3. THE VERB (TENSES AND MOODS)                       3.1. Definitions: Tense and Aspect                       3.2. Present...
Alina Cheşcă                                                           The Verb (Tenses and Moods)3.1. Tense and Aspect   ...
Alina Cheşcă                                                         The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                ca presedi...
Alina Cheşcă                                                           The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                e.g. Thi...
Alina Cheşcă                                                         The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                 The Home ...
Alina Cheşcă                                                          The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                The Couns...
Alina Cheşcă                                                        The Verb (Tenses and Moods)3.6. Present Perfect Simple...
Alina Cheşcă                                                       The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                 Generally, ...
Alina Cheşcă                                                           The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                e.g. He ...
Alina Cheşcă                                                        The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                I had hardl...
Alina Cheşcă                                                        The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                1. to under...
Alina Cheşcă                                                   The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                seized or impris...
Alina Cheşcă                                                 The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                Solicitors regular...
Alina Cheşcă                                                         The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                          ...
Alina Cheşcă                                                          The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                11. A tra...
Alina Cheşcă                                                          The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                12. He (t...
Alina Cheşcă                                                       The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                gândească, v...
Alina Cheşcă                                                          The Verb (Tenses and Moods)               Summary   ...
Alina Cheşcă                                                           The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                2. Trans...
Alina Cheşcă                                                       The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                10. The mana...
Alina Cheşcă                                                        The Verb (Tenses and Moods)                it doesn’t ...
Alina Cheşcă                                                      The Verb (Tenses and Moods)               Bibliography  ...
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Limba engleza unitatea iii

  1. 1. 3. THE VERB (TENSES AND MOODS) 3.1. Definitions: Tense and Aspect 3.2. Present Tense Simple 3.3. Present Tense Continuous 3.4. Past Tense Simple 3.5. Past Tense Continuous 3.6. Present Perfect Simple 3.7. Present Perfect Continuous 3.8. Past Perfect Simple 3.9. Past Perfect Continuous Specific objectives Summary Self-evaluation tests BibliographySpecific objectives: At the end of the chapter you will be able to: • define the concepts of tense and aspect in English • analyze each tense that has been approached, considering the aspect and the type of action expressed • find similarities and dissimilarities between the tenses in English and Romanian • correctly use these tenses in sentences and texts Estimated time for individual study: 4 hours
  2. 2. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods)3.1. Tense and Aspect It is generally accepted that the word TIME stands for the concept with which all mankind is familiar, divided into past, present and future. And, one must also underline that it is something independent from language. By TENSE we understand that correspondence between the form of the verb and our concept of time. ASPECT is the manner in which a verbal action is experienced or regarded. If the action is complete, the simple/common/indefinite aspect is used. If it is in progress at a given moment, the continuous/progressive/expanded aspect is used. It must be shown that TIME is not the only concept rendered by the tense of the verb. TENSE may also express the completeness or incompleteness of an action which is or was still on its way.3.2. Present Tense Simple FORM: Affirmative: Interrogative: I/you/we/they read Do I/you/we/they read? He/she/it reads Does he/she/it read? Negative: I/you/we/they do not read/don’t read He/she/it does not/doesn’t read USE: 1. to express eternal/general truths, or to make statements of general validity: e.g. The sun rises in the East and sets in the West. Wood floats on water. 2. to express repeated/habitual/permanent actions. Such actions are usually accompanied by the adverbs: every day/week/month/year, ever, never, always, often, sometimes, seldom, occasionally, usually, twice a week, etc. e.g. The solicitor always helps a person who needs the assistance of a law for a certain problem. (Avocatul nepledant intotdeauna il ajuta pe cel ce are nevoie de asistenta juridica pentru o anumita problema.) The exit polls suggest that the president faces a Congress with a narrow but hostile Republican majority in both House and Senate. (Sondajul la urne arataLimba engleză 2
