revised) Prop-121 Prop-122 Prop-102 Prop-101 Prop-083 Prop-073 Prop-082 Prop-016
  • 16. What’s the common thread? All these policies were created by people just like you!
  • 18. What is a Policy? In the APNIC region, a policy refers to the rules and requirements or criteria that one must meet to be eligible to receive IP and ASN resources. A policy proposal is a formal, written submission that outlines an idea for a new policy. If a policy proposal is successful it will become a policy.
  • 19. Why do we need resource policy? IP address and AS numbers are public shared resources. APNIC policies ensure that these resources are managed properly and distributed with the goal of fairness and consistency in mind. The common aim of a policy is to ensure proper usage of Internet number resources according to the technical and operational needs of the network. This is vital for the continued stable growth of the Internet.
  • 20. Policy change Policies change constantly. They evolve as the needs of the technical community change Good policy relies on a range of opinions APNIC policies are developed by Members and the Internet community in a bottom-up process of consultation and consensus.
  • 21. What’s APNIC’s role? • The APNIC Secretariat is the organization that manages resources, implements policy and provides a range of services to the community • APNIC staff o Provide information and support to people who want to be involved in the policy development process o Provide support to the Policy SIG o Help authors to draft proposal wording o Manage the implementation of policy changes o Inform the policy changes to the community
  • 22. Who can Participate? Policies are developed by and for the Asia Pacific Internet community, which includes the APNIC membership. Anyone can participate in the policy development process for managing and distributing IP addresses. • Whether you are a seasoned network engineer, a decision maker, a student in the IT field, or a user of the Internet, you can join the discussion. You are invited to be part of this development process.
  • 23. Why participate? • It is an opportunity to learn and share experiences and best practices in the Internet • Policies affect your organization’s operating environment and are constantly changing • Ensure your organization's needs are represented • It’s a great way to build your profile and contribute to the Internet • You can directly impact the way APNIC manages Internet number resources • Make these policies work for your networks and future growth
  • 25. Policy Special Interest Group (SIG) Charter Develop policies and procedures which relate to the management and use of Internet address resources by APNIC, NIRs, ISPs and other organizations within the Asia Pacific region.
  • 26. What is a SIG? A SIG, or Special Interest Group, is an open forum for the community to discuss topics of interest. There are no entry requirements to participate in the activity of the APNIC Policy SIG. You don’t “join” a Special Interest Group, you participate in it. The first step to participation is usually to subscribe to the SIG mailing list. Special Interest Group Guidelines https://www.apnic.net/community/participate/sigs/
  • 27. APNIC Policy SIG Policy SIG Chair Sumon Ahmed Sabir Co-Chairs Bertrand Cherrier Ching-Heng Ku Secretariat Support Sunny Chendi George Odagi Elected by the Asia Pacific Internet Community
  • 28. Policy Development Process APNIC policies are developed by the community in a bottom-up approach. This approach is part of the Policy Development Process or commonly referred to as the ‘PDP’. PDP describes the process through which policy proposals are submitted, considered, and adopted by APNIC.
  • 29. Policy Process What are the key characteristics of the PDP? Open Anyone in the community - Member or not - can propose a policy. This can be a proposed change to an existing policy or a new one altogether. Anyone can participate from the beginning, during the discussion as well as in the decision- making process. Transparent Bottom-up APNIC publicly documents all policy discussions and decisions to provide complete transparency of the policy development process. These documents, the associated discussion in the mailing list, and decisions are freely available for viewing at any time. The Policy Development Process is driven by the Internet community - by those who need and use these resources. It is catered to address the needs and requirements of the Asia-Pacific Internet community. APNIC stays neutral in the process.
  • 30. Policy Development Process 30 Author submits proposal Posted to mailing list for discussion Open Policy SIG Meeting Consensus at SIG and AMM Posted back to the mailing list Consensus is confirmed EC Instructs Secretariat Secretariat Implement s
  • 31. 31
  • 32. • Who can propose a policy idea? • Why would you do it? • What is required? • Where do you start? Complete the online form https://www.apnic.net/community/policy/proposals/submit-a-policy- proposal/ It all starts with a Proposal
  • 33. Policy SIG Mailing list • Some people think it’s a great idea • Others disagree • The author tries to convince or compromise • The Chairs monitor the discussions and participate as appropriate Join the mailing list https://mailman.apnic.net/mailman/listinfo/sig-policy
  • 34. • Author presents • People line up at the microphone – Ask questions – Express support – Explain their concerns – Argue and praise • Remote participation is available so those not at the meeting in-person can still fully participate Check the conference agenda https://conference.apnic.net/46/program Policy SIG meeting
  • 35. Consensus Decision Making • Consensus = – “general agreement” taking into consideration comments on the mailing list and at the meeting. • Objections – Minor Objections: • some problems may occur for some members of the community – Major Objections: • major problems will occur for members of the community • Participants should “work together” to resolve objections
  • 36. Chairs consider many sources • Mailing list discussions • Discussions at the SIG meeting – Incl. remote participants • Show of hands – Not a vote, a way of “broadly gauging opinion” – CONFER assists remote participation • Require one-off registration – The Chair will ask for both Have your say remotely https://confer.apnic.net/
  • 37. After the Open Policy Meeting (OPM) • Consensus at the Member Meeting • Mailing List Comment Period • EC Endorsement • Editorial Comment Period • Implementation
  • 38. What’s next? • Subscribe to the mailing list – sig-policy@apnic.net • Review the proposals – https://www.apnic.net/community/policy/proposals/ • Discuss with others – Morning and afternoon tea, lunch, dinner • Participate in Policy SIG Meeting – Check conference program 38
  • 40. New proposals – Will update closer to the date
  • 41. Did not reach consensus 41
  • 43. APNIC Fellowships • APNIC Standalone conference in September 2019 • Encourages gender and economic diversity • Professionals, Youth, and Returning Fellows • Package Includes: – An economy class return flight ticket – Twin shared hotel accommodation with breakfast and Wi-Fi – A fixed cash allowance of AUD 100 for any incidentals – Complimentary registration to workshop, conference and social events • Selection Committee - volunteers from the community 43