Brand Management

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Why brands are important?
What is a strong brand?
How to measure the strength of a brand.
How to build a strong brand.
What’s the monetary value of a brand?
Identify and evaluate approaches to brand valuation.
Brand development process.
From brandsphere diagnosis through brand strategy crafting and implementation to brand performance metrics.

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Brand Management

  1. 1. BRAND NG
  2. 2. Learning Objectivesi. Why brands are important?ii. What is a strong brand? i. How to measure the strength of a brand.iii. What’s the monetary value of a brand? i. Identify and evaluate approaches to brand valuation.iv. Brand development process. i. How to build a strong brand? ii. From brandsphere diagnosis through brand strategy crafting and implementation to brand performance metrics. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 2
  3. 3. brand© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 3
  4. 4. A name, sign, logo, or design thatidentifies a product, service, place or person.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 4
  5. 5. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 5
  6. 6. A brand represents a promise ofbenefits to a customer or consumer (business or individual). Raggio & Leone (2007), “The Theoretical Separation of Brand Equity and Brand Value: Managerial Implications for Strategic Planning”. Journal of Brand Management. Vol. 14, pp. 380-395 © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 6
  7. 7. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 7
  8. 8. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 8
  9. 9. Why are brands important?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 9
  10. 10. Consumer OrganisationPerspective Perspective© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 11
  12. 12. What are your favorite brands, and why?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 12
  13. 13. 1 Identifies the source of a product | service. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 13
  14. 14. 2 Delivers a promise © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 14
  15. 15. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 15
  16. 16. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 16
  17. 17. Gap’s broken promise after a brand change in 2010.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 17
  18. 18. Lessons to be learnt from the Gap logo debacle. Source: BBC (October 2010)© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 18
  19. 19. 3 © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 19
  20. 20. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 20
  21. 21. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 21
  22. 22. I drink JDbecause…© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 22
  23. 23. 4 Brands speed up consumers’ purchasing decisions. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 23
  24. 24. Faced with many choices, strong brands are easily identifiable.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 24
  25. 25. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 25
  26. 26. 1 A brand identifies its owner. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 26
  27. 27. 2 …offers legal protection to its owner. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 27
  28. 28. 3 Brands are sources of financial returns. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 28
  29. 29. Interbrand’s 2011 Top 100 Brands Source: www.interbrand.com© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 29
  30. 30. 4 Source of competitive advantage. Source: www.interbrand.com © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 30
  31. 31. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 31
  32. 32. Brand Concepts© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 32
  33. 33. A brand that supervisesanother brand or group of brands.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 33
  34. 34. 1 3 2© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 34
  35. 35. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 35
  36. 36. A collection of brands that share a common parental name.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 36
  37. 37. 1 3 2© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 37
  38. 38. The total number ofbrands owned by a firm.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 38
  39. 39. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 39
  40. 40. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 40
  41. 41. What exactly is a strong brand?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 41
  42. 42. Models of Measuring Brand Strengths Interbrand’s 10 Dimensions. BrandDynamics Pyramid. Brand Experience. Brand Knowledge. Brand Equity.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 42
  43. 43. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 43
  44. 44. Interbrand’s Brand Strengths Model Internal Factors External Factors© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 44
  45. 45. Source: Interbrand (2012)© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 45
  46. 46. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 46
  47. 47. BrandDynamics Pyramid Source: WPP (2010). Cited from Kotler (2012)© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 47
  48. 48. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 48
  49. 49. The impressions consumersformed about a brand as a result of direct or indirect exposure tothe brand’s marketing activities. Iglesias , Singh & Batista-Foguet (2011), “The role of brand experience and affective commitment in determining brand loyalty”. Journal of Brand Management. Jan. 2011 © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 49
  50. 50. Product Planet Price Process Place Physical Promotion Layout People© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 50
  51. 51. Perceived Quality Performance Functional Aesthetics Features Quality Conformance Durability Reliability Garvin, D. (1987), “Competing on the Eight Dimensions of Quality”. Harvard Business Review, 65(6), 101-109 © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 51
  52. 52. Brand Experience Metrics© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 52
  53. 53. Consumers with positiveexperiences towards a brandtend to have high emotional connections with it. Iglesias , Singh & Batista-Foguet (2011), “The role of brand experience and affective commitment in determining brand loyalty”. Journal of Brand Management. Jan. 2011 © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 53
  54. 54. …focus on deliveringunique brand experiences to customers.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 54
  55. 55. Points-of-Parity Points-of-Difference© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 55