  3. 3. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) ca presedintele se confrunta cu un Congres republican nemajoritar, dar ostil, in Camera si in Senat.) At every trial, the judge conducts the proceedings and points out the matters. (La fiecare proces, judecatorul conduce actiunea si puncteaza problemele.) I find it hard to believe that he does not want to appeal to the High Court of Justice. (Imi vine greu sa cred ca nu vrea sa apeleze la Inalta Curte de Justitie. What do you think of this barrister? (Ce crezi despre acest avocet pledant?) 3. in step-by-step instructions or demonstrations: e.g. First, you listen to the prosecutor, then you cross-examine the witnesses. (Mai intai, il asculti pe procurer, apoi audiezi martorii.)3.3. Present Tense Continuous FORM: the verb “to be” + VERB +ing Affirmative: Interrogative: I am reading Am I reading? You/we/they are reading Are you/we/they reading? He/she/it is reading Is he/she/it reading? Negative: I am not/I’m not reading You/we/they are not/aren’t reading He/she/it is not/isn’t reading USE: 1. to express an action started before the present moment, which is in progress at the moment of speaking and which will terminate in the future. This form of the verb indicates that the duration of the action is limited. The feeling of immediate present is often emphasized by “just” and “now”: e.g. Now, we are learning for our advanced civil law exam. (Acum, noi invatam pentru examenul de drept civil aprofundat) At this moment, The Court of Assizes is considering the facts which have been presented. (In acest moment, Curtea cu Juri analizeaza faptele ce au fost prezentate.) 2. to express temporary actions: today, this week/month/yearLimba engleză 3
  4. 4. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) e.g. This month she is taking legal action against two persons. (Luna aceasta ea da in judecata doua personae.) We always watch quiz games, but this week we are watching variety shows. (Noi intotdeauna privim jocuri televizate, dar saptamana aceasta privim spectacole de varietati.) Verbs not used in their continuous aspect: 1. Verbs of feeling:. feel, hear, notice, see, smell, taste e.g. The soup tastes delicious. I can see the plane now. This bar of soap smells wonderful. However, the verbs “to smell”, “to taste”, “to feel” may be found in the continuous aspect when they imply a voluntary action on the part of the subject: e.g. I am smelling this bar of soap. She is tasting the soup now. Besides, the verb “to see” may also be used in the continuous aspect, but with different meanings: to meet by appointment, to visit, to have hallucinations. 2. Verbs of mental activity: to agree, distrust, doubt, find, foresee, forget, guess, imagine, know, mean, mind, remember, recognize, recollect, regard, suppose, trust, understand, etc. 3. Verbs expressing wish: to desire, intend, want, wish. 4. Verbs expressing attitudes, feelings, emotional states: to abhor, adore, detest, dislike, displease, like, love, hate, please, prefer etc. 5. Verbs expressing possession: belong, have, hold, keep, owe, own, possess. 6. Verbs expressing a state, a condition: to appear, to be, consist of, contain, differ, deserve, equal, exist, resemble, seem, suit, etc. 7. Miscellaneous verbs: to compare, expect, matter, suffice It is important to mention that the adverbs of frequency and indefinite time (always, often, seldom, generally, ever, never, etc.) may be used with the continuous aspect, denoting a modal charge, i.e. emotional charge (joy, admiration, irritation). Therefore, MODALITY is the attitude of the speaker towards the communication. e.g. You are always drinking and driving! ( I am angry at that person) = Intotdeauna conduci in stare de ebrietate!Limba engleză 4
  5. 5. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) The Home Secretary is always buying old books and paintings! (Ministrul de Interne intotdeauna cumpara carti si tablouri vechi!)3.4. Past Tense Simple According to the way in which they form the Past Tense and the Past Participle, English verbs are divided into regular and irregular. Regular verbs are all those verbs that make the Past Tense and the Past Participle by adding the suffix –ed to their Short Infinitives. This ending may be pronounced either /d/ after vowels and /b/, /g/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /v/, /z/, or /t/ after /k/, /p/, /s/, or /id/ after /t/ or /d/. Irregular verbs are all those verbs that do not make the Past Tense and the Past Participle by adding the suffix –ed, but have their own forms: to begin-began- begun; to give-gave-given; etc. FORM: Affirmative:Interrogative: I/you/he/she/it/we/they thought Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they think? Negative: I/you/he/shoe/it/we/they did not/didn’t think USE: 1. To express an action or state wholly completed at some moment or during some period in the past. In fact, the Simple Past Tense is a narrative tense. In this case, a past tense adverbial such as when, then, yesterday, last week, last month, last year, that day, the other day, once, in 2005, ago, etc. occurs in the sentence: e.g. Yesterday, she told us about the hereditary peerage during the course. (Ieri, la curs, ne-a povestit despre aristocratia ereditara) The mission turned out to be more difficult than expected. (Misiunea s-a dovedit a fi mai dificila decat ne asteptam) I read about this legislative body last year. (Anul trecut am citit despre acest organ legislativ.) Did you try to talk to the plaintiff? (Ai incercat sa vorbesti cu reclamantul? It is very important to point out that, if there is a past tense in the main clause, we have to use a past tense in the main clause, too: e.g. How did you know I was here? (Cum ai stiut ca sunt aici?)Limba engleză 5
  6. 6. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) The Counsel for the Prosecution tried to prove in court that the accused was lying. (Avocatul acuzarii a incercat sa dovedeasca in fata curtii ca acuzatul minte.) 2. to express a past habit or a repeated action in the past; e.g. Groups of neighbouring states often seemed to vote the same way. (Grupuri de satate invecinate pareau adesea ca voteaza in acelasi fel.)3.5. Past Tense Continuous FORM:was/were + VERB + ing Affirmative: Interrogative: I/he/she/it was thinking Was I/he/she/it thinking? We/you/they were thinkingWere we/you/they thinking? Negative: I/he/she/it was not/ wasn’t thinking You/we/they were not/ weren’t thinking USE: 1. To express an action in progress at a certain moment in the past: at this time yesterday/last year, by 5 o’clock yesterday, etc e.g. The President of the House of Commons was speaking in front of the 630 members at this time yesterday. (Presedintele Camerei Comunelor vorbea in fata celor 630 de membri ieri,pe vremea aceasta) He was hoping to be the first American re-elected president since the war. (Spera sa fie primul presedinte american reales de la razboi si pana acum.) 2. to indicate that an action was going on (like a background) at a time when something else, more important or more dramatic (the foreground) took place: e.g. When I called her, she told me that she was talking to the defendant.(Cand am sunat-o, mi-a spus ca vorbea cu inculpatul.) 3. to show that two or more actions were going on at the same time in the past: e.g. The Public Prosecutor was presenting the facts while the two detectives were listening very carefully. (Procurorul Public prezenta faptele, in timp ce cei doi detectivi ascultau foarte atent.)Limba engleză 6
