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Training Presentation Bob 09 17 09 Revised


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Training Presentation Bob 09 17 09 Revised

  1. 1. ACS Training Program by Bob Diehl <ul><li>Fiber Optic Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Telco Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Coaxial Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Structured Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul>
  2. 2. Fiber Product Mix
  3. 3. <ul><li>Multimode (Data-Communications, less than 600 meters or 2,000 feet) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50/125: Increased demand with new laser transmitters and 10Gig technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>62.5/125: Most common in US </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Singlemode (Telecommunications, more than 600 meters or 2,000 feet) </li></ul>50 micron core (glass) 245 micron coating (UV Acrylate) 125 micron cladding (glass) Fiber Types 62.5 micron core (glass) 125 micron cladding (glass) 245 micron coating (UV Acrylate) 8 - 9.3 micron core (glass) 245 micron coating (UV Acrylate) 125 micron cladding (glass)
  4. 4. Optical Fiber <ul><li>Core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass or plastic with a higher index of refraction than the cladding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries the signal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cladding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass or plastic with a lower index of refraction than the core </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buffer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects the fiber from damage and moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jacket </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds one or more fibers in a cable </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Singlemode Fiber <ul><li>Singlemode fiber has a core diameter of 8 to 9 microns, which only allows one light path or mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images from (Link Ch 2a) </li></ul></ul>Index of refraction
  6. 6. Fiber Buzz Words <ul><li>S ingle M ode ( SM ): Carries only a single ray of light (mode). </li></ul><ul><li>M ulti M ode ( MM ): Carries multiple (colors) rays of light (modes). </li></ul><ul><li>BIF: Bend Insensitive Fiber </li></ul><ul><li>MIC: Multi-fiber Indoor Cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be SM or MM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALTOS: All-Dielectric Loose Tube Cable (Aerial, Duct and Lashing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be SM or MM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freedom Fiber: Corning’s I/O fiber product </li></ul><ul><li>OFN P : Optical Fibre Non-conductive Plenum </li></ul><ul><li>OFN R : Optical Fibre Non-conductive Riser </li></ul><ul><li>OSP: Out Side Plant </li></ul><ul><li>FTTP: F iber T o T he P remise </li></ul><ul><li>FTTH: F iber T o T he H ome </li></ul><ul><li>FTTX: F iber T o T he ? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bend Insensitive Fiber Names <ul><li>AllWave Flex ZWP </li></ul><ul><li>Bend Optimized fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Water Peak </li></ul><ul><li>Low Water Peak </li></ul><ul><li>HyperLink Blue </li></ul><ul><li>HyperLink Blue2 </li></ul><ul><li>LGBC </li></ul><ul><li>Breakout </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>LGMC </li></ul><ul><li>BIF </li></ul><ul><li>Bend Insensitive </li></ul>
  8. 8. Distribution Cable
  9. 9. Unitized Fiber
  10. 10. What is FTTH, FTTP & FTTX? FTTP: Fiber to the premise FTTH: Fiber To The Home FTTX: Fiber To The ?
  11. 11. Codes and standards <ul><li>Plenum: The space that is used for air circulation in heating and air conditioning systems. Air return </li></ul><ul><li>Riser: Type of cable used in vertical building shafts with no air return </li></ul><ul><li>OSP (Outside Plant): Direct buried, Aerial, Normally Shielded, Can be Jell Filled or Dry Block Filled </li></ul><ul><li>I/O (Indoor/Outdoor): Can be plenum or riser. They can run in outside or inside environment. Tight or loose buffer </li></ul><ul><li>What does OFNR & OFNP stand for? </li></ul><ul><li>OFNR: Optical Fiber Nonconductive Riser </li></ul><ul><li>OFNP: Optical Fiber Nonconductive Plenum </li></ul>
  12. 13. Field Termination Technologies Technology Pros Cons Epoxy/Polish Heat Cured Low cost connectors, ability to re-polish Expensive kit, heat curing oven, electrical power, short shelf life consumables, high skill level, intensive training, uncontrolled end-face geometry , time consuming Epoxy/Polish UV Cured Ability to re-polish, faster than heat cure Expensive kit, costly connectors, UV curing oven, electrical power, short shelf life consumables, high skill level, intensive training, uncontrolled end-face geometry , time consuming Epoxy/Polish Anaerobic Low cost connectors, ability to re-polish, quick, less expensive kit Short shelf life two-part epoxy (use it or lose it), high skill level, intensive training, uncontrolled end-face geometry Pre-Polished Fiber Stub Quick, minimal training, factory polish, reliable end-face geometry , low cost kit, minimal labor content in field Higher connector cost, cleave inspection necessary, one-time use
  13. 14. Backbone Ribbon Fiber Cables <ul><li>Small OD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>72 fibers .315”OD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>100% factory tested </li></ul><ul><li>Available in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good solution for data centers or other high density environments </li></ul>