  56. 56. Studies show positive brand experiences lead to brand loyalty. Esch, Langner, Schmitt & Geus (2006), “Are Brands Forever? How Brand Knowledge and Relationships Affect Current and Future Purchases”. Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 15, no. 2, p. 103© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 56
  57. 57. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 57
  58. 58. Brand experience & brand knowledge overlap each other.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 58
  59. 59. Brand Knowledge Metrics© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 59
  60. 60. Can users recognise your brand?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 60
  61. 61. Can users remember your brand?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 61
  62. 62. What meanings do users attach to the brand?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 62
  63. 63. What can I do to improve the recognition of my brand?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 63
  64. 64. 1 Choose meaningful brand elements. Colour Typeface Personalities Name Shape Slogan Size © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. Logo 64
  65. 65. 2 Deliverunique brand Productexperiences. Planet Price Process Place Physical Promotion Layout People © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 65
  66. 66. 3Deliver interactive,clear, & consistent Product messages. Process Price Marketing Mix Physical Place Layout People Promotion © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 66
  67. 67. 4 It also means setting up a strong retail presence. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 67
  68. 68. Not long ago,Taiwanese firmHTC was barely known to phone users. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 68
  69. 69. 5 Can online social media like Facebook, Twitter, etc. be used to create strong brand recognition? © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 69
  70. 70. What can I do to make consumers remember my brand?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 70
  71. 71. 1 The ability to recall a branddepends on one’s cognitive & affective capacities. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 71
  72. 72. Goals Knowledge Interests Past Experiences Values Norms Other Info.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 72
  73. 73. 2 The ability to recall a brand depends on the brand’s relevance and compatibility to users. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 73
  74. 74. As a grocery shopper, are these brands relevant to me?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 74
  75. 75. But which fits my needs; who & what I am?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 75
  76. 76. 3 Choose meaningful brand elements. Colour Typeface Personalities Name Shape Slogan Size © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. Logo 76
  77. 77. 4 Use associations to reinforce brand memorability. Colour Typeface Personalities Name Shape Slogan Size Logo Music Stories © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 77
  78. 78. The attributesthat consumers attached to a brand.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 78
  79. 79. Physical attributes© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 79
  80. 80. Experiential feelings fun, excitement, love, sad, dull, caring, safe, assuring, respected, etc.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 80
  81. 81. Personality attributes …attributes (non-product related).© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 81
  82. 82. Aaker’s Five Dimensions of Brand Personality Brand Personality Aaker, J. L. (1997), “Dimensions of Brand Personality”. Journal of Marketing Research, 65(6), 347-356© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 82
  83. 83. Risk-taker Risk-avoider© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. Adventurous Unadventurous Assertive Submissive Gregarious Loner Personality Types Confident Diffident Neurotic Stable83
  84. 84. Describe McDonald’s in five words.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 84
  85. 85. Do you think your descriptors arewhat McDonald’s marketing director would use to describe the brand? © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 85
  86. 86. Strong brand knowledge &brand experience doesn’t mean strong brand loyalty.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 86
  87. 87. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 87
  88. 88. Brand equity measures the extent to which a brand affects buyers’ purchasing decisions; employees’ employment decisions; investors’ investment decisions; suppliers’ engagement decisions.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 88
  89. 89. At £200 will youbuy the iPhone 4s? Yes© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 89
  90. 90. At £300 will youbuy the iPhone 4s? Yes© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 90
  91. 91. At £600 will youbuy the iPhone 4s? Yes© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 91
  92. 92. At £800 will youbuy the iPhone 4s? Yes© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 92
  93. 93. brands with high brand equity may fetch price premium© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 93
  94. 94. However, users’ behaviouralresponse to price change isn’t a determinant of brand equity.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 94
  95. 95. Brand loyalty is the most valid measure of brand equity.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 95
  96. 96. Brand Equity Metrics© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 96
  97. 97. Customers can easily forgivebrands with high “brand equity” when things go wrong. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 97
  98. 98. Has BP’s brand equity beenaffected by the oil leak incidence in the Gulf of Mexico, 2010? © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 98
  99. 99. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 99
  100. 100. Brand Valuation© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 100
  101. 101. How much is my brand worth?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 101
  102. 102. Brand Valuation Methods Cost-based method.Brands comparable method. Income-based method. Mixed valuation method.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 102
  103. 103. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 103
  104. 104. It is the sum of the brand’s operational costs from its inception to present date.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 104
  105. 105. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 105
  106. 106. How much hasbeen invested in the brand in the past?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 106
  107. 107. What are the benefits of using the cost-based method to value brands?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 107
  108. 108. 1 minimum value the From a seller’s perspective, to ensure brand is valued above its investment costs. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 108