  7. 7. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods)3.6. Present Perfect Simple FORM: have/has + Past Participle (the 3rd form of the verb) Affirmative:Interrogative; I/you/we/they have thoughtHave I/you/we/they thought? He/she/it has thought Has he/she/it thought? Negative: I/you/we/they have not/haven’t thought He/she/it has not/ hasn’t thought USE: An action or state prior to the moment of speaking may be expressed both by the Past Tense and by the Present Perfect. But, while the Past Tense presents the action without referring to the present moment, the Present Perfect links that past action with the present. This means that when we have the Past Tense, we think of the time when something happened or we narrate a sequence of events at a given time. Therefore, the Present Perfect is used: 1. when there is a result/consequence into the present: e.g. I have not won the case and that is why I will not have too many clients from nowon. (Nu am castigat cazul si de aceea nu voi avea prea multi clienti de acum inainte) It must be mentioned that the actions expressed by Past Tense Simple generally have no any consequence into the present. e.g. I did not win the case yesterday. (Nu am castigat cazul ieri) 2. when the action continues in the present and, perhaps, it will go on in the future: e.g. Magistrates’ Courts in England and Wales have had limited civil jurisdiction for many years. (Curtile Magistratilor din Anglia si Tara Galilor au jurisdictie limitata de multi ani.) 3.when we are not interested in the moment of the action, but in the action proper: e.g.The two voting systems in the American presidential election have been alluded to. (S-a facut aluzie la cele doua sisteme de votare de la alegerile prezidentiale americane.) They have been at the Claims Department. (Au fost la Biroul de Reclamatii.)Limba engleză 7
  8. 8. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) Generally, when the moment is mentioned, Past Tense Simple is used: e.g. They were at the Claims Department when they worked at that company. 4. with uncompleted periods of time: today, this week/month/year: e.g.The employer has filed a claim today. (Angajatorul a depus o reclamatie astazi) It should be noted that Past Tense Simple always expresses completed periods of time: e.g. I always read many plays when I was a student. (Intotdeauna am citit multe piese cand eram student) The adverbs used with The Present Perfect Simple are: just, already, always, yet, lately, recently, up to now=so far=till now=until now, how long, today, this week/month etc.3.7. Present Perfect Continuous FORM: Affirmative: Interrogative: I/you/we/they have been writing Have I/you/we/they been writing? He/she/it has been writing Has he/she/it been writing? Negative: I/you/we/they have not/haven’t been writing He/she/it has not/hasn’t been writing USE: 1. While the Present Perfect Simple implies that the attention is focused on the repetition or on the completion of an action, the Present Perfect Continuous emphasizes the duration, the continuity of the action in the present: e.g. The employee has been waiting for the manager since 10 o’clock. (Angajatul il asteapta pe patron de la ora 10.00.) The Bosnian Muslims have been operating inside Sarajevo for a few months. (Musulmanii bosniaci opereaza in interiorul Sarajevo-ului de cateva luni.) 2. Since the Present Perfect Continuous describes an action which is apparently uninterrupted, it will not be employed when we mention the number of times a thing has been done or the number of things that have been done:Limba engleză 8
  9. 9. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) e.g. He has been talking about his creditworthiness since 2 o’clock. (Vorbeste despre credibilitatea sa de la ora 2.00.) But: He has talked about his creditworthiness three times since 2 o’clock. ( A vorbit despre credibilitatea sa de trei ori de la ora 2.00)3.8. Past Perfect Simple 1. FORM: Affirmative I/you/he/she/it/we/they had opened/seen Negative I/you/he/she/it/we/they had not opened/seen. I/you/he/she/it/we/they hadn’t opened/seen. Interrogative Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they opened/seen? Negative-Interrogative Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they not opened/seen? Hadn’t I/you/he/she/it/we/they opened/seen? 2. USE: 1. to express a past action that took place before a past moment or before another action in the past. In fact it is the past equivalent of the Present Perfect. Note the use of when, before, now that, as soon as, and after in some of these sentences containing a Past Perfect: • The boy explained that he had seen somebody in the garden. • When father came home, Dick had done his homework. • Father came after Dick had done his homework. • Dick had done his homework before father came home. 2. to express duration up to a certain moment in the past: 3. with just, already, hardly/barely/scarcely and no sooner, to show that the last action was finished a little time before another past action: Mary told us that her brother had just left. We did not know that he had already repaired his car.Limba engleză 9
