Section III
Issues and Preventions of Sport Deviance and Violence
Part A:
Organizational Deviance in Sport
Organizational Deviance
 Definition Varies:
 Conventional : orgs that do something wrong
 Sociological (see next slide)...
Organizational Deviance:
A definition
 “an event, activity, or circumstance,
occurring in and/or produced by a formal
org...
Sport = organizational structure
 “Dark Side” of organizations
 Bureaucracies are touted for efficiency but
do have prob...
Goal Displacement
 Official goals legitimate the existence of
an organization (Meyer & Rowan, 1991).
 Major university a...
Scapegoating
 When negative behaviors are discovered
and sanctions are brought against an
institution, single individuals...
Structural Secrecy
 Structural secrets are prevalent in
organizations and can include such deviant
acts as concealing org...
Dehumanization &
alienation
 Weber argued that bureaucracies offer
efficiency, rationality, and consistency,
 Another ty...
Organizational Deviance
and Sport?
 Vaughan (1996): examined the
dynamics between individuals and
subunits
 Focused on N...
Wrap-Up…
 Organizations suffer from the
aforementioned “problems.”
 Sport is composed of bureaucratically
structured org...
Part B:
Cheating in Sport
Cheating…
 What is cheating?
 Class: develop a working definition…
 Depends upon time, space, and social
context
 Rela...
Who decides?
 Who decides what
constitutes
cheating?
 Relates to issues of:
 Power and authority
 Social class
 Prest...
Cheating: more complicated
than we thought…
 Jerry Glanville: “If
you ain’t cheatin’,
you ain’t trying.”
 Def: rule viol...
Normative cheating
 Def: illegal acts that
are accepted as part
of the game
 Athletes, coaches,
and fans assume it
is pa...
Deviant cheating
 Def: illegal acts that
are not accepted as
part of the game
and are subject to
some form of
punishment
Class Activity
 Break up into groups
 I want you to:
 Identify the 5 most important incidences of
cheating in sport his...
Part C:
Athlete and Spectator Violence
What is Violence?
 Definition: the use of excessive physical
force, which causes or has the potential to
cause harm and o...
Violence and Deviance
 Violence in sport is oftentimes linked with
overconformity to the sport ethic
 Compounded by the ...
Violence as Overconformity
to the Sport Ethic
 Coaches may expect players to use
violence
 Violence often attracts media...
Violence as Overconformity
to the Sport Ethic
 Violence may be related to insecurities in
high performance sports
 Expre...
Violence in Sports
 Using Mike Smith’s typologies, there are 4
major categories of violence within sports
1) Brutal Body ...
Violence: categories 1 & 2
Brutal body contact Borderline violence
Violence in Sports
3) Quasi-criminal violence -violations that are
clearly outside of the game and may be
result in sancti...
Violence: Categories 3 & 4
Quasi-Criminal Violence Criminal Violence
Final Word on Categories
There is much overlap
between all four categories!!!
Money?
 Commercialization and money has expanded
opportunities for individuals to use sport and
engage in violence
 Comm...
Money? Cont…
 Violence is rooted in larger society, not
merely confined in one institution, such as
sports.
 Can violenc...
Other Intervening Variables
 Violence, Gender, Social Class, and Race
are complex interconnections that help to
understan...
Example from Messner:
 Men from low-economic areas and minority
group backgrounds placed importance on
‘respect’ generate...
Violence off the Field
 Traditional Assumption:
 off the field violence is related to violent
strategies or behaviors le...
Violence off the Field cont…
 Assaults and sexual assaults:
 Is there a carry over effect from violence on
the field to ...
Male Athletes & Violence
against Women
 Using deviant overconformity to the sport
ethic and Symbolic Interactionist think...
Male Athletes vs. Females
 Deviant overconformity allows for:
 ‘secret society’ mentality to prevail
 Support from thei...
Spectator Violence
 Little research on
how watching
sports may
influence violence
in everyday
relationships
 Spectators ...
“Fan” Violence
 Violence among spectators.