  14. 15. Modular Cassette Connectivity Methods Per TIA-568 Addendum 7 A-to-B patch cord MPO Method-A adapter Type-A Array Cable 1 2 . . . . .. . 11 12 12 1 12 1 1 2 . . . . .. . 11 12 Method-A Cassette Rx Tx Rx Tx A-to-A patch cord Method-A Cassette 12 1 12 1 1 2 . . . . .. . 11 12 1 2 . . . . .. . 11 12 MPO Method-B adapter Type-B Array Cable 1 2 . . . . .. . 11 12 12 1 12 1 1 2 . . . . .. . 11 12 Tx Rx A-to-B patch cord 12 1 12 1 Method-B Cassette Method-B Cassette 1 2 . . . . .. . 11 12 12 11 . . . . .. . 2 1 MPO Method-A adapter Type-C Array Cable 12 1 1 2 . . . . .. . 11 12 Rx Tx Rx Tx A-to-B patch cord A-to-B patch cord Method-A Cassette 12 1 1 2 . . . . .. . 11 12 12 1 Method-A Cassette 12 1 1 2 . . . . .. . 11 12 1 2 . . . . .. . 11 12 Method A B C Rx Tx
  15. 16. Cassette-Based DC/SAN Solution Ribbon Backbone or Ribbonized Fiber Cable Ribbon backbone or reduced diameter loose tube cable terminated with MTP/MPO connectors designed to interface with an optical cassette system
  16. 17. Connecting It All Together NetClear Solutions for Data Centers & SANs <ul><li>Multimode & Singlemode Solutions: </li></ul><ul><li>Cassette-based systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribbon Cable Connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trunk Cable Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Field-terminated systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-polished fiber connectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic adhesive connectors </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Typical End Face Geometry: Factory Polish <ul><li>Machine polishing in a controlled environment enables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher degree of repeatability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better capability to create a defined end face geometry with respect to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radius </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>of curvature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apex offset </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber height </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to costly, non-portable production and analytical tools for use in checking quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Machine polishing results in Low Insertion loss and improved Return Loss results </li></ul><ul><li>Machine polishing alleviates the need for highly skilled technicians </li></ul>
  18. 19. Typical “PC” Physical Contact Fiber Connector Adapter (1) Radius Eliminates the Air Gap (2) Radius Creates a “Lens” Effect
  19. 20. What is Zero Water Peak Fiber <ul><li>Zero Water Peak fibers are single-mode fibers in which the stray Hydrogen atoms (water) are reduced significantly or eleminated, which improves signal loss’, this frees up more wavelengths for high quality transmission (Fig. 5). These fibers allow 50% more channels by opening up the wavelength range around 1240 - 1400 nm, previously unavailable for transmission. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Microbending © Dr. Rüdiger Paschotta Last update: 2008-02-14 <ul><li>Microbending Issues show up in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patch panels/Splicing cassettes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patch cord storage bends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entering or Exiting fiber guide areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stapling/Nailing interactions </li></ul></ul>Fiber fabrication previous   |   next   |   feedback
  21. 22. Characteristic Impedance (Ohms): <ul><li>Characteristic Impedance (Ohms): A value based on the inherent conductance, resistance, capacitance and inductance of a cable that represents the impedance of an infinitely long cable. When the cable is out to any length and terminated with this Characteristic Impedance, measurements of the cable will be identical to values obtained from the infinite length cable. That is to say that the termination of the cable with this impedance gives the cable the appearance of being infinitely long, allowing no reflections of the transmitted signal. If termination is required in a system, the termination impedance value should match the Characteristic Impedance of the cable. If not, the extra signal will reflect back up the line, causing interference (Bit Errors). </li></ul>
  22. 23. ACS Solutions HyperLink Blue is equal to or better than… <ul><li>Reduced Bend Radius Fiber </li></ul><ul><li>BendLite </li></ul><ul><li>ClearCurve </li></ul><ul><li>BendBright & BendBright XB </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Tiger, AWF ZWP & EZ-Bend </li></ul><ul><li>CasaLight </li></ul><ul><li>Bend-Lite </li></ul><ul><li>PureAccess </li></ul>
  23. 24. Drawing <ul><li>The fiber is drawn from the preform and then coated with a protective coating </li></ul>
  24. 25. Index of Refraction <ul><li>When light enters a dense medium like glass or water, it slows down </li></ul><ul><li>The index of refraction (n) is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in the medium </li></ul><ul><li>Water has n = 1.3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light takes 30% longer to travel through it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fiber optic glass has n = 1.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light takes 50% longer to travel through it </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Attenuation and Dispersion <ul><li>See animation at link Ch 2e </li></ul>
  26. 27. Cable impedance What is the cable impedance and when it is needed? The basic idea is that a conductor at RF frequencies no longer behaves like a regular old wire. As the length of the conductor (wire) approaches about 1/10 the wavelength of the signal it is carrying - good ol' fashioned circuit analysis rules don't apply anymore. This is the point where things like cable impedance and transmission line theory enter the picture. The key tenet of all transmission line theory is that the source impedance must be equal to the load impedance in order to achieve maximum power transfer and minimum signal reflection at the destination. In real world case this generally means that the source impedance is the same as cable impedance and the value of the receiver in another end of the cable has also the same impedance.