  10. 10. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) I had hardly/scarcely entered the room when somebody knocked at the door. In the last case, another from may also occur, although it is considered to be obsolete: Hardly/scarcely had I entered the room when somebody knocked at the door. No sooner had she seen the photos than she remembered everything about the accident. 4. with since and for when the point of reference is past: In 1980 I had been a teacher for ten years. I knew she had not seen him since Christmas. 5. in Indirect Speech, to express a Past Tense or a Present Perfect from Direct Speech: “I saw this film last week,” Nick said. Nick said he had seen that film a week before. “I have never visited Madrid,” the boy explained. The boy explained he had never visited Madrid.3.9. Past Perfect Continuous 1. FORM: Affirmative: I/you/he/she/it/we/they/had been speaking Negative: I/you/he/she/it/we/they had not speaking I/you/he/she/it/we/they hadn’t been speaking Interrogative: Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they been speaking? Negative-Interrogative: Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they not been speaking? Hadn’t I/you/he/she/it/we/they been speaking? 2. USE:Limba engleză 10
  11. 11. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) 1. to underline the continuity of a past action up to a past moment or just before it: The pupils had been reading the lesson for five minutes when the school master entered the classroom. 2. in Indirect Speech, to express a Past Tense Continuous or a Present Perfect Continuous from Direct Speech: “I was watching TV at seven o’clock,” Harry explained to his mother. Harry explained to his mother that he had been watching TV at 7 o’clock. “We have been learning English for two years,” the children told me. Activity 1 Read and translate the following texts: MAGNA CARTA An island on the Thames between Staines and Windsor had been chosen as the place of conference: the King encamped on one bank, while the barons covered the marshy flat, still known by the name of Runnymede, on the other. Their delegates met on the island between them, but the negotiations were a mere cloak to cover Johns purpose of unconditioned submission. The Great Charter was discussed, agreed to and signed in a single day (1215, June 16). One copy of it still remains in the British Museum, injured by age and fire, but with the royal seal still hanging on the brown, shrivelled parchment. It is impossible to gaze without reference on the earliest monument of English freedom which we can see with our own eyes and touch with our own hands, the Great Charter to which from age to age patriots have looked back as the basis of English liberty. But in itself the Charter was no novelty, nor did it to establish any new constitutional principles. The character of Henry the First formed the basis of the whole and the additions to it are for the most part formal recognition of the judicial and administrative changes introduced by Henry the Second. But the vague expressions of the other characters were now changed for precise and elaborate provisions. The bounds of unwritten custom, which the older grants did little more then recognise, had proved too weak to hold the Angevins; and the baronage now threw them aside for the restraints of written law. It is in this way that the Great Charter marks the transition from the age of traditional rights, preserved in the nations memory and officially declared by the Primate, to the age of written legislation, of parliaments and statues, which was soon to come. The church had shown its power of self-defence in the struggle over the interdict, and the clause that recognised its rights alone retained the older and general form. But all vagueness ceases when the Charter passes on to deal with the rights of Englishmen at large, their right to justice, to security of person, to good government. "No freeman", run the memorable article that lies at the base of the whole judicial English system, "shall beLimba engleză 11
  12. 12. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) seized or imprisoned, or dispossessed, or outlawed, or in any way brought to ruin: we will not go against any man nor send against him, save by legal judgement of his peers or by the law of the land". "To no man will we sell", runs other, or "delay, right or justice". (Adapted from "A Short History of the English People" by JR. Green) SOLICITORS AND BARRISTERS The legal profession in England and Wales is divided into solicitors and barristers. The duty of the solicitor is to give advice and to lead the business of the client. He will also have a barrister to care of a specific matter of the clients business. The solicitors have the right to a brief council, who will be called in if the situation requires, in order to give specialist advice, to draft documents or to act as advocates in the higher courts. He is the one who will entitle the barrister to act as an advocate in the higher courts. The solicitors have been usually considered the junior part of the legal profession, but have increasingly become the dominant part of it. They are only admitted for practice if they complete three stages of training: the academic stage, the vocational stage and the apprenticeship. The academic stage of training is satisfied by the completion of a qualifying law degree containing the six core subjects or by passing the Common Professional Examination. The six core subjects are Constitutional and Administrative Law, Contract, Tort, Criminal Law, Land Law and Equity and Trust. The last stage consists of a two years apprenticeship to an established solicitor and can be regarded as the clinical stage of training. In this stage, they learn various skills that are necessary for a solicitor, like managing an office, interviewing clients, writing letters, instructing counsel and handling money. Once admitted, the solicitor is required to maintain a practising certificate, for which a substantial annual fee is charged. The governing bodies of the barristers are more complex then those of solicitors. First of all, in order to become a barrister, it is necessary to become a member of one of the Inns of Court, like the Inner Temple, the Middle Temple, Lincolns Inn or Grays Inn. Though admission to the Bar is still largely the domain of the individual Inns, the formal education of a trainee barrister is centralised through the Inns of Court School of Law, Another governing body for barristers is the Bad Council, which is the barristers elected representative body. Like in the case of solicitors, the training of barristers is divided into three stages: academic, vocational and apprenticeship. The requirements of the academic stage are the same with those of the solicitors. Barristers work in office, in groups of between twelve and twwenty sharing services notably of a clerk, but also secretarial and other services. Each chamber is required to have at least one clerk, who performs the functions of office administrator and accountant, business manager and agent. After around ten to fifteen years in practice, a successful barrister can consider applying for promotion to Queens Counsel known as "silk" from the material of which the Queens Counsel formal gown is made. The distinction between the two branches of the legal profession is an artificial one. In fact, there are no tasks exclusive to one branch.Limba engleză 12