  109. 109. Cost-based Method Weaknesses© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 109
  110. 110. 1 Can be difficult tocapture the full historical costs of the brand. Accounting errors & cost attribution © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 110
  111. 111. 2 It doesn’t consider the current & potential future earnings of the brand. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 111
  112. 112. 3 It doesn’t consider the depreciation value or appreciation value of the brand. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 112
  113. 113. These weaknesses can be minimised using recreation cost.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 113
  114. 114. How much wouldit cost to recreate the brand today?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 114
  115. 115. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 115
  116. 116. The value of the brand is calculated by comparing it with other brands in its category.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 116
  117. 117. BrandDynamics Pyramid Source: WPP (2010). Cited from Kotler (2012)© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 117
  118. 118. Brand Equity Metrics© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 118
  119. 119. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 119
  120. 120. …however, brands comparable method is imperfect. Why?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 120
  121. 121. 1 It assumes homogenous resources are used by firms. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 121
  122. 122. 2 Even same resources areused, resource interaction& configuration are hardly the same across firms. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 122
  123. 123. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 123
  124. 124. Based on brand’s current earnings & future potential earnings.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 124
  125. 125. Income method© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 125
  126. 126. The current cashflows or earnings attributable to the brand.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 126
  127. 127. The future cash flows orearnings attributable to the brand are discounted to present value. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 127
  128. 128. …however, currentor future earnings method is imperfect. Why?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 128
  129. 129. Future market uncertainties.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 129
  130. 130. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 130
  131. 131. Mixed valuation© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 131
  132. 132. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 132
  133. 133. Brand DevelopmentPROCESS© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 133
  134. 134. the process of developing a brand strategy.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 134
  135. 135. the process ofcreating and sustaining brand equity.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 135
  136. 136. Brand audit Brand Values Development Brand Vision Brand Objectives Brand Strategy Brand Strategy Execution Brand Evaluation© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 136
  137. 137. Brand audit Brand Values Development Brand Vision Brand Objectives Brand Strategy Brand Strategy Execution Brand Evaluation© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 137
  138. 138. It’s a careful examination of the brandsphere.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 138
  139. 139. Brandsphere© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 139
  140. 140. Examine the brand’s target audience.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 140
  141. 141. Use the following diagnostic frameworks:© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 141
  142. 142. Brand Experience Metrics© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 142
  143. 143. Brand Knowledge Metrics© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 143
  144. 144. Brand Equity Metrics© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 144
  145. 145. Interbrand’s Brand Strengths Model Internal Factors External Factors© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 145
  146. 146. BrandDynamics Pyramid Source: WPP (2010). Cited from Kotler (2012)© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 146
  147. 147. Psychographic Demographic Multivariate Behavioural Conduct a market segmentation analysis.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 147
  148. 148. Competing brands analysis© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 148
  149. 149. Points-of-Parity Points-of-Difference© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 149
  150. 150. The brand’s PODsare invaluable if they are sought by users.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 150
  151. 151. How healthy is theinternal brand (culture)?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 151
  152. 152. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 152
  153. 153. Interbrand’s Brand Strengths Model Internal Factors External Factors© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 153
  154. 154. The brand:© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. FC Barcelona 154
  155. 155. Unless otherwise, every footballer around the worldwould like to play for Barcelona.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 155
  156. 156. Its current players, coaching andmanagement staff have ‘subscribed’ to the “Barcelona Play Style”.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 156
  157. 157. Review the effectivenessof marketing communications behind the brand.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 157
  158. 158. Brand audit Brand Values Development Brand Vision Brand Objectives Brand Strategy Brand Strategy Execution Brand Evaluation© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 158
  159. 159. What values do you wantthe brand to convey?© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 159
  160. 160. “Don’t Be Evil”© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 160
  161. 161. “To refresh the world” © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 161
  162. 162. Aaker’s Five Dimensions of Brand Personality Brand Personality Aaker, J. L. (1997), “Dimensions of Brand Personality”. Journal of Marketing Research, 65(6), 347-356© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 162
  163. 163. Brand audit Brand Values Development Brand Vision Brand Objectives Brand Strategy Brand Strategy Execution Brand Evaluation© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 163
  164. 164. Should be exciting,inspiring & meaningful to the brand’s target audience. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 164
