The Individual

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This presentation discusses the factors which influence individual behaviour at work.

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The Individual

  1. 1. THE INDIVIDUALFactors Influencing Work Behaviour
  2. 2. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 2 I. Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work. Learning Objective
  3. 3. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 3 human behaviour at An area that continues to attract attention is WORK. Picture source: green-mission.info
  4. 4. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 4 work behaviour. An individual ?
  5. 5. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 5 Meet Cheery. She takes pride in her work.
  6. 6. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 6 Why does she take pride in her work? Why others don’t? 10minutes List as many reasons.
  7. 7. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 7 Jim and Kim are just coming out from a meeting chaired by their line manager. “What a waste of my time!” “Wow. What a great manager!” Picturesource:forbes.com
  8. 8. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 8 List as many factors that could account for the difference in opinion held by Jim and Kim towards their line manager. 10minutes
  9. 9. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 9 There are many factors that influence a person’s work behaviour. All of which cannot be covered in this session. These factors are grouped into three major influences…
  10. 10. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 10 Personal Influences. Organisational Influences. Situational Influences. Factors Influencing A Person’s Work Behaviour
  11. 11. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 11 Personal Influences Our physical and psychological make-up, and desires affect what we do and how we act; and explain why we act the way we act at work. Personal influences include…
  12. 12. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 12 Age Gender Abilities Motivations Perception Personality MoodsAttitude
  13. 13. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 13 Young Individuals Less Younger Individuals Less experienced Highly experienced New skills and knowledge Have some obsolete skills and knowledge Seek to disrupt the status-quo Seek to preserve the status-quo Seek to embrace new work technologies Seek to embrace routine work systems Rely on the experience of the old Rely on the novelty of the young A simplified comparison how age influences work behaviour. Age
  14. 14. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 14 Jim and Kim are just coming out from a meeting chaired by their line manager. “What a waste of my time!” “Wow. What a great manager!” Gender Picturesource:forbes.com
  15. 15. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 15 Compassion. Multi-tasking. Communication. Physical strength. Decision-making. Career choices. Risk-taking. Perception. Etc. Areas of Gender Differences at Work
  16. 16. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 16 Beware of gender stereotypes at work. 10minutes Any examples?
  17. 17. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 17 Education. Knowledge. Skills. Physical qualities. Experience. Ability
  18. 18. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 18 Ever wonder why a colleague or friend performs so well at their job? Could it be due to knowledge or talents they possess? 10minutes
  19. 19. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 19 Needs | Goals | Expectations of the individual. Motivation
  20. 20. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 20 Needs/Wants Behaviour Shape The things we do
  21. 21. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 21 1.Physiological 2.Safety 3.Social 4.Esteem 5.Self-Actualisation Breathing, Food, Water, Sex, Sleep, Excretion Security, Protection, Stability, Certainty Loved, Affiliation, Belonging, Be Accepted Respect, recognition, status Fulfilling one’s potential or calling. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Maslow,A.(1943),“ATheoryofHumanMotivationbyAbrahamMaslow”.PsychologicalReview, vol.50,NO.4,pp.370-396
  22. 22. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 22 Why do we work? Why do we avoid work? Why our work motivation is hardly stable? Do managers understand why we (avoid) work? 20minutes
  23. 23. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 23 Personality A set of enduring, observable and unobservable qualities that influence how a person looks, feels, thinks and behaves. Hellriegel, G. and John, W. S. (2011), “Organisational Behavior”. 13th edition, Cengage Learning: Mason,. p. 70
  24. 24. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 24 Who am I? Picture source: © Riona 2013
  25. 25. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 25 Often used methods of determining one’s personality are traits and types.
  26. 26. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 26 Traits Method According to personality trait theory, there are five major traits that underlie human personality.
  27. 27. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 27 Big Five Personality Traits Extraversion. Conscientiousness. Openness to new experience. Agreeableness. Neuroticism/Emotional stability. Mullins, L. J. (2010), "Management and Organisational Behaviour". 9th edition, Prentice Hall: Harlow,. p. 133
  28. 28. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 28 Use the mnemonic—OCEAN—to remember the Big Five personality traits: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism.
  29. 29. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 29 Source: Costa, P. T & McCrae, R. “Big Five Personality Traits”
  30. 30. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 30
  31. 31. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 31 Extraversion 20% Conscientiousness 40% Openness to new experience 98% Agreeableness 70% Neuroticism 42% Cilia’s Big Fiver personality test score. Picture source: kellymartinspeaks.co.uk
  32. 32. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 32 What sort of role or profession is the best fit for Cilia? How would you expect Cilia to behave in a teamwork environment? Assuming Cilia holds a management position, what could be her major strength and weakness based on her Big 5 personality test score? 15minutes To complete this exercise, you need to know the meanings of each of the five personality traits. See slide 29 or 30.
  33. 33. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 33 Extraversion 99% Conscientiousness 70% Openness to new experience 65% Agreeableness 40% Neuroticism 50% Dino’s Big Fiver personality test score.