  13. 13. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) Solicitors regularly appear as advocates in the law courts and sometimes in Crown Courts, which are geographically remote from barristers chambers. Equally, there are many barristers who very seldom appear in the court, spending their time on written opinions on the law. Over the years, there has been debate on the fusion of the two branches of the profession. Basic vocabulary. Idioms fusion = the result of fusing; a coalition of ideas, concepts, branches, parties etc. advice = an opinion or recommendation offered as guide to action, conduct etc. to draft = to draw the outlines or plan of; to sketch; to draw up in written form, to compose circumstance = a condition, detail, part or attribute, with respect to time, place, manner, agent etc. which accompanies, determines, or modifies a fact or event; a modifying or influencing factor senior = more advanced in age or older in standing, superior in age or standing to, of higher or highest degree to carry out = to put (principles, instruction) in practice task = piece of work imposed to handle = to manage (thing, person) (to) brief = 1. summary of facts and law points of a case drawn up for counsel; 2. to instruct (barrister, solicitor) by brief, employ completion = the act of completing; fulfillment apprenticeship = working for another in order to learn a trade, for instruction, training vocational stage = educational training that provides a student with practical experience in a particular occupational field Inns of court = a legal society occupying such a building sole = belonging or pertaining to one individual or group to the exclusion of all others; exclusive practitioner = 1. one engaged in the practice of a profession, occupation; 2. one who practices something specified clinical = extremely objective and realistic equity = 1. the application of the dictates of conscience or the principles of natural justice to the settlement of controversies; 2. a system of jurisprudence or a body of doctrines and rules developed in England and followed in the United States, serving as supplement and remedy the limitations and the inflexibility of the common law trust = a fiduciary relationship in which oneLimba engleză 13
  14. 14. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) person (the trustee) holds the title to property (the trust estate or trust property) for the benefit of the other (the beneficiary) gown = official or uniform robe of various shapes worn by judge, lawyer, clergyman, college tort = a wrongful act, not including a breach of contract or trust, which results in injury to anothers person, property, reputation, or the like, and for which the injured party is entitled to compensation Synonyms: to divide = to separate occasion = opportunity to maintain = to keep up artificial = synthetic to spend = to disburse Activity 2 1. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Tense (Simple or Continuous) : 1. I (to go) to school yesterday when (to see) a house on fire. 2. It (to snow) heavily when he (to wake) up. 3. He (to remember) that his friend (to come) for lunch and (to decide) to prepare the meal. 4. He (to meet) her as he (to cross) the bridge. 5. He (to run) in the street when he (to fall) and (to break) his leg. 6. When I (to get up) this morning it (to be) so late that the sun (to shine) high in the sky. 7. " What you (to do) between 9.00 and 10.00 yesterday?" (to ask) the detective. 8. When I (to reach) the house my brothers (to discuss) about the holidays. 9. He (not to see) me as he (to read) a book when I (to come) into the room. 10. Somebody (to play) Paganini and all of us (to stop) to listen.Limba engleză 14
  15. 15. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) 11. A traffic warden (to stick) a parking ticket to my wind screen when I (to come) back to the car. 12. We (to have) lunch when the telephone (to ring). 13. I (to learn) English when I (to live) in USA. 14. My cousins (to arrive) just as the train (to leave) the station. 15. Liam (to say) that he (to come) to see me the next day. 2. Translate into English: 1. Soarele strălucea puternic, păsările cântau, era o zi superbă de primăvară. 2. Cifra de afaceri a acestei companii anul trecut a fost de două ori mai mare decât cea din anul precedent. 3. Cine era proprietarul fermei pe care aţi vizitat-o? 4. Ieri pe vremea aceasta mă duceam la birou. 5. A plouat mult anul trecut în Romania? 6. Era singură la ora aceea pentru că fratele ei era la şcoală, mama ei făcea cumpărăturile iar tatăl ei lucra în gradină. 7. Cu cine vorbeai la telefon ieri când am intrat în cameră? 8. Ieri a plouat toată ziua aşa că am stat acasă şi m-am uitat la televizor. 3. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present Perfect (Simple or Continuous): l. We (to walk) ten kilometres. 2. The police (to look) for Billy for three months. 3. We (to walk) for three hours. 4. Billy (to eat) ten ice-creams. 5. He (to sleep) since ten oclock, I think its time for him to wake up. 6. I (to work) for him for ten years. 7. It (to rain) for ten hours. I hope it will stop till everybody gets crazy! 8. He (to hope) for a rise in salary for six months but he (not to dare) to ask for it yet. 9. I (to try) to open this door for half an hour. 10. My sister (to change) a lot lately. 11. We (to wait) for Susan since dawn, but she (not to come) home yet.Limba engleză 15