  165. 165. Brand audit Brand Values Development Brand Vision Brand Objectives Brand Strategy Brand Strategy Execution Brand Evaluation© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 165
  166. 166. Long-term brand objectives.Short-term brand objectives.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 166
  167. 167. Brand audit Brand Values Development Brand Vision Brand Objectives Brand Strategy Brand Strategy Execution Brand Evaluation© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 167
  168. 168. How to convey thebrand’s values to the brand’s audience.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 168
  169. 169. How to convey thebrand’s promises to the brand’s audience.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 169
  170. 170. How to achieve the brand’s long-term and short-term objectives.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 170
  171. 171. How to convey a distinct identityof the brand to the brand’s audience. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 171
  172. 172. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 172
  173. 173. Decide on a distinctbrand personality that resonates with its target audience. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 173
  174. 174. Energetic Innovative Intellectual Royal Exclusive Discrete Hot Confident Natural© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. Etc. 174
  175. 175. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 175
  176. 176. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 176
  177. 177. Positioning Map Philip Kotler & Gary Armstrong (2009) Principles of Marketing, 13Ed.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 177
  178. 178. The visual features of a brand.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 178
  179. 179. Symbols | logo© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 179
  180. 180. Characters© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 180
  181. 181. Characters© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 181
  182. 182. Characters© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 182
  183. 183. Typefaces© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 183
  184. 184. Colours© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 184
  185. 185. Space© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 185
  186. 186. Slogan© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 186
  187. 187. 6 Criteria for ChoosingEffective Brand Elements. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 187
  188. 188. 1Memorability© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 188
  189. 189. 2Meaningfulness© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 189
  190. 190. 3 Likability Aesthetic appeal© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 190
  191. 191. 4Transferability© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 191
  192. 192. Transferability © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 192
  193. 193. 5 Adaptability© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 193
  194. 194. 6Protectability© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 194
  195. 195. Product Planet PriceMarketing Mix Process Marketing Mix Place Physical Promotion Layout People© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 195
  196. 196. Current Market New Brand Brand Current Penetration Extension Brand New Brand Brand Development Extension Adapted from Ansoff-Growth Matrix© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 196
  197. 197. Current Market New Brand Brand Current Penetration Extension Brand New Brand Brand Development Extension Adapted from Ansoff-Growth Matrix© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 197
  198. 198. To grow brand awareness and appealwithin an existing market. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 198
  199. 199. Current Market New Brand Brand Current Penetration Extension Brand New Brand Brand Development Extension Adapted from Ansoff-Growth Matrix© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 199
  200. 200. To renew a brand within an existing market.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 200
  201. 201. “physical facelift” Tangible changes© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 201
  202. 202. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 202
  203. 203. Then Now© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 203
  204. 204. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 204
  205. 205. “soul of the brand” Intangible changes© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 205
  206. 206. Beware of the dangers of brand renewal.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 206
  207. 207. Gap’s broken promise after a brand change in 2010.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 207
  208. 208. Current Market New Brand Brand Current Penetration Extension Brand New Brand Brand Development Extension Adapted from Ansoff-Growth Matrix© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 208
  209. 209. Brand extension leverages a successful brand to launch a newor modified brand in a new market. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 209
  210. 210. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 210
  211. 211. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 211
  212. 212. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 212
  213. 213. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 213
  214. 214. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 214
  215. 215. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 215
  216. 216. Brand Extension Benefits© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 216
  217. 217. Brand Extension Challenges© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 217
  218. 218. Brand audit Brand Values Development Brand Vision Brand Objectives Brand Strategy Brand Strategy Execution Brand Evaluation© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 218
  219. 219. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 219
  220. 220. Monitor & Control brand performance.© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 220
  221. 221. Brand audit Brand Values Development Brand Vision Brand Objectives Brand Strategy Brand Strategy Execution Brand Evaluation© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 221
  222. 222. Brand Experience Metrics© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 222
  223. 223. Brand Knowledge Metrics© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 223
  224. 224. Brand Equity Metrics© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 224
  225. 225. Interbrand’s Brand Strengths Model Internal Factors External Factors© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 225
  226. 226. BrandDynamics Pyramid Source: WPP (2010). Cited from Kotler (2012)© 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 226
  227. 227. © 2012 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 227

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