Bioterrorism

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Warning signs and potential threats of bioterrorism

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Bioterrorism

  1. 1. BIOTERRORISM George Anne Thibodeau, M.S., CIC
  2. 2. BIOTERRORISM <ul><li>The use of biological agents, such as pathogenic organisms or agricultural pests, for terrorist purposes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. INDICATORS OF BIOTERRORISM <ul><li>An unusual geographic cluster of illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>An unusual age distribution for common diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance of previously rare diseases </li></ul>
  4. 4. MOST LIKELY AGENTS <ul><li>Anthrax </li></ul><ul><li>Smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonic plague </li></ul><ul><li>Botulism </li></ul>
  5. 5. ANTHRAX <ul><li>Bacterial infection </li></ul><ul><li>Causative agent Bacillus anthracis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerobic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gram positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rod-shaped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-motile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spore forming </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. ANTHRAX <ul><li>Infection of herbivores </li></ul><ul><li>Human infections follows contact with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>infected animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contaminated animal products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intentional release of spores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not transmitted from person-to-person </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3 FORMS OF ANTHRAX <ul><li> Cutaneous </li></ul><ul><li> Inhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal </li></ul>
  8. 8. CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX <ul><li>95% OF NATURALLY OCCURRING ANTHRAX </li></ul><ul><li>Incubation period of 2 - 12 days </li></ul><ul><li>Causes painless, black ulcer where spores entered a break in the skin </li></ul><ul><li>20% fatality rate if untreated </li></ul>
  9. 10. GASTROINTESTINAL ANTHRAX <ul><li>Rare form of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Follows consumption of contaminated meat or other foods containing spores </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever followed by abdominal pain,vomiting of blood, severe diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>25 - 60% fatality rate </li></ul>
  10. 11. INHALATION ANTHRAX <ul><li>8000 - 12,000 spores must be inhaled </li></ul><ul><li>1st stage: fever, muscle aches, chills, cough </li></ul><ul><li>2nd stage: difficulty breathing, shock, meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 100% fatality rate if not treated during 1st stage </li></ul>
  11. 12. INCIDENCE OF NATURALLY OCCURRING ANTHRAX <ul><li>224 cases of cutaneous anthrax in U.S. between 1944 and 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>18 cases of inhalation anthrax in U.S. between 1900 and 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>No cases of gastrointestinal cases reported in U.S. </li></ul>
  12. 13. WHAT MAKES ANTHRAX A GOOD BIOTERRORISM WEAPON <ul><li>Highly lethal with 100 million lethal doses per gram of anthrax material </li></ul><ul><li>Silent, invisible killer </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation anthrax is virtually 100% fatal </li></ul><ul><li>Low production cost </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to produce in large quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely stable </li></ul><ul><li>Currently we have limited detection capabilities </li></ul>
  13. 14. PRODUCTION OF WEAPONS-GRADE ANTHRAX <ul><li>Obtain virulent strain of Bacillus anthracis </li></ul><ul><li>Grow organism in large quantities in liquid form </li></ul><ul><li>Force bacterium to produce spores </li></ul><ul><li>Dry and suspend in powder </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver by aerosol </li></ul>
  14. 15. ANTHRAX TREATMENT <ul><li>Cipro: 2 tablets for 60 days ($500) </li></ul><ul><li>Doxycycline: 2 tablets for 60 days ($30) </li></ul><ul><li>Amoxicillin: 3 tablets for 60 days ($40) </li></ul>
  15. 16. ANTHRAX VACCINE <ul><li>6 - dose series </li></ul><ul><li>Annual booster </li></ul><ul><li>Currently produced by one manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>Administered to U.S. Armed Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Post-exposure vaccination recommended after large-scale exposure (if available) </li></ul>
  16. 17. CDC’S GUIDELINES ON HANDLING ANTHRAX THREATS <ul><li>DO NOT PANIC </li></ul><ul><li>Package marked with threats or “Anthrax” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT OPEN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not shake or empty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place in plastic bag or closable container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave room and secure area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call 911 </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. ANTHRAX THREAT <ul><li>Package or letter opened containing powdery substance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover contents with trash container, paper, clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave room and secure area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call 911 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove contaminated clothing and place in plastic bag or closable container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shower with soap and water </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. ANTHRAX THREAT <ul><li>Possible introduction into ventilation system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off fans or ventilation units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave area immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close door and secure area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call 911 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shut down air handling system </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. SMALLPOX <ul><li>Last case in U.S. occurred in 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinations in U.S. discontinued in 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Last case in world occurred in 1977 in Somalia </li></ul><ul><li>Only known reserves of virus are in the U.S. and Russia </li></ul>
  20. 22. SMALLPOX <ul><li>Viral infection </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted by inhalation of air droplets </li></ul><ul><li>Can be transmitted person-to-person </li></ul><ul><li>Incubation period 12 - 14 days </li></ul><ul><li>Fever, chills, headache, vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>Fatality rate 20 - 50% </li></ul><ul><li>No treatment available </li></ul><ul><li>1 person can infect 10 - 20 people </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. currently has 6 - 7 million doses of vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>In process of producing 40 million doses </li></ul>
  21. 23. PLAGUE <ul><li>Bacterial infection </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs naturally in southwestern U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonic plague incubation period 2 - 3 days </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted person-to-person </li></ul><ul><li>High fever, chills, headache, pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>Fatality rate 100% if untreated, 5 - 20% with treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment with tetracycline or gentamicin </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccine: 5 doses over 2 years, annual boosters </li></ul>
  22. 24. BOTULISM <ul><li>Bacterial toxin </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalation botulism symptoms develop in 1 -3 days </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include blurred vision, difficulty swallowing, muscle paralysis, respiratory failure </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to diagnose </li></ul><ul><li>Fatality rate 60% if untreated </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-toxin available for treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccine: 3 doses over 3 month period, annual booster </li></ul>
  23. 25. Delta Medical Center of Memphis

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