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An overview of the various schools of psychology and their equally various approaches to the Hard Problem of Consciousness

Published in: Science
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  1. 1. Consciousness: Science’s Greatest Anomaly By: Ben Miller and Brooke Newman
  2. 2. Key Definitions ● psychology - scientific study of mind & behavior ● operations - what mind does; not what it contains
  3. 3. Voluntarist Movement ● mind consisted of elements ● stressed introspection ● two types of consciousness o immediate experience o mediate experiences ● tridimensional theory of feeling
  4. 4. Structuralism ● mind is to be understood in terms of basic elements and their combination (chemistry) ● three goals of psychology o describe consciousness o discover laws o understand relationship ● sensations o quality, intensity, duration, clearness, extensity
  5. 5. Functionalism ● focus on what mind could do ● two kinds of thought o substantive o transitive ● three major themes o mental operations o fundamental utilities of consciousness o psychological relations
  6. 6. Mental Physics/Gestalt Movement ● emphasized importance of conscious whole ● principles of perceptual organization o proximity o similarity o closure ● insight learning o preparation o incubation o illumination o verification
  7. 7. Psychoanalytic Psychology ● three tiered system of psychology o conscious mind o preconscious mind o unconscious mind ● id, superego, ego ● strong determinism belief (Freud)
  8. 8. Behaviorist Approach ● focused entirely on study of behavior ● rejected introspection → objective science of behavior ● intervening variables determine behavior