Unit 6 test review


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  • Discuss Eisenhower’s quote. Do you agree or disagree? Does our study of the 20 th century, especially China, Latin America and Africa support his argument that dictatorships are more efficient at getting this done (whether good or bad), than democracies?
  • Brainstorm for examples for each category. Unit 6 started with post-WW2 Latin America and finished with 9/11. Top right: Chilean socialist president Salvador Allende; Middle Right: The last of the Americans in Saigon flee Vietnam in 1975; Bottom right: Genocide in Darfur, Sudan, committed against non-Arab Sudanese people (estimated 400,000 killed)
  • Was the United States government justified in giving military and financial aid to Latin American factions that opposed Socialism and Communism, even if it meant supporting ruthless dictators? Is capitalism that important?
  • Discussion topic: How were these men able to stay in power for so many years?
  • Interestingly, since Cuba was reinstated after its expulsion from the group in 1962 for Cold War reasons, now only Honduras is the only country in North or South America not accepted as a member of the OAS. After a military coup expelled Honduran president Manuel Zelaya in 2009, Honduras’s membership was revoked by the OAS and refused by the new government.
  • By comparison, about 14% of Americans are technically at or below the poverty level.
  • U. S. supported Diem b/c they wanted to contain Communism; Diem was overthrown and killed in 1963 – unstable leadership in S. Vietnam; South Vietnamese were unable to defeat/control the Vietcong (Communist forces in S. Vietnam funded and supplied by weapons by Ho Chi Minh); LBJ sends troops which further escalates hostilities.
  • The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is still very much a Communist state, with no other legal political parties allowed except the Communist Party. It is a dictatorship in that sense, though with a President, a Prime Minister and 26 cabinet members, the Vietnamese government could more correctly be defined as an oligarchy. Like China, Vietnam is keeping the social ideals of Communism while abandoning most of the economic principles in favor of a move towards greater capitalism in order to compete in the global economy. The Vietnamese government after 1975 did little to stop the genocide committed by neighboring Cambodia and Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge military regime, even though many ethnic Vietnamese were targeted in Cambodia. It was more the lack of a U.S. military presence in the region after the loss of the Vietnam War that allowed the mass slaughter to be carried out unchecked.
  • Compare the two maps. Which two countries lost the most colonial territory in Africa? How was apartheid in South Africa (ended in 1994) similar to segregation in the American South before the Civil Rights movement? How were Martin Luther King, Jr., and Nelson Mandela (pictured above right) similar in their attempts to reverse racial discrimination? Both tried to use NON-VIOLENT methods to bring attention to the mistreatment and racism faced by their people. Like MLK, Nelson Mandela was arrested, and his long imprisonment led to worldwide condemnation of his government’s policies.
  • Why hasn’t peace and democracy been very successful in Africa after the European countries gave up control? Consider how poverty, religious differences, ethnic and racial hostilities, along with disease, corruption and lack of international aid all contributed to the chaos and bloodshed in many parts of Africa.
  • The conflict is still very much going on. President Obama recently angered the current Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu by suggesting that Israel should give back the Palestinian lands seized when Israel won the 1967 war. Most of the world and past presidents like Bush and Clinton argued for the same thing, but Israel won’t budge. A peace settlement does not appear to be close in sight. BOTTOM RIGHT: AN Israeli solider threatens to shoot a Palestinian mother in front of her children if she does not leave the area and return to her Palestinian settlement.
  • Secularism is a non-religious form of government that does not allow religious beliefs and laws to be enforced on the population. In 1979, the Ayatollah Khomeini led a fundamentalist Muslim overthrow of the secular government in Iran. This sent shockwaves throughout the Middle East, where militant radical Muslims wanted a return to the days when the Koran was the law of the land, and the highest government official was also the most powerful religious leader. These “theocracies” in the Middle East, like Iran, have supported the use of violence against Jews, non-Muslims, Muslims that don’t agree with their views, and of course, the United States.
