Stratification

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  • Top fifth–84% (top 1% gets 35%)Second fifth – 11%Third – 4%Fourth – 0.2%Bottom – 0.1%
  • http://www.stateofworkingamerica.org/pages/interactive%23/?start=1917&end=1918
  • Stratification

    1. 1. Social Differentiation & Stratification
    2. 2. The American Dream
    3. 3. The American RealityO Inequality – unequal access to scares goods and resourcesO Social differentiation – how people vary according to social characteristics O Different than inequality
    4. 4. StratificationO Social stratification – ranking of people according to their wealth, power or prestigeO The more complex a society, the wider the divisions of labor and variations in social positions
    5. 5. StratificationO Durkheim O Mechanical vs. organic solidarity O Increased division of labor did NOT in fact produce great solidarity in our society
    6. 6. StratificationO Systems of stratification O Status is acquired through ascription or achievement (usually a combination of both)
    7. 7. Systems of Stratification Open Systems Closed SystemsO Individual O Status is accomplishments determined at birth are encouraged and O Social mobility is social mobility based on a person’s rewarded with social position advancements O IndividualO Equality is based on achievement is not achievement rewarded
    8. 8. Systems of StratificationO Caste system O A person’s social status is ascribed at birth O Worth is judged on the basis of religious or traditional beliefs about the person or the person’s family
    9. 9. O India
    10. 10. Systems of StratificationO Estate system O Law and memberships through inheritance determine the mobility of a person O Status is ascribed O Social mobility is limited, but possible
    11. 11. Systems of StratificationO Europe during the Middle Ages O First estate – nobility, wealthy families, powerful landowners O Second estate – clergy O Third estate – serfs, commoners, laborers
    12. 12. Systems of StratificationO Slave system O Belief in the ownership of humans for labor O Labor seen as a means to pay off a debt O Indentured servitude
    13. 13. Systems of StratificationO Class system O Social status is defined in terms of wealth and income O Technically an open system O No legal definitions of class O Assumes social mobility
    14. 14. Dimensions of a Class SystemO Max Weber O Class O Status O Party (power)
    15. 15. Dimensions of a Class SystemO Social class O Ranking generally based on one’s wealth O Wealth is gained through income and occupation, power derived from wealth, and “life chances” O Opportunities people have to improve their social class status O Occupations, housing and lifestyle, education, medical care, criminal justice, etc.
    16. 16. Dimensions of a Class SystemO Social status O Amount of honor and prestige a person receives from others in the community O Can be acquired by birth, living in an expensive neighborhood, attending a prestigious school, joining high status groups, buying expensive goods, holding respected positions, etc.
    17. 17. Dimensions of a Class SystemO Party (power) O Having authority and respect usually within an organization in which decisions are made to reach the group’s goals
    18. 18. Dimensions of a Class SystemO Socioeconomic status O Considers income, education, and occupation when assessing a person’s statusO How do you classify people who have “status inconsistency”?
    19. 19. Social Class in the USO Upper class O Those who have considerable wealth O Wealth includes personal property, liquid assets, real estate, stocks, bonds and other owned assets O “Old money” vs. “new money”
    20. 20. Social Class in the USO Middle class O 53% of Americans self-identify as middle class
    21. 21. Pew InstituteSector % of Income Education Marital Demographics Populatio Status nTop 39% $50-100k Most likely to 70% married While males(Positive have college ages 30-49outlook) degreeSatisfied 25% $30-49k Less than Unmarried White women(Positive college ages 18-29 &outlook) education over 65Anxious 23% $$50-99k Some college Married White ages 30-(Negative 49outlook)Strugglin 13% $20k or High school or Unmarried Mostly white,g less less but most(Mostly minorities in thisnegative group
    22. 22. Social Class in the USO Lower class O Usually have the least amount of education and most difficulty with employment O Self-identification is very unlikely O Women, children and minorities are vastly overrepresented
    23. 23. Social Class in the USO Poverty O Having fewer resources than necessary to meet the basic necessities of life O Poverty index O US Census Bureau
    24. 24. Social Class in the USO Poverty rate in 2010 – 15.1%, up from 14.3% in 2009, up from 12.5% in 2007 O Highest rate since 1993O In 2010, 46.2 million people were in poverty O Largest number in the history of the censusO Poverty – Whites (9.4% to 9.9%), Asians (12.1%), Hispanics (25.3% to 26.6%), Blacks (25.8% to 27.4%) O Children (20.7% to 22%), People 18-64 (12.9% 13.7%)
    25. 25. Social Class in the USO 2007 - $21,203 for a family of four – 12.5%O 2005 - $19,874 for a family of four – 12.6%O Only 5% of the poor could be working but are notO In 2007 28.3% of female-headed households were living in poverty
    26. 26. Social Class in the USO Class consciousness O Awareness that different classes exist in society and that people’s fates are tied to the fate of their whole class O Upper class is the most likely in the US to have class consciousness
    27. 27. Social Class in the USO Income inequalities
    28. 28. Social Class in the US
    29. 29. Social Class in the US
    30. 30. Social Class in the USO Social mobility in the US O Upward and downward mobility O Split labor market O Great obstacles for women, the poor and minorities
    31. 31. Theories of StratificationO Structural Functionalism O Society is self-regulating and self- maintaining O Stratification must serve a function O People with strong leadership skills are needed to run complex societies O Society encourages these leaders by rewarding them with wealth and status O People who make more worthwhile contributions to the functioning of society are rewarded better
    32. 32. Theories of StratificationO Conflict theory O Inequality develops as a result of people’s lust for power O Groups compete with one another for scare resources that are a source of power O These resources are not rewards, but are acquired through inheritance, coercion and exploitation
    33. 33. Theories of StratificationO Conflict theory O Once a group has power, it must legitimate its power by appealing to the values of the masses O False consciousness – masses are influenced by elite ideology and show a lack of awareness of their own interests and an acceptance of elite rule

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