 Watching TV -minimal
 Sporting events -minimal, with exception of
crowd beh...
Dysfunctional Fans
 Wakefield and Wann (2006: 170)
 Social dysfunction is important to sport
spectators, because:
 “soc...
Wakefield & Wann (2006),
cont…
 Individual level: focus on disruptive fans
helps to make for a safer environment
 Strate...
Part D:
Sport Gambling
Eitzen and Sage (2009:
160)
 “wherever there is availability and
opportunity for gambling, compulsive
gambling problems i...
Sport Gambling: Increases lead
to problematic gambling
 National Gambling
Impact Study
Commission (1999)
 Wagering or
ga...
Problematic Gambling..
 Def: gambling/gaming that negatively
impacts social interactions
 exists on a continuum based up...
Pathological Gambling
 One aspect of problematic gambling
 Ancient Greek: “pathos”
 Suffering, feelings of sorrow or pi...
Pathological Gambling
 Has increasingly been studied as an
addictive behavior involving varying
levels of impulsivity (Ib...
Problematic Gambling
 Different “levels” of
understanding
 Contributes to a
“holistic” view of
problematic sport
gamblin...
Problematic Gambling:
Individual variables
 Gender/sex (Shafer & Hall, 1996)
 Alberta Gaming Research Institute:
 Focus...
Gambling & Gender/Sex
 Primarily a male
phenomenon
 Sport is primarily
consumed by males
 Exploitation of
female image ...
Problematic Gambling:
Structural/Community variables
 According to the US Census (Table 1222),
almost $100 billion in rev...
Sport Gambling and the
Internet
 Internet gambling has increased in
popularity
 Has expanded the opportunity for sports
...
Gambling and the Internet
 Government officials estimate that $12 billion
is wagered each year online (Ahrens, 2006).
 I...
Case Study: MLB and
Gaming/Gambling
 Few instances of
players/managers
gambling on baseball
 “Black Sox Scandal”
1919 Wo...
“Black Sox” Scandal:
1919 World Series
 http://xroads.virginia.
edu/~ug02/yeung/ba
beruth/blacksox.html
MLB and Gaming/Gambling
 While MLB opposes legalized betting, it has
not chosen to completely disassociate itself
from ga...
MLB’s official rule/stance
 Rule 21(d) states:
 “Any player, umpire, or club or league
official or employee, who shall b...
Future?
 MLB is not the only sport-based
organization that is concerned with
gambling
 NCAA
 NFL
 Professional Tennis
...
Part E:
Codes of Conduct: Barriers to sport deviance/violence?
Codes of Conduct
 Codes of Conduct are often related, in
sports, to a code of ethics
 Ethics are important in sport beca...
Social Values & Personal Integrity
SPORTS &
ETHICS
PERSONAL
INTEGRITY
ORGANIZATION
&/OR
GROUP
SOCIAL
VALUES
Basics of Ethics
 Ethics: branch of philosophy concerned
with the nature of values by which
actions can be judged as “rig...
Moral Values
 Codified into “principles”
 Principles act as moral guides
 Lumpkin et al (2006): 4 basic moral values
 ...
Code of Ethics
 A written code that:
 Regulates
 Protects public interest and the
interests of those it serves
 Is not...
Examples
 NATA (National Athletic Training Assoc)
 http://www.nata.org/codeofethics/index.htm
 NABC (National Assoc of ...
Performing Ethically
 If ethics are a system of rules that govern
the ordering of values, then some
rules/values will cha...
Hitt’s 4-prong Test
 Test 1: end-result ethics
 Decision needed to be made is weighed
against potential outcomes
 Examp...
Hitt’s 4-prong Test cont…
 Test 3: organizational values
 Unwritten “social contract” among members
 Example: Do you wa...
Inspiring Ethical Behavior
 Most ethical codes in organizations address:
 Employee conduct, fiscal accountability, socia...
Developing a Code…
 Using the guide from the Canadian
Centre for Ethics in Sport:
 Separate into groups of 4
 Develop a...