  16. 16. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) 12. He (to sleep) for three hours. 13. I (not to see) her for ages. 14. He (to throw) stones at the wrong windows. His friend lives next door. 15. He (to be) in prison for a year. 16. You (to stare) at me for 5 minutes! 17. He is not home, he just (to leave). 18. I never (to read) such a beautiful story. You should publish it! 19. My friend (to translate) legislation since 1998. 20. I (to try) to get in touch with him for a week. 4. Translate into English: Planificarea mijloacelor de comunicare Pentru a face publicitate în mod eficient, nu este suficientă creativitatea. Pentru susţinerea unei campanii trebuie de asemenea selectate şi planificate mijloacele de comunicare corespunzătoare. Pentru aceasta, trebuie ca în primul rând să fie eliminate mijloacele de comunicare inadecvate, apoi trebuie să fie selecţionate acelea care vor fi utilizate şi, în cele din urmă, trebuie să fie evaluate diversele combinaţii între mijlocul de comunicare principal al campaniei şi celelalte, cu scopul de a stabili combinaţia finală. Prima etapă este relativ simplă: unele mijloace de comunicare nu sunt adecvate în anumite cazuri (televiziunea sau posterele pentru o campanie industrială) sau sunt interzise prin lege (televiziunea pentru băuturi alcoolice, tutun, cărţi...). Cea de-a doua este mai delicată, necesitând o cunoaştere aprofundată a caracteristicilor şi posibilităţilor fiecărui mijloc de comunicare în parte. Un anumit număr de criterii vor fi de ajutor în procesul de selecţie: • Compatibilitatea cu publicul vizat: sunt indispensabile datele furnizate de anchetele întocmite de organizaţiile de specialitate asupra structurii cantitative şi calitative a publicului. • Compatibilitatea cu produsul: fie pentru că sunt adaptate la marele public (televiziunea) sau, dimpotrivă, la o piaţă „confidenţială" (superspecializată); fie pentru că mesajul trebuie să ajungă la cumpărători la un anumit moment (emisiuni difuzate la ore târzii de noapte pentru noctambulii consumatori de alcool). • Compatibilitatea cu tipul de comercializare: afişajul este foarte adecvat pentru distribuţia în masă. • Stilul mesajelor: dacă vrem să transmitem un mesaj conotativ, să sugerăm o idee sau o stare de spirit, vom alege radioul, televiziunea sau chiar şi afişajul. Dacă vrem, dimpotrivă, să convingem, să-i facem pe oameni săLimba engleză 16
  17. 17. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) gândească, vom opta pentru un mesaj denotativ în presa scrisă. • Timpul de reacţie preconizat: unele mijloace de comunicare provoacă o reacţie mai rapidă decât altele, dar rapiditatea rimează adesea cu efemerul. Key (exercise 4): Media-planning To advertise effectively, creativeness is not enough. To build up a campaign, it is also necesţsary to select and plan the appropiate media. Accordingly, one must fîrst eliminate irrelevant media, then select those one is going to use, and lastly assess the various combinations that can be achieved between the main campaign medium and the other media, so as to determine the final mix. The fîrst step is relatively easy: some media are not suitable in such or such a case (TV, posters for an industrial campaign), or are legally banned (TV for alcoholic drinks, tobacco, books...). The second is more delicate, and requires an in-depth knowledge of each mediums features and performances. Certain criteria will help in the selection process: • Compatibility with the target audience: the data obtained from surveys conducted by professional organizations on the quantitative and qualitative structure of the audience are indispensable. • Compatibility with the product: either because they are geared to the general public (TV), or on the contrary to a "confidenţial" market (hyper- specialized market); or because purchasers have to be reached at specific moments (night-programmes for alcohol-drinking night-owls). • Compatibility with the type of commercialization: posters are eminently suitable for mass distribution. • Style of messages: if one wants to express connotative notions, to suggest an idea or a mood one will select radio, the cinema, television or even posters. If, on the contrary one wants to convince, to get people to think, one will opt for a denotative message in the printed press. • Expected response-time: some media generate faster reactions than others, but fast is often synonymous with short-lived!Limba engleză 17
  18. 18. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) Summary This chapter has approached the Verb and a part of its tenses – Present Tense Simple and Continuous, Past Tense Simple and Continuous, Present Perfect Simple and Continuous, Past Perfect Simple and Continuous. You have been given the definition of aspects and of each tense and also the similarities and s dissimilarities between these tenses in English and Romanian. Moreover, you have read and translated various texts, thus learning new words and phrases, in , the same time practising the grammar notions that have been taught. Self-assessment tests assessment 1. Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Tense (Simple or Continuous) or Present Perfect (Simple or Continuous): 1. I (to leave) here since 1973 since my parents (to buy) this house. 2. He (to live) in Bucharest for two years and then he (to go) to Mangalia. 3. Shakespeare (to write) a lot of plays. 4. My secretary (to type) letters since 8 oclock this morning but she (to finish) only three of them so far. 5. My children (to go) to cinema three hours ago and they (not to come) back they yet. 6. I (not to see) him for twenty years, since we (to be) children. 7. I cant go home because I (not to finish) my work yet. 8. He (not to play) football since he (to break) his leg. 9. You (to see) the moon last night ? 10. They (to arrive) late last night, so I (not to tell) them the truth yet. 1 l. The Second World War (to last) for four years. 12. How long you (to know) your boss? 13. Where else (to be) since you (to arrive) in Bucharest? 14. I (to listen) to your speech on radio yesterday, and I have to confess that I speech never (to listen) to something like this in all my life. 15. You (to go) there last week?
