❏ Fixed number of layers , sometimes more needed between transport
- Need concepts like “Overlay”, “VPN”, “Virtual Networks”, ..
❏ Each layer providing a different function to each others .
❏ Internet architecture does not have root for different network protocols
( There is a common internet layer directly over data link layers )
❏ Multiple protocol within the same layer
❏ Layers & problems !!
Recursive Internet Architecture (RINA):
RINA is a new network architecture that is based on the
fundamental principle that networking is inter-process
communication (IPC). It recurses the IPC service over different
From the publishing of the PNA book in 2008 to 2014, a lot of RINA
research and development work has been done.
★ As a consequence of its structure, many capabilities supported
by RINA are accommodated without specific mechanisms. As
one would expect in a complete architecture, so-called
middleboxes are unnecessary, and so-called ``layer violations"
do not exist.
★ Network Structure Enhancements
★ Economic Efficiency
❏ Benefits of RINA ??