Part F:
Coaches, Power, Authority, and Deviance in Sport
Power & Authority
 Power: situational characteristic
 Changes based on situations
 Heskett Center GAs: in charge of
und...
Coaches & Authority
 Recognizable authority figures
 Are not the only “leaders” in a sport
organization
 Influential on...
Bad News…
 “The bad news is, many coaches –
particularly in the high-profile sports of
boys’ basketball, baseball, and fo...
Coaches & Discipline
 Sport promotes:
 positive
○ teamwork
 negative
○ “overzealous competitiveness”
 Coaches, because...
Problems with Discipline
 Coaches serve punishment and
discipline without “formal trials and often
for offenses without m...
Solutions?
 As emphasis on winning infiltrates ALL
levels of sport, how do we educate
coaches to be ethical?
 Possible s...
Discussion
 What solutions can you, collectively,
come up with?
 What role do administrators in sports
play in this proc...
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Section iii

  1. 1. Section III Issues and Preventions of Sport Deviance and Violence
  2. 2. Part A: Organizational Deviance in Sport
  3. 3. Organizational Deviance  Definition Varies:  Conventional : orgs that do something wrong  Sociological (see next slide)  Focuses on how organizations interact with each other and individuals  NCAA  Recruiting  Examples: ○ Major infractions ○ Secondary infractions
  4. 4. Organizational Deviance: A definition  “an event, activity, or circumstance, occurring in and/or produced by a formal organization that deviates from both formal design goals and normative standards or expectations, either in the fact of its occurrence or in its consequences, and produces a suboptimal outcome.” (Vaughan, 1999: 273)
  5. 5. Sport = organizational structure  “Dark Side” of organizations  Bureaucracies are touted for efficiency but do have problems  Negative consequences for organizations  Goal displacement  Scapegoating  Structural secrecy  Negative consequences for individuals  Dehumanization, alienation, and exploitation
  6. 6. Goal Displacement  Official goals legitimate the existence of an organization (Meyer & Rowan, 1991).  Major university athletic departments have become bureaucracies  Official goals of providing education and amateurism has given way to the rise of the college sport industry (Sperber, 2000).
  7. 7. Scapegoating  When negative behaviors are discovered and sanctions are brought against an institution, single individuals are blamed (Perrow, 1999)  Perrow (1984):characteristics of organizations cause disruptions  However: it is hard to punish organizations  sanctions are usually brought against the individual (Ermann & Lundman, 1996)  Single coaches, athletes, or boosters are blamed for infraction
  8. 8. Structural Secrecy  Structural secrets are prevalent in organizations and can include such deviant acts as concealing organizational documents (Ermann & Lundman, 1996).  The lack of communication in bureaucratic organizations cripples communication and information flows (Clarke & Perrow, 1996),  Organizations perform at suboptimal levels (Vaughan, 1999)
  9. 9. Dehumanization & alienation  Weber argued that bureaucracies offer efficiency, rationality, and consistency,  Another typical product of these features is dehumanization or alienation (Marx)  Position is the focus, not the person  Coleman (1997): Basketball coach hiring carousel  Person is seen as a “replaceable” part of the unit  NFL players
  10. 10. Organizational Deviance and Sport?  Vaughan (1996): examined the dynamics between individuals and subunits  Focused on NASA  Challenger Explosion in 1987  Identifies:  Culture of Production  Production of Culture  Structural Secrecy
  11. 11. Wrap-Up…  Organizations suffer from the aforementioned “problems.”  Sport is composed of bureaucratically structured organizations  As a result, these “problems” occur in sport  How do we solve organizational problems when they are hard to identify?