  19. 19. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) 2. Translate into English, using Present Tense Simple and Continuous, Past Tense Simple and Continuous and Present Perfect Simple and Continuous: l. Firma lui a dat faliment şi el nu şi-a găsit încă un alt post de contabil. 2. Unde ai fost? 3. De când eşti aici? 4. N-am mai văzut-o de trei ani. 5. Numeroase sucursale ale băncilor comerciale s-au deschis în ultimii doi ani. 6. Claudiu a venit de la şcoală la ora 12 şi de atunci vorbeşte la telefon cu colegul lui de bancă. 7. Mama tocmai a plecat. 8. Am cumpărat maşina noastră cea nouă acum trei ani, dar de atunci am tot reparat câte ceva la ea. 9. N-am văzut niciodată Jamaica. 10. Ieri pe când veneam acasă a început să plouă torenţial. 11. In cursul ultimului an profitul net al societăţii s-a dublat. 12. Vă cunoaşteţi ? 13. Am primit această carte când am împlinit zece ani. 14. Anul trecut ai vizitat Anglia, acum doi ani ai vizitat Franţa iar acum abia te- ai întors din Germania. N-ai obosit să te tot plimbi ? 4. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Perfect Continuous: 1. I (to work) for that company for a year when they merge with CMB in 1999. 2. They (to sail) for a fortnight when they finally saw an island. 3. By that time she (to play) the piano for two hours. 4. When she reached the office, the General manger and the American team (to negotiate) for an hour without reaching an agreement. 5. After we (to run) for an hour we felt terribly hungry. 6. I wondered what she (to do) all that time. 7. In 1995 they (to live) in Romania for three years. 8. He (to watch) TV for an hour when you got home, hadnt he? 9. You (to sleep) for three hours when I came in.Limba engleză 19
  20. 20. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) 10. The manager (to wait) for you for half an hour when you finally arrived. 5. Read and translate the following texts: A. Mohammed knocks at classroom door Fran Abrams Yusuf Islam, formerly the pop star Cat Stevens, has been trying for more than 10 years to get state funding for the Muslim school he founded. Now, at last, he glimpses success. Tomorrow, architects from the official Funding Agency for Schools visit the Islamia school in north London, to check whether its buildings and facilities make it worthy of state support. If the school is successful – the final decision rests with Gillian Shephard, the Secretary of State for Education – Islamia, with 300 pupils and a waiting list of 1,000, will be the first state supported Muslim school, enjoying similar status to hundreds of Church of England and Roman Catholic schools. For many Muslim parents, the day when their right to such schools is accepted cannot come soon enough, their growing assertiveness over how their children are educated has stretched their relations with secular schools to breaking point. As the new year began, 1,500 Muslims in West Yorkshire refused to send their children to the Christian assemblies which the law demands. A few weeks later it was revealed that a Birmingham primary school was offering Muslim religious education after the withdrawal of most of its pupils from the Christian-dominated lessons. Conflicts such as these are bound to multiply. Britain has about 400,000 Muslim children of school age and, according to some estimates, there could be a million by 2000. Today’s Muslim parents are demanding that school adapt to accommodate their beliefs, and they are doing so with a force and a confidence that their own parents lacked. The Independent, February 11th, 1996 B. Flooding out, trickling in It’s impossible to underestimate the explosive impact within the Jewish community of the survey this week showing that nearly half of British Jewish men under 40 are marrying non-Jews. This is the statistical evidence which proves the predictions of prominent Jewish academics such as Bernard Wassertein and Norman Cantor that the Orthodox Jewish diaspora will be reduced to a few pockets of Amish-style believers over the next century. (…) The male intermarriage rate is the crucial statistic because the Orthodox Jewish identity is passed exclusively through the maternal line. For the ultra-Orthodox,Limba engleză 20
