Packet switchingPacket switching is a digital networking communications method that groups all transmitteddata – regardless of content, type, or structure – into suitably sized blocks, called packets.Packet switching features delivery of variable-bit-rate data streams (sequences of packets) overa shared network. When traversing network adapters, switches, routers and other networknodes, packets are buffered and queued, resulting in variable delay and throughput dependingon the traffic load in the network.Packet switching contrasts with another principal networking paradigm, circuit switching, amethod which sets up a limited number of dedicated connections of constant bit rate andconstant delay between nodes for exclusive use during the communication session. In case oftraffic fees (as opposed to flat rate), for example in cellular communication services, circuitswitching is characterized by a fee per time unit of connection time, even when no data istransferred, while packet switching is characterized by a fee per unit of information.Two major packet switching modes exist; (1) connectionless packet switching, also known asdatagram switching, and (2) connection-oriented packet switching, also known as virtual circuitswitching. In the first case each packet includes complete addressing or routing information. Thepackets are routed individually, sometimes resulting in different paths and out-of-orderdelivery. In the second case a connection is defined and preallocated in each involved nodeduring a connection phase before any packet is transferred. The packets include a connectionidentifier rather than address information, and are delivered in orderCircuit switchingCircuit switching is a methodology of implementing a telecommunications network in whichtwo network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) through thenetwork before the nodes may communicate. The circuit guarantees the full bandwidth of thechannel and remains connected for the duration of the communication session. The circuitfunctions as if the nodes were physically connected as with an electrical circuit.The defining example of a circuit-switched network is the early analog telephone network.When a call is made from one telephone to another, switches within the telephoneexchanges create a continuous wire circuit between the two telephones, for as long as the calllastsExamples of circuit-switched networks ISDN B-channel X.21 (Used in the German DATEX-L and Scandinavian DATEX circuit switched data network) optical mesh network
Repeater:-The term "repeater" originated with telegraphy inthe 19th century, and referred toan electromechanical device used to regeneratetelegraph signals. Use of the term has continuedin telephony and data communications.In telecommunication, the term repeater has thefollowing standardized meanings: 1. An analog device that amplifies an input signal regardless of its nature (analog or digital). 2. A digital device that amplifies, reshapes, retimes, or performs a combination of any of these functions on a digital input signal for retransmission.In computer networking, because repeaters work with the actual physical signal, and donot attempt to interpret the data being transmitted, they operate on the physical layer,the first layer of the OSI model.Amplifier :-An amplifier is a device for increasing the power of a signal by use of an externalenergy source.In an electronic amplifier, the input "signal" is usually a voltage or a current. Other typesexist; a fluidic amplifier increases the power of signals represented as flow of gas orliquid, for example. Amplifiers may be classified in a variety of ways depending on theirapplication, the frequency range they cover, or the active devices used. Ideally anamplifier increases the power of a signal without otherwise altering it; practicalamplifiers have finite distortion and noise which they invariably add to the signal.
Ten Latest Technologies in The Information Technology:-1. Toggle Touch RemoteToggle is a multi-mode touch remote concept. A simple sliding architecture allows you―toggle‖ between multiple interfaces as the top of the device is moved in relation to thebase. Small physical shifts expose new sets of graphics allowing people to type, surf,play and move easily through content. The design uses a touchpad containing graphicsand a slidable mask to create an innovative, low-tech solution to one of the modernliving room’s toughest problems.2. Features of FLIP-Out Blood Pressure Monitor-MDMouseI’m no doctor, but I don’t think the best time to measure one’s blood pressure is whileusing a PC. But that’s exactly what a company called CalHealth wants you to do withtheir MDMouse which features a miniature flip-out finger cuff that auto-inflates toaccurately measure a user’s blood pressure.The sphygmomanometer mouse, which was probably tossed around as a name optionbefore they settled on MDMouse, comes with its own software too which not onlyrecords the blood pressure readings, but allows you to analyze the collected data overtime. The readings can even be exported to a format that’s hospital system friendly ifyou’d prefer a bona fide doctor to look over your readings.
3. Quirkly Trek Support KeepsI bet that many geeks have the same issues when they travel that I do. The biggestproblem is that I tend to travel with as many gadgets as I do clothing. It’s also really hardto keep the things charged up when I am on the road, and stuff always runs out of juicewhen I want to use it.Help has arrived. Quirky has a cool new product in the works called the Trek Support.The thing is a backpack that can hold your gadgets and a notebook, but with an addedbonus. The gadget section has pockets for four different items and the thing can chargethree items at one time.The notebook sleeve is removable and is held in place with Velcro. Inside the backpackis a battery that you charge from the AC outlet in your home or hotel. That batterycharges the gadgets and is good for 7 hours depending on what you are charging. Thelaptop section will fit machines with up to a 15-inch screen. As is the case with all Quirkyproducts, it won’t be made until enough people decide to order one. If you’d like one,you can pre-order now for $130 (USD). As of the moment, they’ve taken orders for 58out of 1200, so there’s a way to go before this thing becomes a reality, so head on overif you want to make it so.
