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Mongol Empire

Mongol Empire

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Mongol Empire

  1. 1. Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
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  11. 11. 11 Growth of Empire http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v_NPgMMazF4
  12. 12. I. Introduction to the Mongols A. Mongols ended/interrupted many great postclassical empires B. Extended world network – foundation for interaction on global scale C. Forged mightiest war machine D. Four khanates – sons divided 1. Ruled for 150 years 2. Last time nomadic peoples dominated sedentary peoples E. Paradox of rule – fierce fighters vs. tolerant/peaceful leaders F. Russia controlled by Khanate of Golden Horde
  13. 13. II. The Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan A. Who were the Mongols? 1. Nomadic world – excellent horsemen & archers a. Lived on herds – meat, milk, traded hides for grain/vegetables b. Children ride and use bow from early age 2. Originated in Asian Steppe - Cen. Asian plains 3. Political organization a. Like Bedouins – kin/clan based – combined in confederations when needed 4. Traditional religion = Shamanism - animistic 5. Unified 1st by Genghis Khan = Mongol Empire a. established capital at Karakoram = power shift to E.Asia
  14. 14. III. Mongol Habit of Cultural Adaptation A. Mongols Borrowed Culture 1. written lang. from Turks 2. law code from China 3. paper currency from China 4. new religious beliefs = Buddhism + Islam + Christianity
  15. 15. IV. The Mongol War Machine A. Genghis Khan’s leadership 1. organization, discipline, unity 2. directed fighting spirit toward conquest B. Tumens (divisions) = 10,000 men each C. New weapons – flaming arrows, gunpowder, siege weapons D. Superior tactics - trick enemy to attack; then surround & attack flanks E. Superior skills - Horsemanship and archery skills unmatched F. Conquer from China to E. Europe G. Few areas out of reach - Mongol failures: 1. W. Europe 2. Japan – failed twice 3. NE. Africa - defeated by Mamluks 4. India – Delhi Sultanate http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ea/Mongol_E mpire_map.gif/300px-Mongol_Empire_map.gif
  16. 16. Mongol Empire at death of Genghis Khan - 1227 16
  17. 17. 17 Expansion of Empire after Genghis Khan
  18. 18. V. Impacts of the Mongols A. Silk Road trade reopened/revitalized 1. SR cities like Samarkand and Bukhara flourished 2. International contacts increased B. Pax Mongolica 1. Single political authority across vast territory 2. Many conquered peoples left to govern themselves 3. Increased safety through Central Asia C. Bubonic Plague “Black Death” 1. Spreads west through Mongol world 2. Devastates Asia and European pop.
  19. 19. 19 Black Death Spreads Across Mongol Empire to Europe
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  22. 22. 22 The Geography of the Mongol Empire 1. Describe in detail the geographic extent of the Mongol Empire (map 1). 2. Which large regions of Asia generally escaped Mongol rule? Provide some possible explanation for each region (map 1 3. What role/s do you think the Steppes played in the creation of the Mongol Empire (map 2)? 4. Why do you think Japan avoided invasion? North Africa? 1. 2.
  23. 23. 23 Questions from Mongols Crash Course 1. How many years did it take the Mongol Empire to surpass the size of the Roman Empire? 2. Sum up the explanation for the relative equality between Mongol men and women. 3. Which 2 innovations helped Genghis Khan consolidate/build his power? 4. Which Khanate controlled Russia? 5. Genghis Khan’s army was built on which two things? 6. Which trade route’s value and use reemerged because of Mongol rule?
  24. 24. 24 Briefly summarize (note form) Mongol Mongol Commerce in China and Persia economic contributions in each region, & create an image representing that contribution. Contribution: Image: Contribution: Image: Contribution: Image: Persia China Contribution: Image: Contribution: Image:
  25. 25. Yuan Dynasty • Kublai Khan finished conquering the Song dynasty in 1276 – Launched two failed invasions of Japan • New Social Hierarchy – Mongols; foreigners; northern Chinese; Southern Chinese • Ended exam system • Favored merchants & peasants over elites
  26. 26. Fall of Yuan Dynasty – End of Mongol rule in China - After Kublai Khan’s death 26 - Loss of focus on ruling - White Lotus Sect leads successful rebellion - Rebel leader founds Ming Dynasty
  27. 27. Overall Decline of the Mongols • Mongols too few in number • Mongol rule resented • Increase use of firearms
  28. 28. Yuan Social Policies • Mongols could not settle in China • Outlawed intermarriage • Promoted Buddhism & supported Daoism • Mongol women refused to adopt Chinese customs – Retained influential status – Resisted footbinding
  29. 29. VI. Last of Mongol Leaders A. Timur – i lang = Timur or Tamerlane 1. Attempted to repeat conquests of G. Khan 2. Conquered Cen. Asia, Persia, N. India, S. Russia + parts of Mid. East. 3. Expansion ends with Timur’s death 4. Decendents ruled Cen. Asia (Samarkand & Bukhara) until 1500’s
  30. 30. 30 Decline of Mongol rule in China Fall of Yuan Dynasty Uprisings and protests among Chinese Scholars Actions/efforts of White Lotus Sect After Kublai Khan’s death: loss of focus on ruling Frequent rebellions against Mongol rule

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