Nutritional Assessment


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Nutritional Assessment

  1. 1. Nutritional Assessment<br />A Presentation<br />
  2. 2. Nurse’s Role in Nutritional Assessment<br />Monitoring and intervention to clients needing acute and chronic nutritional care<br />Incorporate family nutritional habits into nutritional care<br />Active role in community teaching regarding nutrition<br />
  3. 3. Collaborative multidisciplinary approach<br />A varied approach to nutritional assessment will provide the best outcomes for the client: physical assessment by nurses/other providers, comprehensive nutritional assessments by registered dieticians/nurses, and follow-up by nurses/dieticians<br />
  4. 4. Transition Page<br />
  5. 5. Methods of Nursing Nutritional Assessments<br />Food Intake Assessment<br />Physical Assessment<br />Anthropometric Tools<br />Clinical Values<br />
  6. 6. Methods to Evaluated Food Intake<br />Comparision with the MyPyramid Model: Asks client what he or she eats <br />Compares this reported food intake with MyPyramid Model<br />Food Frequency: requests client to fill out a questionnaire asking about <br />Usual food intake during specified times, such as “What do you usually eat for breakfast?”<br />24 Hour Recall: asks client what he or she has eaten during the previous<br />24 hours.<br />Food records: asks client to record his or her food intake for a specified<br />Length of time (1 day, 3 days, 7 days)<br />Diet History: comprehensive interview to obtain thorough<br />Information about food intake, medications, allergies, nutrition knowledge,<br />Cultural preferences, weight history, elimination patterns, alcohol and<br />Tobacco usage, financial ability, functional ability to chew and swallow, and<br />Special dietary needs.<br />
  7. 7. Nutrition Information about You<br />What does your nutrition label say about You?<br />Image courtesy of Creative Commons (Copyright (C) 2009, All Rights Reserved. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Generic 2.0 United States License<br />
  8. 8. Physical Assessment<br />Head to Toe Assessment<br />Focuses on General Appearance and signs and symptoms of Nutritional Imbalance<br />
  9. 9. Signs and symptoms of Inadequate Nutrition<br />Hair: dry, dull, or brittle<br />Skin: Dry patches<br />Wounds: poor wound healing or sores<br />Fat and Muscles: lack of subcutaneous fat and/or muscle wasting<br />Vital signs: abnormal cardiovascular measurements<br />General: general weakness and/or impaired condition<br />
  10. 10. Transition Page<br />
  11. 11. Anthropometric Tools<br />Weight assessment: same time of day typically daily or weekly (view this video clip to see correct weight demonstration:<br />Height measurement: measured in cm or in<br />
  12. 12. Anthropometric Tools<br />Body Mass Index (BMI): BMI = weight (kg) /height(m2)<br />Body Fat Composition Methods: skin fold measurements (usually back of the arm), waist to hip ratio, densitometry (underwater weighing)<br />
  13. 13. Clinical Values to Assess Nutritional Status<br />Fluid Intake and Ouput: otherwise known as I & O; Average adult intake is <br />2200 to 2700 mL per 24 hours; Average output should be 2200 to 2700 mL<br />Per 24 hours; average hourly output = 30 mL/hr<br />Protein Levels: measured by serum (blood) albumin levels; <br />Normal albumin = 3.5 to 5.5 g/dL<br />Pre-Albumin (thyroxin-binding protein): more sensitive measure for <br />Critically ill clients; reflects acute changes; Normal level = 23 to 43 mg/dL<br />
  14. 14. Risk Factors for Inadequate Nutrition<br />Biophysical Factors<br />Psychological Factors<br />Socioeconomic Factors<br />
  15. 15. Impact of Risk Factors<br />Risk factors can affect nutritional status<br />Ask yourself, “What impact would a particular risk factor have on that person’s nutritional status?”<br />
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