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Age of Englightenment.ppt


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Age of Englightenment.ppt

  1. 1. Age of Englightenment The Age of Reason
  2. 2. What do you think? <ul><li>If you were going to create the perfect governmental system, what would it look like? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who would be in charge? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How would they rule? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would they have ALL the power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How would you limit that power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of relationship would you establish between the citizens and the ruler? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHAT WOULD WORK! </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Enlightenment <ul><li>An 18 th Century movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and scientific method to all aspects of society-government, religion, economics, education </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Enlightenment <ul><li>Apply reason to all questions </li></ul><ul><li>Natural laws </li></ul><ul><li>New ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study the world independently from religion </li></ul>
  5. 5. Who were the Philosophes <ul><li>The social critics of this period were known as “philosophes” </li></ul><ul><li>The philosophes believed that people could apply reason to all aspects of life. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Core of Philosophe Philosophy <ul><li>Five important concepts formed the core of their philosophy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reason - Absence of intolerance, bigotry or prejudice in one ’s thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature - What was natural was good and reasonable – there are natural laws of everything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happiness - Living by nature ’s laws would bring happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress - Through progress, society would be perfected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty - Through reason, society would be set free </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Differing Views of Government <ul><li>Thomas Hobbes, John Lock , Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Baron Montesquieu </li></ul><ul><li>Political thinkers all developed their own ideas about what government should be </li></ul>
  8. 8. Social Contract <ul><li>An agreement between citizens and rulers defining the rights and responsibilities of each group </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement people make to form a complex society </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens give up rights in return for protection of governmental institution </li></ul>
  9. 9. Early Enlightenment Thinkers Thomas Hobbes John Locke - Social Contract - People are naturally selfish -People should surrender rights for government protection -Submit to power of rulers -Absolute Monarchy - Leviathan <ul><li>Prominent Enlightenment thinker </li></ul><ul><li>People are happy and free – “blank slate” </li></ul><ul><li>Government should be run by people </li></ul><ul><li>- People give up limited rights for protection </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Branches of government </li></ul><ul><li>Two Treatises on Government </li></ul>
  10. 10. Enlightenment Thinkers Montesquieu Voltaire Rousseau Wollstonecraft Government elected by the people Need balance of power Separation of Powers Three groups with equal but different power Goal – Right to live and worship as they choose Writing focused on injustices of religious intolerance Satirist writer Society based on general will = people will be free Humans naturally good State represents general will of people Laws should reflect general will and morality of people Women's education limited First feminist Political, economic, and legal equality Reform educational system
  11. 11. As a result of Enlightenment Ideas and Philosophes… <ul><li>People began questioning their own gov ’ts </li></ul><ul><li>There is Revolution in the air </li></ul><ul><li>No monarchy is safe </li></ul>
  12. 12. Commercial Revolution <ul><li>Increased international exploration and trade needs new commerce system </li></ul><ul><li>Private banking and trade sparks change in economic principles </li></ul><ul><li>Joint-stock companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stocks yield capital </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Economic Theories <ul><li>16 th /17 th Centuries = Mercantilism was very popular </li></ul><ul><li>Physiocrats oppose mercantilism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less government regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire – “let do” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government has a limited role </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Adam Smith <ul><li>Economy driven by market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed government intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law of Supply and Demand </li></ul><ul><li>Competition is KEY! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Adam Smith – The Invisible Hand <ul><li>...every individual necessarily labours to render the annual revenue of the society as great as he can. He generally, indeed, neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it. By preferring the support of domestic to that of foreign industry, he intends only his own security; and by directing that industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the greatest value, he intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention. Nor is it always the worse for the society that it was no part of it. By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it. I have never known much good done by those who affected to trade for the public good. </li></ul>Each individual strives to become wealthy &quot;intending only his own gain&quot; but to this end he must exchange what he owns or produces with others who sufficiently value what he has to offer; in this way, by division of labor and a free market, public interest is advanced.
  16. 16. Baroque Art <ul><li>Art commissioned by the church </li></ul><ul><li>Church reasserts its authority </li></ul><ul><li>Art glorified the Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large in size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch common people </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Baroque Artists <ul><li>Peter Paul Rubens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel in the Lions' Den , c. 1614/1616 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo Caravaggio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sacrifice of Isaac 1590-1610; </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Baroque Artists <ul><li>Nicolas Poussin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sacrament of Baptism - 1642 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>El Greco </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T he Assumption of the Virgin (1577–1579) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Chiaroscuro <ul><li>Technique used during Baroque period </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic use of light and shade </li></ul>- Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (Dutch, 1606-1669), Self-Portrait at Twenty-Two , 1628 -Giovanni Baglione. Sacred Love Versus Profane Love . 1602–1603
  20. 20. Baroque Music <ul><li>Emotional music </li></ul><ul><li>Tension in rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Secular and church music </li></ul><ul><li>Notable Musicians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bach - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handel - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mozart - </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Baroque Architecture <ul><li>Hall of Mirrors – Palace of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Light and Shade </li></ul>