Abo blood type

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  • ABO antibodies in the serum are formed naturally. Their production is stimulated when the immune system encounters the "missing" ABO blood group antigens in foods or in micro-organisms. This happens at an early age because sugars that are identical to, or very similar to, the ABO blood group antigens are found throughout nature.
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  • Abo blood type

    1. 1. Blood Transfusion Surgery Forensic Science Immune System CSI
    2. 2. Antibody <ul><li>Body defense mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Type of protein produced by the immune system (plasma cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Detects harmful substances/targets ( Antigen ) </li></ul><ul><li>Each antibody is unique and specific to one specific type of antigen </li></ul><ul><li>Can target healthy tissue – Autoimmune disorders ( Optional ) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Antigen <ul><li>A substance that is capable of stimulating antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>May be a foreign substance from the environment such as chemicals, bacteria & viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be formed within the body, such as the bacterial toxins or tissue cells </li></ul>
    4. 5. Blood Components <ul><li>Plasma Portion (~55% of total volume) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~90% Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 7-8% Plasma proteins (eg. Albumin, globulin aka antibody , fibrinogen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~1-2% Ions, sugars, lipids, hormones, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cellular Portion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelets ( Cell fragments) </li></ul></ul>(Serum)
    5. 6. ABO Blood Types Karl Landsteiner
    6. 8. ABO blood typing <ul><li>Agglutination - Clumping of Red blood cells </li></ul>
    7. 9. Recap <ul><li>Blood group A </li></ul><ul><li>If you belong to the blood group A, you have A antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and _______ antibodies in your blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood group B </li></ul><ul><li>If you belong to the blood group B, you have B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and _______ antibodies in your blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood group AB </li></ul><ul><li>If you belong to the blood group AB, you have both A and B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and no anti-A or anti-B antibodies in your blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood group O </li></ul><ul><li>If you belong to the blood group O, you have neither A nor B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells, but you have both </li></ul><ul><li>______ and _____ antibodies in your blood. </li></ul>
    8. 10. Blood Transfusion <ul><li>Donor </li></ul><ul><li>Recipient </li></ul><ul><li>* Donated blood (antigen) from donor must be compatible with recipient serum antibody/antibodies </li></ul>
    9. 11. Which blood group is considered universal donor?
    10. 12. Universal donor <ul><li>‘ O’ Blood type </li></ul><ul><li>RBCs contain NO A or B antigens </li></ul><ul><li>Safe to transfuse to A, B, O blood types </li></ul><ul><li>Recipient serum antibodies will not cause agglutination of RBC </li></ul>
    11. 13. Which blood group is considered universal recipient?
    12. 14. Universal recipient <ul><li>‘ AB’ Blood type </li></ul><ul><li>RBCs contain BOTH A and B antigens </li></ul><ul><li>Only AB recipients are safe </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of recipient serum Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies </li></ul>
    13. 15. Blood Group Antigens on red blood cells Antibodies in plasma Can receive blood from Can give blood to A B AB O
    14. 16. Blood Group Antigens on red blood cells Antibodies in plasma Can receive blood from Can give blood to A A Anti-B A and O A and AB B B Anti-A B and O B and AB AB A and B None A, B, O AB O None Anti-A and Anti-B O A, B, O
    15. 17. Class activity <ul><li>Who Killed Shamari? </li></ul>
    16. 18. <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Shamari was a 20-year-old college freshman who was majoring in Physical Therapy. She paid for school by working as a personal trainer at a local gym. Shamari had been promoted to head personal trainer at the gym just before she was killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Crime Scene </li></ul><ul><li>The body was found in the women’s locker room of the gym at 1 am by the night janitor, Willis . The victim had been strangled and was wearing a robe. There were signs of a struggle in the room and the glass door of the shower was broken and had traces of blood on it. The victim was pronounced dead at the scene and the coroner suggested that the time of death was at least 3 hours before the body was found. </li></ul>
    17. 19. <ul><li>Criminal Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Shamari’s co-worker Jones told police that Shamari was a newer employee who did not deserve her recent promotion and only got it because she spent a lot of time with their boss, Steve . When asked if he knew if Shamari had problems at work, Steve told Police that Shamari had complained to him that one of her fitness clients, Mike , kept asking her out and wouldn’t take no for an answer. </li></ul>
    18. 20. Reacts with anti-A antibody (Yes or No) Reacts with anti-B antibody (Yes or No) Blood type (A, B, AB, O) Shamari Victim Jones Co-worker Willis Janitor Mike Client Steve Boss Blood on shower door
    19. 21. Revision questions <ul><li>Red Blood Cells are adapted to transporting of oxygen. Why is this so? </li></ul>

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