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5th International Graduate Conference on Engineering Science & Humanity 2014 (IGCESH 2014)

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TORREFACTION OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (EFB) BRIQUETTES

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5th International Graduate Conference on Engineering Science & Humanity 2014 (IGCESH 2014)

  1. 1. Torrefaction of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) briquettes - Bemgba Bevan Nyakuma - IGCESH 2014 - Johor Bahru, Malaysia -
  2. 2. Co-authors 2 Anwar Johari, Arshad Ahmad, Tuan Amran Tuan Abdullah, Syie Luing Wong.
  3. 3. 3 Outline What is Biomass Torrefaction? Why is Torrefaction important? How can Torrefaction be carried out?
  4. 4. 4 • Mild pyrolysis  thermal pre-treatment 200-300°C  oxygen deficient environment. • Drying, Devolatization, Depolymerisation. • Removes H2O and CO2 • Properties of Torrefied biomass  temperature, time & biomass type. What is Biomass Torrefaction?
  5. 5. Importance of Torrefaction? 5 • Mass loss  hemicellulose decomposition • Improves heating value & energy density • Structure modification  brittleless or grindability Weight Loss during Torrefaction of Wood
  6. 6. Importance of Torrefaction? 6 • Decrease in mass, devolatization depolymerisation  • O/C & H/C ratios. • Higher heating value (HHV), Energy density Van Krevelen Diagram
  7. 7. Importance of Torrefaction? 7 • Increased C & reduced O content  reduces thermodynamic losses • Reduced moisture  pelletization & densification  handling & transport • Reduces hygroscopicity  long term storage
  8. 8. 8 • Colour changes in torrefied biomass • Carbon & Fixed Carbon content • Examples of Torrefaction • roasting of coffee beans, • low temp production of biochar Colour changes during Torrefaction of Palm waste Importance of Torrefaction?
  9. 9. How can Torrefaction be carried out? 9
  10. 10. How can Torrefaction be carried out? 10 • Size Reduction Torrefaction  Pelletization • Pelletization biomass pre- treatment technique • Improves biomass fuel properties  mass-heat transfer
  11. 11. How can Torrefaction be carried out? 11 • Our method proposed reversing the process; • Pelletization Torrefaction  Size Reduction • Why  normal procedure inefficient, costly, & time consuming
  12. 12. Methodology 12 Experimental set up for oil palm EFB Briquette Torrefaction.
  13. 13. 13 Results & Discussion? Temperature (°C ) Mass of Torrefied EFB Briquette (g) Mass Yield (g) Mass Yield (%) 220 9.02 0.90 90.20 250 7.44 0.74 74.40 275 6.25 0.63 62.50 300 4.22 0.42 42.20 Effect of Torrefaction Temperature of oil palm EFB Briquettes. • Mass yield decreased from 90.20 - 42.20 % with increasing temperature • Due to drying, partial devolatization & hemicellulose depolymerisation
  14. 14. 14 Any Results? • Colour gradually changed from greyish brown to black. • Increase in carbon & fixed carbon content  partial devolatization and decomposition of hemicellulose. (a) Raw feedstock; (b) 220 °C (c) 250 °C (d) 275 °C (e) 300 °C.
  15. 15. 15 Results… Time (min) Mass of Torrefied EFB Briquette (g) Mass Yield (g) Mass Yield (%) 15.00 9.33 0.93 93.30 30.00 7.89 0.79 78.90 60.00 4.22 0.42 42.20 Effect of Residence Time on Torrefaction of oil palm EFB Briquettes • Mass yield  93.3 % to 42.20 %. • Ym at t = 15 mins is  drying  mass yield  moisture content. • Ym at t =30, 60 mins  devolatization & hemicellulose decomp.  carbon & fixed carbon content.
  16. 16. 16 Conclusion • Temperature and residence time significantly  mass yield of oil palm EFB Briquettes during torrefaction. • Optimal mass yield of oil palm EFB briquettes torrefaction can be achieved at 300 °C @ t = 60 mins. • Torrefaction of pelletized palm waste showed higher mass yield than previously reported.
  17. 17. Thank you 17
  18. 18. References 18 • Uemura, Y., Omar, W.N., Tsutsui, T., & Yusup, S.B. Torrefaction of oil palm wastes. Fuel, 90 (8), (2011), 2585-2591. • Prins, M.J., Ptasinski, K.J., & Janssen, F.J. More efficient biomass gasification via torrefaction. Energy, 31(15), (2006), 3458-3470. • Uemura, Y., Omar, W., Othman, N. A., Yusup, S., & Tsutsui, T. Torrefaction of oil palm EFB in the presence of oxygen. Fuel, 103, (2013), 156-160. • Basu, P. Biomass gasification and pyrolysis: practical design and theory. Academic press (2010). • Bridgeman, T.G., Jones, J.M., Shield, I., & Williams, P.T. Torrefaction of reed canary grass, wheat straw and willow to enhance solid fuel qualities and combustion properties. Fuel, 87(6), (2008) 844-856. • Pimchuai, A., Dutta, A., & Basu, P. Torrefaction of agriculture residue to enhance combustible properties. Energy & Fuels, 24(9), (2010), 4638-4645.

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