Anatomy revision


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Anatomy revision

  1. 1. Fontal bone • Superciliary arches • Supraorbital margin • GlabellaZygomatic process• Temporal processMaxilla• Hard palate• Infraorbital foramina
  2. 2. PterionOccipital bone • Anterior division of middle• Occipital condyles• External occipital protuberance meningeal artery• Superior nuchal line Zygomatic process • Temporal process Temporal bone • Zygomatic process • Superior and inferior temporal line • External acoustic meatus • Mastoid process • Squamous suture
  3. 3. • DURA MATER – deep to anterior division of Brainstem middle meningeal artery • Midbrain • Pons • Medulla oblongata Spinal cord • Medulla oblongata • Conus medullaris • Cauda equina • Spinal nerves • Dura mater • Falx cerebri • Tentorium cerebelli Stops rotatory • Falx cerebelli displacement of the brain • Diaphragma sellaeForebrain• Cerebral hemispheres SCALP• Thalamus and hypothymus • SkinMidbrain • Connective tissueHindbrain • Aponeurosis (occipitfrontalis)• Pons • Loose areolar connective tissue• Medulla oblongata • Pericranium (periosteum)• cerebellum
  4. 4. Dural Venous Sinuses - periosteal and meningeal Superior sagittal Inferior sagittal sinus sinusStraight sinus Sigmoid sinus Transverse sinus Confluence of sinuses Superior sagittal sinus  Confluence of sinuses  R. Transverse  R. sigmoid  R. Internal Jugular
  5. 5. SCALP• Skin• Connective tissue• Aponeurosis (occipitfrontalis)• Loose areolar connective tissue• Pericranium (periosteum)
  6. 6. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Ventricular system• Secreted by choroidal epithelial cells of the choroid plexus • Lateral ventricles • 3rd ventricleArachnoid granulations • Cerebral aqueduct• Prolonations of the arachnoid mater • 4th ventricle• Protude through the meningeal layer of the dura mater• Open into the venour sinuses Cranial Nerve Cranial Nerve CN I Olfactory nerve CN VII Facial nerve CN II Optic nerve CN VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve CN III Oculomotor nerve CN IX Glossopharyngeal nerve CN IV Trochlear nerve CN X Vagus nerve CN V Trigeminal nerve CN XI Accessory nerve CN VI Abducent nerve CNXII Hypoglossal nerve
  7. 7. Cranial nerves1. Olfactory nerve - Cribriform plate of the Ethmoid bone2. Optic nerve – optic canal (opthalmic artery)3. Oculomotor – superior optical fissure4. Trochlear – Superior obtical fissure5. Trigeminal Obthalmic Va- superior orbital fissure Maxillary Vb – foramen rotundum Mandibular Vc –foramen ovale6. Abducent – superior orbital fissure7. Facial – internal auditory meatus (passes through parotid)8. Vestibulocochlear – internal auditory meatus9. Glossopharygeal – jugular foramen10.Vagus – jugular foramen11.Accessory – jugular formen12.Hypoglossal – hypoglossal canal
  8. 8. Muscles of facial expression • Occipitofrontalis Innervation – facial CN VII • Orbicularis oculi • Temporal • Zygomaticus major • Zygomatic • Zygomaticus minor • Buccal • Orbicularis oris • Mandibular • Levator anguli oris • Cervical • Depressor anguli oris • Levator labii superioris • Depressor labii inferiorisLR6 SO4 REM3• Lateral rectus muscle – abducent (6)• Superior oblique muscle – trochlear (4)• Remaining – oculomotor (3)
  9. 9. Trigeminal nerve CN V Supratrochlear Frontal nerve Supraorbital Anterior External nasalOpthalmic Va ethmoidal Nasocillary Infratrochlear nerve Posterior Lacrimal ethmoidal
  10. 10. Mandibular Vc Anterior division Deep temporal MassetericBuccal nerve Lateral pterygoid nerves nerve Aurticulotemporal Mandibular Vc Lingual nerve Posterior division Mental nerve Inferior alveolar Mylohyoid nerve
  11. 11. Maxillary VbZygomatictemporal Zygomaticofacial Infraorbital Supraorbital n. Supratrochlear n. Lacrimal n. Infratrochlear n. External nasal n. Zygomaticotemporal n. Infraorbital n. Zygomaticofacial n. Auriculotemporal n. Mental n. Buccal n.
  12. 12. Cutaneous innervation of scalp, Cutaneous innervation of scalp, POSTERIOR to ear andANTERIOR to ear and vertex of the vertex of the skullskull • Lesser occipital (anterior ramus od C2)• Supratrochlear and supraorbital • Greater occipital nerve (posterior ramus of C2)• Zygomaticotemporal • Greater auricular nerve (anterior rami of C2 and C3)• Auriculotemporal • Third occipital nerve (posterior ramus C3)Carotid sheath• Common carotid artery and internal carotid artery• Internal jugular vein• Vagus nerve (X) Facial nerve • Temporal • Zygomatic • Buccal • Mandibular • Cervical
  13. 13. Temporalis muscle• Coronoid processMasseter muscle• Anterior 2/3 of zygomatic arch• Ramus and angle of mandible
  14. 14. Instrinsic mucles – changeshape of tongueExtrensic – change porition• Palatoglossus• Hyoglossus• Styloglossus• genioglossus Palatoglossus m.Styloglossus m.Hyoglossus m. Genioglossus m.
  15. 15. Anterior triangle of neck • Superior : body of mandible • Anterior : midline • Porterior : anterior border of the STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID MUSCLE Infrahyoid muscles • Omohyoid (supeior/inferior bellies) • Sternohyoid • Thyrohyoid • sternothryoidPosterior triangle of neck• Anterior : posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle• Porterior : anterior border of TRAPEZIUS• Inferior : middle 1/3 of clavicle