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Culture<br />
Body Ritual Among the Nacirema<br />Between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawa...
What is Culture?<br />A learned system of ideas, values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, customs and technology shared by almos...
Culture<br />Material culture – all tangible things within our society<br />Non-material culture – non-tangible items with...
Culture’s “ism”s<br />Ethnocentrism<br />The attitude that <br />our culture is <br />superior to others, <br />that our o...
Culture’s “ism”s<br />Xenocentrism<br />The belief that what is foreign is best<br />
Culture’s “ism”s<br />Temporocentrism<br />The belief that our own time is more important than the past or future<br />Mil...
Culture’s “ism”s<br />Cultural Relativism<br />The belief that cultures should be judged on their own terms rather than by...
Elements of Culture<br />Symbols<br />Something that is used to represent something else<br />Arbitrary designations<br />...
Elements of Culture<br />Language<br />Systematic usage of speech and hearing to convey or express feelings and ideas<br /...
Elements of Culture<br />Language<br />Non-verbal language of gestures, expressions, mannerisms, and use of space<br />
Elements of Culture<br />Language<br />Sapir-Whorf hypothesis<br />Societies with different languages actually perceive th...
Sapir-Whorf<br />Papua New Guinea<br />One = 1<br />Two = 2<br />One and two = 3<br />Dog = 4<br />Dog and one = 5<br />Do...
Elements of Culture<br />Values<br />Ideas shared by the people in a society regarding what is important and worthwhile<br...
Elements of Culture<br />Norms<br />Rules and social expectations that specify how people should and should not behave in ...
Elements of Culture<br />Different from values<br />Values are what we see as important and worthwhile<br />Norms are stan...
Elements of Culture<br />Norms<br />Folkways – customs or conventions with only mild censure for violation<br />Mores – mo...
Elements of Culture<br />Technology<br />The practical production of products and application of techniques used by societ...
Units of Culture<br />Gans<br />High culture – elite culture that reflects the tastes of the wealthy, affluent or upper cl...
Units of Culture<br />Subcultures<br />Groups that share some of the cultural elements of the larger society but also have...
Units of Culture<br />Counterculture<br />A subculture that adheres to a set of beliefs and values that “rejects and oppos...
Ideal vs. Real Culture<br />Ideal culture<br />The norms and values people profess to have<br />Real culture<br />The cult...
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Culture

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Culture

  1. 1. Culture<br />
  2. 2. Body Ritual Among the Nacirema<br />Between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles<br />Notgnihsaw<br />Shrines with a box or chest in the wall<br />Medicine men, herbalists and holy mouth men<br />Visiting the latipso or a Listener<br />
  3. 3. What is Culture?<br />A learned system of ideas, values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, customs and technology shared by almost everyone in a particular society<br />Society – A group of interacting persons who live in a specific geographical area, who are organized in a cooperative manner, and who share a common culture<br />
  4. 4. Culture<br />Material culture – all tangible things within our society<br />Non-material culture – non-tangible items within a culture<br />
  5. 5. Culture’s “ism”s<br />Ethnocentrism<br />The attitude that <br />our culture is <br />superior to others, <br />that our own values, <br />beliefs and behaviors <br />are more correct than <br />others, and that other <br />people and cultures do things wrong compared to our own culture<br />
  6. 6. Culture’s “ism”s<br />Xenocentrism<br />The belief that what is foreign is best<br />
  7. 7. Culture’s “ism”s<br />Temporocentrism<br />The belief that our own time is more important than the past or future<br />Millenials<br />Baby Boomers<br />Generation X<br />
  8. 8. Culture’s “ism”s<br />Cultural Relativism<br />The belief that cultures should be judged on their own terms rather than by the standards of another culture<br />
  9. 9. Elements of Culture<br />Symbols<br />Something that is used to represent something else<br />Arbitrary designations<br />Used to understand reality, transmit messages, store complex information, and deal with an abstract symbolic world<br />
  10. 10. Elements of Culture<br />Language<br />Systematic usage of speech and hearing to convey or express feelings and ideas<br />Most important set of symbols<br />Transmits, expresses and shares our ideas, values, beliefs and knowledge<br />
  11. 11. Elements of Culture<br />Language<br />Non-verbal language of gestures, expressions, mannerisms, and use of space<br />
  12. 12. Elements of Culture<br />Language<br />Sapir-Whorf hypothesis<br />Societies with different languages actually perceive the world differently, they do not just use a different set of labels to describe the same things<br />Our perception of reality is greatly influenced by our language<br />
  13. 13. Sapir-Whorf<br />Papua New Guinea<br />One = 1<br />Two = 2<br />One and two = 3<br />Dog = 4<br />Dog and one = 5<br />Dog and two = 6<br />Dog and one and two = 7<br />Dog dog = 8<br />
  14. 14. Elements of Culture<br />Values<br />Ideas shared by the people in a society regarding what is important and worthwhile<br />The basis of our judgments about what is desirable, beautiful, correct and good<br />Justify certain types of behavior and forbid others<br />True values are often revealed more by what we do than what we say<br />
  15. 15. Elements of Culture<br />Norms<br />Rules and social expectations that specify how people should and should not behave in various social situations<br />Prescriptive – tell people what they SHOULD do<br />Proscriptive – tell people what they should NOT do<br />
  16. 16. Elements of Culture<br />Different from values<br />Values are what we see as important and worthwhile<br />Norms are standards, rules, guides and expectations for actual behavior<br />
  17. 17. Elements of Culture<br />Norms<br />Folkways – customs or conventions with only mild censure for violation<br />Mores – more important than folkways, with more serious reactions to violations<br />Taboos – mores that prohibit something<br />Laws – formalized legislated norms that are enforced by a group designated for that purpose<br />
  18. 18. Elements of Culture<br />Technology<br />The practical production of products and application of techniques used by societies to maintain their standards of living and lifestyle<br />Artifacts – physical products<br />Reflect the non-material culture<br />
  19. 19. Units of Culture<br />Gans<br />High culture – elite culture that reflects the tastes of the wealthy, affluent or upper classes<br />Folk culture – reflects the tastes of the working class or ethnic groups<br />Popular culture – reflects the tastes of the masses within a society<br />
  20. 20. Units of Culture<br />Subcultures<br />Groups that share some of the cultural elements of the larger society but also have their own distinctive set of norms, values, beliefs, symbols and lifestyles<br />Participate in the larger, dominant culture but possess their own set of cultural elements<br />
  21. 21. Units of Culture<br />Counterculture<br />A subculture that adheres to a set of beliefs and values that “rejects and opposes significant elements of the dominant culture of which it is a part.”<br />
  22. 22. Ideal vs. Real Culture<br />Ideal culture<br />The norms and values people profess to have<br />Real culture<br />The culture that people actually do follow<br />

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