  27. 28. Three Types of Dispersion <ul><li>Dispersion is the spreading out of a light pulse as it travels through the fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Three types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modal Dispersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromatic Dispersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Modal Dispersion <ul><li>Modal Dispersion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreading of a pulse because different modes (paths) through the fiber take different times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only happens in multimode fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced, but not eliminated, with graded-index fiber </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Modal Distribution <ul><li>In graded-index fiber, the off-axis modes go a longer distance than the axial mode, but they travel faster, compensating for dispersion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But because the off-axis modes travel further, they suffer more attenuation </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Chromatic Dispersion <ul><li>Different wavelengths travel at different speeds through the fiber </li></ul><ul><li>This spreads a pulse in an effect named chromatic dispersion </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatic dispersion occurs in both singlemode and multimode fiber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger effect with LEDs than with lasers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A far smaller effect than modal dispersion </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Polarization Mode Dispersion <ul><li>Light with different polarization can travel at different speeds, if the fiber is not perfectly symmetric at the atomic level </li></ul><ul><li>This could come from imperfect circular geometry or stress on the cable, and there is no easy way to correct it </li></ul><ul><li>It can affect both singlemode and multimode fiber. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Equilibrium Modal Distribution <ul><li>A long fiber that has lost the high-order modes is said to have an equilibrium modal distribution </li></ul><ul><li>For testing fibers, devices can be used to condition the modal distribution so measurements will be accurate </li></ul>
  33. 34. Optical Loss in dB (decibels) <ul><li>If the data link is perfect, and loses no power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The loss is 0 dB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the data link loses 50% of the power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The loss is 3 dB, or a change of – 3 dB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the data link loses 90% of the power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The loss is 10 dB, or a change of – 10 dB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the data link loses 99% of the power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The loss is 20 dB, or a change of – 20 dB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>dB = 10 log (Power Out / Power In) </li></ul>Data Link Power In Power Out
  34. 35. The Switch
  35. 36. Copper Buzz Words <ul><li>Data Rate (Mbps or KBPS) Wire Gauge (AWG) </li></ul><ul><li>Categories Cat3, Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6 and Cat6A (10Gig) </li></ul><ul><li>Shielded or unshielded </li></ul><ul><li>Twisted pair </li></ul><ul><li>T1: This cable is two twisted pairs of 22 AWG, 100 ohm, Individual SHLD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24 Phone calls at one time or 1,544 KBPS of Data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T3: Coax 734 (20AWG) for 450ft and 735 (26AWG) for 225ft (Both 75ohm) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>672 Phone calls at one time or 44,736 KBPS of Data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bare Copper (BC) or Tinned Copper (TC) </li></ul><ul><li>D-Sub </li></ul><ul><li>Telco Connectors </li></ul><ul><li>DSLAMS </li></ul><ul><li>DS0 (1 Phone Line): Twisted Pair 100ohm UNSHLD (Ex: 25pr Cable UNSHLD) </li></ul><ul><li>DS1(T1 Speed): Twisted Pair 100ohm SHLD ( EX: 32pr Cable SHLD) </li></ul><ul><li>DS3 (T3 Speed): Coax Cable Assemblies (734A, D, C and 735A, C) </li></ul>
  36. 37. Neighborhood Pedestal
  37. 38. Demarcation
  38. 39. Backboard
  39. 40. Entrance Facility The entrance facility is the point where outside cabling and services interface with backbone cabling. (The electrical equivalent would be the meter socket/main disconnect switch.) Service Provider
  40. 41. Equipment Room The equipment room is the area of the building where incoming cabling interfaces with electronic equipment. It is also the main cross-connect (MC) to the backbone cabling. (The electrical equivalent would be the Main Distribution Panel.)
  41. 42. Telecommunications Room Telecommunications Room is the area within a building that houses telecommunications/networking equipment, as well as the cross-connection (patch panels) between backbone and horizontal cabling. I.e. Horizontal Cross-connect (HC) (The electrical equivalent would be the circuit breaker panel.)
  42. 43. Backbone Backbone consists of the pathways and cabling that provide the interconnection between the Building Entrance/Equipment Room and the Telecommunication Rooms. It consists of the mechanical terminations for backbone-to-horizontal cross-connects. (The electrical equivalent would be electrical feeders.)
