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Gasification of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Briquettes in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Bio-syngas Production

Paper presented at the 4th Conference on Emerging Energy and Process Technology

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Gasification of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Briquettes in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Bio-syngas Production

  1. 1. Gasification of Oil Palm EFB Briquettes in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Bio-Syngas Production - Bemgba Bevan Nyakuma - 4th Conference On Emerging Energy And Process Technology (CONCEPT 2015), A’Famosa Resort, Alor Gajah, Melaka, Malaysia. Arshad Ahmad, Anwar Johari, Tuan A. T. Abdullah, Olagoke Oladokun
  2. 2. • Introduction • Aim of Study • Experimental • Results • Conclusion 2 Outline…
  3. 3. 3 Introduction
  4. 4. 4 • Malaysia > 2nd largest producer & exporter of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) > 400 palm oils mills & 4.5 million hectares • Agriculture accounts for 12 % GNI, Palm oil >> 8 % or over RM 80 billion annually • CPO production >> Solid Biomass (Lignocellulosic) waste • 83 million dry tonnes; 100 million by 2020 • Solid Waste >> Palm Fronds (OPF), Palm Kernel (OPK), Palm Fibre (OPMF), Largest >> Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) Introduction
  5. 5. 5 • Current conversion technologies – open air burning, incineration, landfilling, Organic fertilizers • Wood products, bioenergy, bioethanol and bio-based green chemicals • Methods inefficient, outdated, & unsustainable • Address challenges of OPW accumulation. Introduction
  6. 6. 6 • National Biomass Strategy 2020 est. in 2013 to focus on valorisation of oil palm biomass (OPB). • 20 million tonnes (25 %) of OPB by 2020 for higher-value products • Increase national income GNI by RM 30 billion • NBS2020 >> meet renewable energy (5 %) target • Reduce GHG emissions & Create 66,000 jobs Introduction
  7. 7. 7 • Valorization of OPW into clean energy, biofuels, power generation • Thermochemical – Pyrolysis, Gasification, Torrefaction, Co-firing >> Bio-Syngas, Liq. biofuels, Biochar, Biocoal • Biochemical – Anaerobic Digestion (AD), Fermentation >> Biogas, Bio-Methane Introduction
  8. 8. 8 Numerous challenges impede progress… • Biomass properties – • high moisture, inhomogeneous sized, high alkali content, & low energy density • Efficiency of Conversion technologies • Biomass Combustion in Boilers, Incineration Introduction
  9. 9. 9 • High moisture >> • low conversion efficiency, corrosion, op. problems, leaks, fugitive emissions • High alkali content >> • fouling, agglomeration & sintering • Inhomogeneous nature >> • handling, storage & logistics • Low energy density >> • conversion efficiency, product gas yield Introduction
  10. 10. 10 • Pre-Conditioning • Drying, Mechanical Fractionation >> reduce moisture, bulky nature • Pre-treatment Techniques • Pelletization, Torrefaction >> improve heating value, energy density, logistics • Efficient Conversion Techniques • Gasification, Pyrolysis, >> product yield, composition, energy density Solutions
  11. 11. 11 Aim of Study
  12. 12. 12 Aim of Study • Pre-Treatment & pelletization of OPW >> Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches into Briquettes (OPEFB-B) • Estimate Alkali Index >> predict fouling, agglomeration potential • Gasification of OPEFB-B in Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier (BFBG)
  13. 13. 13 GasificationSolutions
  14. 14. 14 Solutions Air Gasification of OPEFB-B Typical products of biomass Gasification >> • Gas (Bio-Syngas, CO2, CH4, CnH2n) • Solid char – High CV Biochar • Liquid Tar - 
  15. 15. 15 Experimental
  16. 16. 16 Experimental • Biomass Characterization of OPEFB-B >> • Ultimate, Proximate, Calorific, Thermal Analysis • Alkali Content (Na, Mg, Ca, K) Index >> • Xray Fluorescence (XRF) predict fouling, agglomeration potential of OPEFB-B • Air Gasification of OPEFB-B >> • Using Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier (BFBG)
  17. 17. 17 Experimental • Gasification of OPEFB-B in Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier (BFBG) • In-house 4.5 kW allothermal gasifier • Through put (Feedrate) of 0.9 kg/hr • Temperature of 600 – 800 °C & Atm. pressure • Equivalence ratio; λ=0.25 • Air & Silica sand >> Gasification Agent & Medium
  18. 18. 18 Results
  19. 19. 19 Results Characterization of OPEFB-B
  20. 20. 20 Results Characterization of OPEFB-B (Thermal Analysis) A B C • High Thermal Conversion • Carbon Conversion >> 80 % • High Residual Mass with increase in HR • Selectivity of products • Conversion is 3 stages : drying, pyrolysis, char aggregation
  21. 21. 21 Results Alkali Index - Xray Fluorescence (XRF) predict fouling, agglomeration potential of OPEFB-B
  22. 22. 22 Results Alkali Index - Xray Fluorescence (XRF) agglomeration potential of OPEFB-B
  23. 23. 23 Results Air Gasification of OPEFB-B Gas (Bio-Syngas, CO2, CH4, CnH2n)
  24. 24. 24 Results Gas (Bio-Syngas, CO2, CH4, CnH2n) • OPEFB-B Gasification >> significant Bio-syngas • Bio-syngas HHV >> 5 MJ/Nm3. • Gas composition >> H2, CO, CO2, CH4 , HCs • No Bed Agglomeration >>
  25. 25. 25 Results Air Gasification of OPEFB-B Solid char – High CV Biochar • High Char yield • HHV of OPEFB-B = 17.57 MJ/kg • HHV of BioChar = 24.55 MJ/kg • Gasification can yields gas & solid fuels for applications.
  26. 26. 26 Conclusion
  27. 27. 27 Conclusion • Pre-Treatment & Pelletization of OPEFB-B >> Significantly better solid biomass fuel with low MC, Uniform shape for easy storage, handling, & transport • Characterization >> Conversion btw 50-1000 °C (TGA) yields > 80 % conversion, High HR >> high char (residual mass) • OPEFB-B >> High Agglomeration potential BUT No bed agglomeration was observed • OPEFB-B Gasification >> Good yield of Bio-Syngas, high HHV char, but low gas HHV…
  28. 28. 28 Terima kasih (Thank you)
  29. 29. 29 The authors acknowledge the Ministry of Education (MOE) Malaysia for the Long Research Grant Scheme (LRGS) VOT: 4L817. The authors are grateful to S. L. Wong, and Muhamad Faizal B. A. Halim of Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam for the TG measurements. Acknowledgement

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