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IP	anycasting
Matsuzaki ‘maz’	Yoshinobu
<maz@iij.ad.jp>
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 1
IP	anycast
• Routing	Practice	mostly	used	at	servers’	side
• Actually	based	on	unicast	routing
– the	same	IP	addresses	on	multiple	locations
– routers	just	forward	packets	to	the	‘nearest’	node	
based	on	its	routing	information
• It’s	difficult	for	users	to	detect	about	other	
anycast	nodes
– Uses	have	little	knowledge	about	network	topology
– BGP	is	good	at	hiding	information
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 2
Clients	and	a	server
192.0.2.0/24
2001:db8:2::/64
192.0.2.1
2001:db8:2::1
Server
clientclient
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 3
Duplication,	and	it’s	IP	anycast	
192.0.2.0/24
2001:db8:2::/64
192.0.2.0/24
2001:db8:2::/64
192.0.2.1
2001:db8:2::1
192.0.2.1
2001:db8:2::1
anycast	node anycast	node
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 4
BGP	anycast
192.0.2.1
2001:db8:2::1
192.0.2.1
2001:db8:2::1
AS AS
AS AS
192.0.2.0/24
2001:db8::/32
BGP	announcement BGP annoucement
192.0.2.0/24
2001:db8::/32
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 5
IGP	anycast
192.0.2.0/24
2001:db8:2::/64
192.0.2.0/24
2001:db8:2::/64
192.0.2.1
2001:db8:2::1
192.0.2.1
2001:db8:2::1
AS
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 6
IGP	anycast	deployment
• By	usual	unicast	routing
• Any	routing	technique	can	be	used	for	anycast
– connected
– static
– OSPF、IS-IS、BGP
• At	IIJ,	we	have	IGP	anycasted	services
– DNS	authoritative	servers
– DNS	resolvers	
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 7
Advantages	of	IP	anycast
• Geological	distribution
– Lower	latency
– Load	sharing	among	anycast	nodes
• Localizing	traffic
– Even	attacks,	failures	and	congestions	
– Routing	decides	which	node	should	be	used	for		a	
particular	user
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 8
2007/02、DoS against	root-dns
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 9
IP	anycast	in	the	Internet
• Authoritative	DNS
– root	DNS
• http://www.root-servers.org/
– and	many	other	TLD	nameservers
• Some	CDN	operators	
– http and	https
– public	DNS	resolvers
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 10
IP	FRAGMENTATION	INJECTION
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 11
IP	fragments	injection	attack
• Information	injection	by	a	spoofed	packet
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 12
1st fragment2nd fragment3rd fragment
2nd fragment
2nd fragment
2nd fragment
IP	header
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 13
version IHL TOS Total	Length
Identification(16bits) Flags Fragment	Offset(13bits)
TTL Protocol Header	Checksum
Source	IP	address
Destination	IP	address
(Options	and	Padding	if	any)	
Data...
DNS
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 14
Flags
ANCOUNT
ARCOUNT
Identification
QDCOUNT
NSCOUNT
Questions
Answer	RRs
Authoritative	RRs
Additional	RRs
To	succeed	in	the	attack,	these	response	fields	should	be	placed	on	2nd or	later	fragments
ICMP	Too	Big
• An	error	message	from	an	intermediate	router	
that	indicates	the	sender	needs	to	send	
smaller	“SIZE”	of	packet	to	get	the	destination
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 15
3 4 Checksum Unused Next	hop-MTU
Original	IP	Packet
Too	BigUnreach
ICMP	too	big	to	adjust	the	offset
• Then	attacker	can	overwrite	‘interesting’	part
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 16
1st fragment2nd fragment3rd fragment
2nd fragment
2nd fragment
2nd fragment
ICMP	too	big
It’s	proved	in	lab	environments
• Many	researchers	claim	that	they	succeed	in	
the	IP	fragment	injection	attack
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 17
1st fragment2nd fragment3rd fragment
2nd fragment
2nd fragment
2nd fragment
ICMP	too	big
SIDE	EFFECT	OF	IP ANYCAST
anycast	may	break	path	MTU	discovery
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 18
path	MTU	discovery
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 19
big	packet	[DF]
smaller	packet	[DF]
1.
2.
icmp:	packet	too	big
3.
A	router	needs	to	
generate
an	icmp error
A	host	needs	to	
handle	
the	icmp error
IP	anycast	may	break	pMTUd
• An	ICMP	error	message	from	an	intermediate	
router	might	reach	another	anycast	node
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 20
big	packet	[DF] 1.
2.
icmp:	packet	too	big
anycast	node
anycast	node
It	might	be	a	protection
• Attackers	are	*not*	able	to	send	ICMP	
messages	to	a	particular	anycast	node
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 21
1st fragment2nd fragment3rd fragment
2nd fragment
2nd fragment
2nd fragment
ICMP	too	big
anycast	node
anycast	node
Condition
• Components	of	an	injection	attack
1. IP	source	address	spoofing
2. IP-ID	(16bit)	match
3. Appropriate	fragment	offset
• BCP38	can	eliminate	1)
– All	networks	admins	should	deploy	BCP38	
• IP	anycast	can	introduce	some	difficulties	to	3)
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 22
Summary
• IP	anycast	is	widely	used	
– Mostly	to	deploy	DNS	related	services
– It’s	actually	a	powerful	technique
• It	has	a	side	effect
– IP	anycast	may	break	pMTUd as	an	ICMP	erro
message	from	an	intermediate	router	might	reach	
another	node
– It	also	introduces	a	benefit	that	might	prevent	IP	
fragment	injection	attack
bdNOG7 maz@iij.ad.jp 23

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