  • Unit 6 test review

    1. 1. “ Wherever you have an efficient government, you have a dictatorship. ”   ~ Dwight Eisenhower
    2. 2. <ul><li>Complete the Student Guides from the lessons in Unit 6 (print them out!) </li></ul><ul><li>Complete: </li></ul><ul><li>ALL the Unit 6 Checkpoints and Quizzes!! </li></ul><ul><li>Read the Study Guide I’m pushing out now </li></ul><ul><li>This is an OPEN NOTE TEST!! </li></ul><ul><li>ASK QUESTIONS!! </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Unit 6 Test - Worth 78 Points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 26 multiple choice questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You may RETAKE the exam for a higher score (no reason to fail!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is “DUE” by Sunday, May 29th at midnight: DON’T WAIT TO TAKE IT! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT: </li></ul><ul><li>THERE IS NO PART 2 for this UNIT TEST!!! </li></ul><ul><li>This is the LAST UNIT TEST OF THE YEAR </li></ul><ul><li>Gradebooks will be pulled on June 5 th for exemption notices </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>CAUSES of Economic Struggles : </li></ul><ul><li>TRADE DEFICITS </li></ul><ul><li>LACK of INVESTMENT CAPITAL </li></ul><ul><li>WIDE GAPS between RICH/POOR </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America was mostly AGRICULTURAL, with centuries of poverty and lack of modernization </li></ul><ul><li>THIS LED TO: </li></ul><ul><li>Migration of millions of farm workers to cities </li></ul><ul><li>Rising urban unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowded cities </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>More of the same: </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. wanted to stop the spread </li></ul><ul><li>of Communism, this time in Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>SO… </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Government backed the military overthrow of Socialist President of Chile, Salvador Allende in 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>In the 80’s, the CIA supported the Contras trying to overthrow the Communist Sandinistas </li></ul><ul><li>Our military supported the capitalist dictatorship in </li></ul><ul><li>El Salvador against leftist “freedom fighters” </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Augusto Pinochet : </li></ul><ul><li>General who took over Chile after a coup d'état overthrew Allende </li></ul><ul><li>He ruled as dictator with U.S. help from 1973-1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Fidel Castro : </li></ul><ul><li>Seized power in Cuba in 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a Communist state </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. placed an embargo on Cuba (no Americans in, no Cuban goods out) </li></ul><ul><li>Juan Peron : </li></ul><ul><li>Military dictator in Argentina </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled from 1946 – 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>Very popular wife, Eva (Evita) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoided making Communism an issue, played to both sides </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Founded in 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>MAIN PURPOSE : Provide ways to encourage regional cooperation in Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>35 members, including the United States (Cuba, as of 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Headquartered in Washington, D.C. </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Ruled China with an iron fist from 1943 – 1976 after seizing power </li></ul><ul><li>“ Father” of Communist China, who killed 40-70 million of his own people (anyone who opposed him) </li></ul><ul><li>Led an army of rural peasants and launched a communist revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Started the “Great Leap Forward”: </li></ul><ul><li>An attempt to increase industrial productivity within 15 years </li></ul><ul><li>A plan to modernize the country </li></ul><ul><li>From 1966-1976, his “Cultural Revolution” attempted to remove all elements of capitalism in China </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandhi (1869-1948) </li></ul><ul><li>A lawyer who dedicated his life to freeing India from British Rule </li></ul><ul><li>His method: NON-VIOLENCE, </li></ul><ul><li>He used passive resistance to achieve independence by 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Jawaharlal NEHRU </li></ul><ul><li>(1889 -1964) </li></ul><ul><li>India’s First Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Along with Gandhi, he led India’s independence movement </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled peacefully from 1947 to 1964 </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>INDIA: </li></ul><ul><li>WIDESPREAD POVERTY </li></ul><ul><li>41% of Indian families make less than </li></ul><ul><li>$1.25 a day! </li></ul><ul><li>Despite rise in middle class, millions still go hungry and homele ss </li></ul><ul><li>PAKISTAN: </li></ul><ul><li>RELIGIOUS EXTREMISM </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative Muslim Majority (Bin Laden hid out there…hmmmm) </li></ul><ul><li>On shaky terms w/ India </li></ul><ul><li>BANGLADESH </li></ul><ul><li>WIDESPREAD POVERTY </li></ul><ul><li>Despite recent improvements, nearly HALF of the country’s 135 million people live in poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly rural, floods common (disease) </li></ul><ul><li>Very little industry </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>U. S. and South Vietnam: Wanted to stop the spread of Communism in Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>North Vietnam: Wanted to take over South Vietnam and make it Communist, by force if need be </li></ul><ul><li>Vietcong: Pro-Communist supporters in S. Vietnam. Used “guerrilla” tactics to instill fear </li></ul><ul><li>U . S. President Johnson: Wanted to win the war at all costs. </li></ul>
    12. 14. <ul><li>JAPAN </li></ul><ul><li>Despite total defeat in WW2, the country has since prospered: </li></ul><ul><li>Turned to industry/tech: </li></ul><ul><li>Return of National Pride </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Economic Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>(3 rd largest in the world) </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger ties with the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>After the stalemate of the Korean War: </li></ul><ul><li>S. Korea’s economy grew, thanks to industrial success and trade </li></ul><ul><li>Resisted Communism: </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>CHINA </li></ul><ul><li>Although still Communist, </li></ul><ul><li>China needs to compete with other Asian nations, so: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Reforms now allow for limited free enterprise: </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd largest economy to U.S. </li></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>Beginning around 1960: </li></ul><ul><li>Many African nations demanded independence from colonial rulers. </li></ul>Apartheid : ruling minority instituted policy of racial discrimination in S. Africa
    14. 16. <ul><li>After the European powers withdrew from Africa in the 1960’s and gave back independent rule: </li></ul><ul><li>It led to the rise of dictators in many African countries </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread civil conflict broke out in many areas </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigns of genocide committed by the ruling minority </li></ul><ul><li>Rwanda – 500,000 Tutsis killed </li></ul><ul><li>Sudan – 400,000 Non-Arabs killed (mostly in Darfur) </li></ul><ul><li>Children forced to be “soldiers” </li></ul>
    15. 17. <ul><li>Israel and Palestine are important to Jews and Muslims for political and religious reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Jews claim the land as their ancestral home </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinian Arab farmers had lived their for centuries. Their land was then taken away… </li></ul><ul><li>Arab nations refused to accept the UN’s creation of Israel in 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting claims of territory continue to be a major obstacle to peace </li></ul>Palestinian controlled lands in Israel,1946 to 2000
    16. 18. Why should WE reduce our dependence on Middle East oil?
    17. 19. <ul><li>The conflict between secularism and religion led to revolution in Iran (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism: one fueling the other? </li></ul><ul><li>3 major terrorist groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Hamas (based in Palestine) </li></ul><ul><li>Hezbollah (based in Lebanon) </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Qaeda (based in Afghanistan) </li></ul><ul><li>Our response to 9/11: </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan to destroy Al-Qaeda </li></ul><ul><li>Bin Laden dead? Is it over ? </li></ul>
    18. 20. <ul><li>A 21 st Century World </li></ul><ul><li>Global Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Technology </li></ul>