  34. 34. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 34 Amongst the tools you are using in deciding the best candidate for the post of Events Manager is the Big Five personality trait test. Base on the personality test scores of Cilia and Dino; which of the two candidates would you hire. Justify your answer. 15minutes To complete this exercise, you need to know the meanings of each of the five personality traits. See slide 29 or 30.
  35. 35. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 35 Type Method According to personality type theory, there are 16 discrete personality types.
  36. 36. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 36 ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ Myers-Briggs 16 Personality Types Mullins, L. J. (2010), "Management and Organisational Behaviour". 9th edition, Prentice Hall: Harlow,. p. 136
  37. 37. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 37 Click slide to access description of 16 personality types. Internet connection is required.
  38. 38. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 38 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  39. 39. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 39 Click slide to access online personality. Internet connection is required.
  40. 40. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 40 Attitude is an opinion or judgement held by an individual towards a person or object. Attitude
  41. 41. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 41 Do you like your job? What aspects about your job do (don’t) you like? Do you identify yourself with members of your organisation? Are you proud of your organisation? 20minutes
  42. 42. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 42 What do you think of your boss? Competent? Lazy? Vulnerable? Hardworking? Pleasant? Does the opinion you hold about your boss influence your behaviour towards them? 20minutes
  43. 43. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 43 An individual’s attitude is formed through direct and indirect experiences, imagination and personal beliefs.
  44. 44. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 44 Perception describes how a person selects, organises, and interprets input from their senses to make meaning of the world around them. Perception Hellriegel, G. and John, W. S. (2011), “Organisational Behavior”. 13th edition, Cengage Learning: Mason,. p. 104
  45. 45. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 45
  46. 46. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 46 Stimuli Response How the individual processes information determines the response.
  47. 47. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 47 Individuals are susceptible to perceptual errors like stereotyping, selective distortion, selective attention, self- fulfilling prophecy, attribution bias, etc. For example…
  48. 48. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 48 PremierLeagueRefereeSianMassey Source: politiken.dk Sky sport commentators, Andy Gray & Richard Keys sacked for making sexist comments about Ms. Massey & female referees. “Women [don’t] know the offside rule”. 2010—
  49. 49. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 49 Half-full or half-empty?
  50. 50. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 50 Created by and courtesy of Dr. Akiyoshi Kitaoka, Ritsumeikan University Are these objects rotating or static?
  51. 51. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 51 "What" do you see?
  52. 52. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 52 "What" do you see?
  53. 53. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 53 You have four referral grades. Why did you perform poorly in your exams? Some individuals would attribute their underachievement to external factors rather to their own making. — Attribution bias
  54. 54. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 54 Wow. You passed your exams in flying colours—five distinctions. Explain the reasons for your success? Some individuals would attribute their achievement solely to their own making. — Attribution bias
  55. 55. 55© 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. Factorsaffecting Perception Perceiver Perceived objectContext
  56. 56. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 56 Have you been in a situation at work where colleagues perceived an issue differently from you? Or a problem to which your colleagues’ interpretation is completely different from yours? What could have accounted for the difference in interpretation or perspective? 20minutes
  57. 57. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 57 Organisational Influences These are factors outside the individual but inside the organisation that affect how a person acts, feels and thinks at work.
  58. 58. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 58 Teams. Leadership. Organisational culture. Organisational structure. Interpersonal relationships. Physical workplace design. Job characteristics. Organisational Influences
  59. 59. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 59 What does the job entail? What tools & knowledge are required to do the job? Where and when would the job be carried out? With whom would I be doing the job? Are responsibilities and accountabilities clearly defined? How would performance on the job be assessed? Would job performance lead to valuable rewards? Does the job make effective use of my skills? How does the job affect other jobs in the organisation? Is the job routine or dynamic? What unexpected issues could affect the job? Etc. Job Characteristics & Impact on Individuals Behaviour
  60. 60. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 60
  61. 61. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 61
  62. 62. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 62 Situational Influences These are factors outside the organisation that affect people’s behaviour at work.
  63. 63. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 63 Weatherconditions Picture source: forwallpaper.com
  64. 64. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 64 PESTELForces National values & norms with regards to work; work-life balance. Depressing & uncertain economic climate, redundancy, pay-cut on employee moral & outlook. Effect of new work technologies & workplace design on employees Effect of green issues & workplace design on employees. Changes in employment laws, employee rights. Political risks & governmental policies on economic, social & legal matters that directly/indirectly affect employees.
  65. 65. © 2015 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 65 Organisational influences Situational influences Personal influences Source: ealingreflexology.co.uk
  66. 66. THE INDIVIDUALFactors Influencing Work Behaviour

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