  43. 44. Horizontal Horizontal consists of the pathway and cabling that extends between the Telecommunications Room and the Work Area. (The electrical equivalent would be a branch circuit.)
  44. 45. Work Area Work Area is where personal computers, telephones, printers, etc are located. It also includes equipment cords that connect the device to the horizontal cable.
  45. 46. Propagation velocity (% of c): <ul><li>The speed at which an electrical signal travels in the cable. The value given typically must be multiplied by the speed of light (c) to obtain units of meters per second. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, a cable that lists a propagation velocity of 78% gives a velocity of 0.78 X 300 X 106 - 234 X 106 meters per second. </li></ul>
  46. 47. The Standard Horizontal Link <ul><li>From the desk to the TR, the horizontal link : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The connection point in the TR to the equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal cable, four-pair or optical fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The work area outlet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximum distance for the horizontal link is 90 meters (295 feet), to make sure the electronics will work </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability is provided by star topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No interruptions in your private line to the TR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One cable cut does not affect the rest of the network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optional Consolidation Point or MUTOA </li></ul>Ethernet switch
  47. 48. Before Standards—the data world <ul><li>Electronics manufacturers specified different transmission media and topologies for each type of computer network. All were proprietary and incompatible with all the others. </li></ul><ul><li>IBM 3270 93 Ohm Coaxial Cable STAR </li></ul><ul><li>RS232 25 Conductor Shielded Cable STAR </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet 50 Ohm Coaxial Cable BUS </li></ul><ul><li>AS/400 100 Ohm Twinaxial Cable DAISY-CHAIN </li></ul><ul><li>IBM Cabling 150 ohm STP-A STAR-WIRED RING </li></ul>
  48. 49. NEC: a model safety code for local municipalities Codes and standards--NEC TR air handler plenum plenum rating CMP OFNP riser rating CMR OFNR plus Firestopping general purpose rating CM OFN 50 foot maximum inside building
  49. 50. ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B Standard <ul><li>To improve user access, the 568-B standard was divided into three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>568-B.1 provides general cabling systems design and implementation requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both copper and fiber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>568-B.2 provides copper cabling component manufacturing specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>568-B.3 provides optical fiber cabling component manufacturing specifications </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B Standard <ul><li>Six areas of design and performance specified by the standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Recognized copper components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Recognized optical fiber components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Distance limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Installation practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Testing </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. TIA/EIA 569-B: Pathways <ul><li>Building Entrance </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment Room </li></ul><ul><li>Telecomm Room </li></ul><ul><li>Backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal </li></ul><ul><li>Work Area </li></ul>Electrical System Telecommunications <ul><li>Electrical Meter Pan </li></ul><ul><li>Main Switch Board </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Branch Panel </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Feeders (Riser) </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Branch Circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Duplex Receptacles </li></ul>
  52. 53. TIA/EIA 569-B: Pathways <ul><li>Building Pathways include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access Floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable tray and runway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-continuous supports (J-hooks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture pathways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-floor systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perimeter raceways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeves and slots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility columns </li></ul></ul>
  53. 54. TIA/EIA-569-B <ul><li>Spaces for communications hardware and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Pathways for cable between the spaces </li></ul>
  54. 55. TIA/EIA-569-B <ul><li>Building Spaces include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications Room provisioning requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment Room provisioning requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-user telecommunications outlet assembly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal connection point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poke-thru devices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Splice boxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zone box </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications enclosure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal connection points </li></ul></ul>Horizontal connection point above false ceiling to provide connection to a BAS device
  55. 56. Current and Future Categories – Copper Performance (Worst case scenario: 4 Connectors, 100 m channel) Standard Solution Bandwidth PSACR @ 100 MHz Cat 5e 100 MHz 3.1 dB Cat 6 200 MHz 15.8 dB Cat 6A 500 MHz ? dB
  56. 57. Bend Radius - Conduits <ul><li>Minimum conduit bend radius shall not be less than: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 times the internal diameter for conduit ≤ 2” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 times the internal diameter for conduit > 2” or conduit containing fiber </li></ul></ul>
  57. 58. Bend Radius - Cables <ul><li>Minimum bend radius shall not be less than: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 times the cable diameter for copper horizontal cable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 times the cable diameter for multipair cable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 times the cable diameter for fiber cable. </li></ul></ul>Bend Radius
  58. 59. Permanent Link Outlet Test Adapter Consolidation point Horizontal cable 1 st TR termination Permanent Link includes the horizontal cable, connectivity components (max. length 90 m) Test Adapter
  59. 60. Channel Outlet Work Area Cord Cross-connect Consolidation Point Jumper or Patch-Cord Equipment Cord Horizontal Cable Channel includes all cables, cords and connectivity components (cabling) between two pieces of equipment, excluding the equipment connectors at each end