  12. 12. Part B: Cheating in Sport
  13. 13. Cheating…  What is cheating?  Class: develop a working definition…  Depends upon time, space, and social context  Relates to moral judgments set in a cultural space
  14. 14. Who decides?  Who decides what constitutes cheating?  Relates to issues of:  Power and authority  Social class  Prestige
  15. 15. Cheating: more complicated than we thought…  Jerry Glanville: “If you ain’t cheatin’, you ain’t trying.”  Def: rule violation to gain an unfair advantage  Types of cheating:  Normative  Deviant Ben Johnson, 1988 Olympics
  16. 16. Normative cheating  Def: illegal acts that are accepted as part of the game  Athletes, coaches, and fans assume it is part of the game, pregame, postgame, or training process  Minor sanctions
  17. 17. Deviant cheating  Def: illegal acts that are not accepted as part of the game and are subject to some form of punishment
  18. 18. Class Activity  Break up into groups  I want you to:  Identify the 5 most important incidences of cheating in sport history  Rank these 5 choice from 1 to 5 (most deviant)  Identify the similarities of these incidences ○ Example: in-game cheating, chemical use, gambling, etc…  How would your group attempt to solve these matters so that they did not happen again?
  19. 19. Part C: Athlete and Spectator Violence
  20. 20. What is Violence?  Definition: the use of excessive physical force, which causes or has the potential to cause harm and or destruction.  Violence can be legal or sanctioned, not always a deviant behavior  Rejection of norms Anarchy ○ Punching a coach  Extreme form of social control Fascism or Moral Righteousness ○ Tackling a player resulting in injury- tackler’s sense of pride
  21. 21. Violence and Deviance  Violence in sport is oftentimes linked with overconformity to the sport ethic  Compounded by the commercialization of sport  Highly correlated with current definitions of masculinity and “male-centric” culture ○ Discovery Channel: “Last One Standing” ○ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sZ3lSblnm-w ○ “Sports Violence: All Sports” ○ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bBjg5FKnyVU
  22. 22. Violence as Overconformity to the Sport Ethic  Coaches may expect players to use violence  Violence often attracts media attention  Players may not like violence, even though most accept it as part of the game  Quasi- and criminal violence are routinely rejected by athletes and spectators
  23. 23. Violence as Overconformity to the Sport Ethic  Violence may be related to insecurities in high performance sports  Expressions of violence are related to masculinity, but not limited to men  Physicality creates drama and excitement, strong emotions, and special bonds among all athletes, male and female  Further analyzed through typologies
  24. 24. Violence in Sports  Using Mike Smith’s typologies, there are 4 major categories of violence within sports 1) Brutal Body Contact - common physical practices of sports; “smash-mouth” football 2) Borderline violence -violate rules of games, but are accepted by player (ex: elbowing of runners in basketball or long distance track/cc).
  25. 25. Violence: categories 1 & 2 Brutal body contact Borderline violence
  26. 26. Violence in Sports 3) Quasi-criminal violence -violations that are clearly outside of the game and may be result in sanctions by a governing body (ex: “cheap shots”). 4) Criminal violence -violations that are clearly outside of the game and may be prosecuted as crimes (ex: violent, premeditated assaults; Rob Bertuzzi’s attack from behind; Mary McSorley’s high-sticking penalty).
  27. 27. Violence: Categories 3 & 4 Quasi-Criminal Violence Criminal Violence
  28. 28. Final Word on Categories There is much overlap between all four categories!!!
  29. 29. Money?  Commercialization and money has expanded opportunities for individuals to use sport and engage in violence  Commercialization and money however, do not cause violence  most of violence within sports is being done without commercialization, sponsorship, or money  Ex: high school football
  30. 30. Money? Cont…  Violence is rooted in larger society, not merely confined in one institution, such as sports.  Can violence in sports be solved?  Do we want to stop it?
  31. 31. Other Intervening Variables  Violence, Gender, Social Class, and Race are complex interconnections that help to understand violence in sports.  In sports, we can “see” the interaction of race, class, and gender  …in conjunction with the entertainment and economics sectors of one society
  32. 32. Example from Messner:  Men from low-economic areas and minority group backgrounds placed importance on ‘respect’ generated from being an athlete.  More likely than their white counterparts to use intimidation, aggression, and violence while in sports  Likely to be funneled into sports as a means of achievement and social mobility
  33. 33. Violence off the Field  Traditional Assumption:  off the field violence is related to violent strategies or behaviors learned (and often rewarded for) in sports.  True?  Why?  Why not?
  34. 34. Violence off the Field cont…  Assaults and sexual assaults:  Is there a carry over effect from violence on the field to social situations?  Debates about whether rates are higher among athletes distract attention from the problem of violence in culture  There is a need to understand the dynamics of such violence perpetrated by athletes  www.ncava.org  www.badjocks.com
  35. 35. Male Athletes & Violence against Women  Using deviant overconformity to the sport ethic and Symbolic Interactionist thinking helps to understand it  Re-enforcement from the sport community to engage in masculine activities in relation to women.  Physical domination in relation to male, athletic identity
  36. 36. Male Athletes vs. Females  Deviant overconformity allows for:  ‘secret society’ mentality to prevail  Support from their social networks that women are groupies  Institutional support for elite athletes- does not hold athletes accountable.  Example: Jimmy Johnson’s Cowboys (mid 1990s) ○ good players have a different set of rules
  37. 37. Spectator Violence  Little research on how watching sports may influence violence in everyday relationships  Spectators at non- contact sports have low rates of violence  Spectators at contacts sports have rates of violence that constitute a problem in need of analysis and control  Rates today are lower than rates in the past
  38. 38. “Fan” Violence  Violence among spectators.  Watching TV -minimal  Sporting events -minimal, with exception of crowd behaviors and collective movements. ○ How is this related to culture? ○ Why is there more violence at European sporting events?  Celebration -most violence occurs during a celebration. ○ Collective Behaviors Research:  Hysteria and Mob mentality- individual is “lost”
  39. 39. Dysfunctional Fans  Wakefield and Wann (2006: 170)  Social dysfunction is important to sport spectators, because:  “social dysfunction often leads to other forms of aggressive behavior and violence. These persons are often loud and obnoxious at sporting events, freely and readily directing their anger toward other fans, players, and officials”
  40. 40. Wakefield & Wann (2006), cont…  Individual level: focus on disruptive fans helps to make for a safer environment  Strategies to solve include:  More undercover security  Fans call-in hotlines: report anonymously poor behavior  What other strategies?  Cost effective?
  41. 41. Part D: Sport Gambling
  42. 42. Eitzen and Sage (2009: 160)  “wherever there is availability and opportunity for gambling, compulsive gambling problems increase accordingly.”  “current trends and future predictions suggest that a growing social problem for both sport and the larger society will be large numbers of tragic compulsive gamblers; many of these will be sports gamblers”
  43. 43. Sport Gambling: Increases lead to problematic gambling  National Gambling Impact Study Commission (1999)  Wagering or gambling on sports is arguably the most widespread form of gambling in America  Increased steadily in the last 10 years
  44. 44. Problematic Gambling..  Def: gambling/gaming that negatively impacts social interactions  exists on a continuum based upon behaviors and negative consequences resultant from gambling (McComb, Lee, and Sprenkle 2009).  Impacts many facets of individuals’ lives resulting in:  Alcohol/drug abuse (Stinchfield, Kushner, and Winters 2005)  depression (Stinson and Grant 2005)  strained family relationships (McComb, Lee, and Sprenkle 2009)
  45. 45. Pathological Gambling  One aspect of problematic gambling  Ancient Greek: “pathos”  Suffering, feelings of sorrow or pity  Destructive properties  Medicalization of Deviance:  Medicine “cures” or diagnoses a physiological antecedent for social behavior  Pathological relating to disease
  46. 46. Pathological Gambling  Has increasingly been studied as an addictive behavior involving varying levels of impulsivity (Ibanez 2003).  For example:  Research: University of Minnesota focuses on neurological relationships with impulsive and risk taking behaviors in both adults and adolescents (http://www.gamblingdisorders.org/centers- excellence/university-minnesota).
  47. 47. Problematic Gambling  Different “levels” of understanding  Contributes to a “holistic” view of problematic sport gambling/gaming  Individual vs. Structural
  48. 48. Problematic Gambling: Individual variables  Gender/sex (Shafer & Hall, 1996)  Alberta Gaming Research Institute:  Focused on socio-demographic variables influencing perceptions of gaming and use of gaming revenue in communities. ○ Religion/moral norms ○ Education level ○ Gambling participation  Others:  Age: senior citizens and adolescents increasing  Urban/rural
  49. 49. Gambling & Gender/Sex  Primarily a male phenomenon  Sport is primarily consumed by males  Exploitation of female image is extremely common within sport gambling
  50. 50. Problematic Gambling: Structural/Community variables  According to the US Census (Table 1222), almost $100 billion in revenue was generated in 2007 by the legal gaming industry  Factors:  Opportunity and availability within the community  Garrett (2004) noted the importance of locating the relationship of gaming and local employment trends:  such as urban/rural, household employment, and private payroll.
  51. 51. Sport Gambling and the Internet  Internet gambling has increased in popularity  Has expanded the opportunity for sports gambling, wagering, or betting.  Legal sports betting in Las Vegas (1996) $2.48 billion:  Has declined since the mid-1990s given the increase of gambling via the Internet (“Leaving Las Vegas,” 2004).
  52. 52. Gambling and the Internet  Government officials estimate that $12 billion is wagered each year online (Ahrens, 2006).  Illegal Internet Gambling Enforcement Act in 2006: prohibits financial service providers from processing payments to online gambling companies (McCarthy & Swartz, 2006).  Complements previously existing laws against sports betting, including Federal Wire Act of 1961 and the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (PASPA) of 1992.
  53. 53. Case Study: MLB and Gaming/Gambling  Few instances of players/managers gambling on baseball  “Black Sox Scandal” 1919 World Series  Pete Rose: 1984-1984, Cincinnati Reds Manager  Concern: MLB and associations with Gaming or Gambling related entities
  54. 54. “Black Sox” Scandal: 1919 World Series  http://xroads.virginia. edu/~ug02/yeung/ba beruth/blacksox.html
  55. 55. MLB and Gaming/Gambling  While MLB opposes legalized betting, it has not chosen to completely disassociate itself from gambling.  League franchises accept advertising from casinos  the Las Vegas market has generated some interest as a potential site for a MLB franchise (King, 2004).  many MLB franchises are licensing use of their marks on instant-win lottery tickets (Lefton, 2007).  Massachusetts game featuring the Boston Red Sox logo generated $200 million in revenue in its first year.
  56. 56. MLB’s official rule/stance  Rule 21(d) states:  “Any player, umpire, or club or league official or employee, who shall bet any sum whatsoever upon any baseball game in connection with which the bettor has a duty to perform shall be declared permanently ineligible.”
  57. 57. Future?  MLB is not the only sport-based organization that is concerned with gambling  NCAA  NFL  Professional Tennis  Others?  How to combat?  Currently, education/awareness is the curriculum  Effective?
  58. 58. Part E: Codes of Conduct: Barriers to sport deviance/violence?
  59. 59. Codes of Conduct  Codes of Conduct are often related, in sports, to a code of ethics  Ethics are important in sport because they encompass a variety of personal, professional, and societal views regarding deviant behavior
  60. 60. Social Values & Personal Integrity SPORTS & ETHICS PERSONAL INTEGRITY ORGANIZATION &/OR GROUP SOCIAL VALUES
  61. 61. Basics of Ethics  Ethics: branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of values by which actions can be judged as “right” or “wrong”.  Greek word “ethike”: science of morals or character.  Morality: individual’s actual customs or manners.  Actions: “right” or “wrong” compared to group’s ideal.
  62. 62. Moral Values  Codified into “principles”  Principles act as moral guides  Lumpkin et al (2006): 4 basic moral values  Justice: fairness  Honesty: truthful  Responsibility: accountability for actions  Beneficence: not doing harm, doing good  Useful to development of codes of conduct
  63. 63. Code of Ethics  A written code that:  Regulates  Protects public interest and the interests of those it serves  Is not self-serving  Specific and honest  Must be easily enforced
  64. 64. Examples  NATA (National Athletic Training Assoc)  http://www.nata.org/codeofethics/index.htm  NABC (National Assoc of Basketball Coaches)  http://nabc.cstv.com/sports/m-baskbl/spec-rel/071206aaa.html  NASO (National Assoc of Sports Officials)  http://www.naso.org/benefits/ethics.htm  Others?
  65. 65. Performing Ethically  If ethics are a system of rules that govern the ordering of values, then some rules/values will change based on discipline/sport/environment  Codes of Ethics in organizations- while different- should affirm that nobody is hurt by decisions and actions taken by others  Hitt’s (1990) decision making strategy based on ethical inquiry. How to solve ethical dilemmas…
  66. 66. Hitt’s 4-prong Test  Test 1: end-result ethics  Decision needed to be made is weighed against potential outcomes  Example: How much non-biodegradable confetti to use in a Super Bowl Parade  Test 2: rules ethics  Consider the organization’s relevant policies and procedures  Example: promotion of Assoc. ADs- do you have to promote from within or can you go outside of dept?
  67. 67. Hitt’s 4-prong Test cont…  Test 3: organizational values  Unwritten “social contract” among members  Example: Do you want to draft a player that has a history of domestic violence?  Test 4: personal conviction  Decisions = personal reflection + convictions  Example: Former President Wefald’s (K-State) personal commitment to affirmative action hiring in athletics, while president ○ His commitments influenced his organization
  68. 68. Inspiring Ethical Behavior  Most ethical codes in organizations address:  Employee conduct, fiscal accountability, social responsibility, and technology use  Developing ethical programs helps to inspire ethical behavior  Compliance-based ethics: punish violations legally (with law dept)  Integrity-based ethics: inspire adherence to ethical behavior through education, workshops, and understanding
  69. 69. Developing a Code…  Using the guide from the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Sport:  Separate into groups of 4  Develop a code of conduct for: ○ Student-athletes here at WSU ○ Students here at WSU ○ Athletic Administrators in college sports, in general
  70. 70. Part F: Coaches, Power, Authority, and Deviance in Sport
  71. 71. Power & Authority  Power: situational characteristic  Changes based on situations  Heskett Center GAs: in charge of undergrads, but directors are in charge of them  Authority: structural arrangement  “figure”  Who embodies authority?
  72. 72. Coaches & Authority  Recognizable authority figures  Are not the only “leaders” in a sport organization  Influential on youth  Josephson Report on Ethics:  “The good news is, the majority of high school athletes trust and admire their coaches and are learning positive life skills and good values from them,”
  73. 73. Bad News…  “The bad news is, many coaches – particularly in the high-profile sports of boys’ basketball, baseball, and football – are teaching kids how to cheat and cut corners without regard for the rules or traditional notions of fair play and sportsmanship.“  Michael Josephson
  74. 74. Coaches & Discipline  Sport promotes:  positive ○ teamwork  negative ○ “overzealous competitiveness”  Coaches, because of their position, possess the ability to punish and discipline  Missed “opportunities” to punish or unequal treatment sends a “mixed” message
  75. 75. Problems with Discipline  Coaches serve punishment and discipline without “formal trials and often for offenses without moral wrongdoing (e.g., late for practice)”(Seifried, 2006)  Coaches often benefit from athletes or organizational personnel that make immoral decisions  Example: cheating.
  76. 76. Solutions?  As emphasis on winning infiltrates ALL levels of sport, how do we educate coaches to be ethical?  Possible solutions:  http://www.la84foundation.org/3ce/over_frmst.htm ○ LA84 youth sports  http://josephsoninstitute.org//pdf/Sports_HandyGuide.pdf ○ T.E.A.M.  www.ncaa.org/.../resources/file/eb77cf0be689748/Welcome%20to%20th e%20World%20of%20Compliance.ppt?MOD=AJPERES ○ NCAA: how to develop a compliance manual- what it means…
  77. 77. Discussion  What solutions can you, collectively, come up with?  What role do administrators in sports play in this process?  Is changing the winning culture of sport too difficult?

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