4. BookBook iPadSome of our readers will remember the BookBook hardback leather MaBook case fromthe guys over at Twelve South, the have now released a new version of the AppleiPad,the BookBook iPad case. Just like the MacBook version,the BookBook iPad caseis a hardback leather case that is designed to look like a book, and the iPad version canalso be used as a stand to watch movies.Along with its vintage looks, the super cool case makes iPad feel as if you’re holding areal book,and in many ways you are holding a book. BookBook for iPad forms a safecocoon around your prized iPad.The hardback cover and spine provide impact protection,while the hard protective innerframe offers crush protection
5.Amazing Pen:-Bond and his clan are always sporting innovative gadgets that look cool and make usplebs feel in-adept! Taking a pot-shot at Q’s ability is the U Drive Memory Pen and willhopefully be a fitting answer to pen and memory needs! Let me explain, the tip of thisslick ink-less pen actually holds sensors that ―read‖ and store the written text / sketchesinto the built-in memory card. The info thus stored can be accessed via the USB key atthe rear of the pen. In short you don’t need any paper to jot down notes, just the actionof writing on any surface (hand, table, paper etc.) is sufficient. It doesn’t even requireexternal battery and recharges when hooked into the comp.The stored data is easily edited once retrieved via the computer, and this feature makesit an absolutely brilliant product! Picture sitting in the train, on your way home andsuddenly inspiration hits you! Use this pen to draw up an imaginary sketch and later onrefine it via your computer. Awesome
6.Magical Custom KeyBoardThe MagicBoard is the perfect toy for the computer savvy and holds features that makeme wanna drool! Picture this: a wireless Bluetooth, Wi-Fi enabled keyboard thatfeatures gesture control and touchscreen surface. Totally customizable withpersonalized configuration options, the board transforms smoothly from computer keysto piano keys to a drum skin! Set your own shortcuts, record tracks, playback or use itfor polishing your photoshop skills! Basically all you need is a screen, CPU and a lots ofimagination to create magic with this board!
7.Toshiba Air SwingWe’ve seen a Minority Report-esque interface or two hundred by this point, butToshiba’s AirSwing really caught our attention. Using little more than a webcam andsome software, this bad boy places a semi-transparent image of the operator on thedisplay — all the easier to maneuver through the menus. And according to Toshiba, thatsoftware only utilizes about three percent of a 400MHz ARM 11 CPU — meaning thatyou have plenty of processor left for running your pre-crime diagnostics. There is notelling when something like this might become commercially available, but the companyplans to bundle it in commercial displays for malls and the like. Video after the break.8.Doggy bone Is A USB HubThe SMARTE is a smart USB Extender that saves you the embarrassment of pulling outthe wrong plug out of a the hub. Imagine losing out precious data or function just cozyou pulled the wrong plug! How lame!The practical dog-bone shape diversifies the sockets to the four ends and keeps thewires under control. Hopefully this won’t stay a concept for too long.
9.Luxury Clock for You ECO 2Modern sundials to see time with a new perspective. Watch has been designed withtrue elegance. This watch design is 100% made of recyclable material, aluminum alloy,and glass. In this way, we can enjoy time while preserving nature.Eco 2 is a simple to install. Just drill 4 holes on the magnetic holder and mount the clockonto the wall. All you need to worry is about the placement of Eco 2 according to thedecor of your house. Simple, trendy and sophisticated, all at the same time. It comeswith a wooden box and a magnetic wall-mount that you can place on any wall withoutthe screws. It also goes well in any style of environment, be it colored or brick walls.
10. Photonic Glucose Sensor : A blessing For DiabeticsPeople suffering from diabetes have to prick themselves so many times, just to keepthemselves updated about their body glucose levels. This is not only painful but alsoleads to added frustrations. But PGS (Photonic Glucose Sensor) – a next-generationdiabetes management device is here to change the way you think about body glucosemonitoring systems.Designed by Alain Poirier, all one has to do is simply secure the armband around theirupper arm and attach the sensor as well. The non-invasive glucose sensor willintelligently keep a check on the body glucose levels by using near-infrared lighttechnology and other physiological indications at an interval of 5 minutes. On a singlecharge it will read the glucose count for up to 30 hours. So, all the blood sight attachedwith glucose examining takes a back seat with the very modern alarm monitoringsystem.