  21. 21. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) it doesn’t matter how Jewish your father or his family are, only one thing counts, the blood of your mother, if a male Jew marries out, his children are “lost”. These grim figures from the Institute of Church affairs will force the mainstream Orthodox Jewish community to focus on something they have stubbornly ducked: whether they want to draw back into the fold any of the “lost Jews”, and do they want to convert the non-Jewish wives? While Christians and Muslims have celebrated dramatic stories of conversion with before and after comparisons, Jews never discuss the subject. It is considered tactless to mention that someone has converted; as Ruth, a convert, put it, it is like “reminding someone they used to be an alcoholic”. In Islam, the process is simple, one statement and you’re a Muslim, but to become a Jew takes years of examination by religious judges. The Guardian, February 17th, 1996 C. Customs team seizes £ 50 m cocaine cargo by Stewart Tendle Customs and police investigators yesterday seized 250 kg of cocaine worth £ 50 million which was hidden in a consignment of fresh flowers. In a classic «sting» operation, undercover officers posed as British buyers for the drug and traveled to Colombia. The Colombians also sent negotiators to meet them in Britain. According to one report, Greater Manchester police borrowed £ 2 million to show the Colombians that the undercover men were acting in good faith. The cocaine arrived from Amsterdam last week and is the largest single importation of the drug by air. Its seizure at Manchester airport marked the end of a four-month customs operation codenamed Begonia. The haul was found in six boxes among a cargo of flowers. Neither the exporter nor the importer of the flowers knew what they concealed. Once the consignment landed, armed police and customs officers moved in to a warehouse and arrested two Colombians. A national intelligence drive is currently monitoring possible Colombian drug infiltration. The national criminal intelligence service in London has established a database of suspicious sightings in Britain with the help of local police forces, immigration officials and customs officials. Pat Cadogan, an assistant chief investigator, said yesterday: «We have broken an attempt by a major cocaine importer to set up a distribution network in the North West of England. We must have destroyed their credibility in the UK and a seizure of this kind must be a major setback for them.» The Times, January 18th, 1994Limba engleză 21
  22. 22. Alina Cheşcă The Verb (Tenses and Moods) Bibliography Brookes, Michael, Horner, E. (2002) Business English. Engleza pentru afaceri afaceri. Bucureşti: Ed. Teora. Brookes, Michael. (2003). Engleza pentru jurişti. Bucureşti: Ed. Teora. ti: Chifu, Iulian (2004). Identity Conflicts. Bucure Politeia-SNSPA. Bucureşti: SNSPA. Chirălescu, M., Paidos C. (2005). Proficiency in English. Institutul European. lescu, Cook, J., Gethin, A. (1995). A New Way to Proficiency in English Oxford. English. Dayan, A., Lindsay, W.H. (2000). Engleza pentru marketing si publicitate. ngleza publicitate Bucureşti: Editura Teora. ti: Delgiudice, Luminita (1999). Fifty Useful Tests in English Bucureşti: Ed. English. Aramis. Demazet, Bertrand (1999). Engleza comertului exterior. Bucure Bucureşti: Editura Teora. Gălăţeanu-Fârnoag G. (2000). Limba engleză în conversatie. Bucureşti: Ed. Fârnoagă, Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică. Enciclopedic Gheorghitoiu, Andreea. (1998). Dictionar englez-roman de verbe cu particula roman adverbiala. Bucureşti: Teora. . Bucure Hanga Calciu, Rodica (1996). Crestomatie de texte juridice engleze. Bucure Bucureşti: Ed. Lumina Lex. Hanga, Vladimir (2000). Dictionar juridic englez-roman. Bucure Bucureşti: Lumina Lex. Health, R.B. (2002). Impact Assignments in English. London: Longman. Hulban H. (1997). English for You. Iaşi: Ed. Răzeşu. Le Divenach, Eloi (2005). Engleza in presa. Bucureşti: Editura Teora. ti: Lupuleasa, R. (2004). Ready for Exams. Bucureşti: Editura Polirom. ti: Marie-Claude, Roland (2000). CV in limba engleza.Un pas spre angajare. Claude, angajare Bucureşti: Editura Teora. ti: Martin, M. Combe (2000). Listening and Comprehending. Macmillan. Mihaescu, Alexandra (2007). Gramatica limbii engleze. Bucure . Bucureşti: Editura Niculescu. Molnar Oprea, Nicoleta (2000). Curs de limba engleza pentru studentii facultatilor cu profil juridic. Bucureşti: Ed. All Educational. juridic Oprescu, Simona (1999). Engleza pentru jurişti. Bucureşti: Ed. Oscar Print. ti: Peters, Jo-Ann (2004). Let’s Learn English. Metodă Larousse de înv Ann învăţare a limbii engleze. Bucureşti: Editura Teora. . Rusu, Liliana (2001). Limba engleza pentru studentii facultatii de drept. drept Bucureşti: Ed. Sylvi. ti: